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1. Geographic coordinate system – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotation

2. Croatia – Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Its capital city is Zagreb, which one of the countrys primary subdivisions. Croatia covers 56,594 square kilometres and has diverse, mostly continental, Croatias Adriatic Sea coast contains more than a thousand islands. The countrys population is 4.28 million, most of whom are Croats, the Croats arrived in the area of present-day Croatia during the early part of the 7th century AD. They organised the state into two duchies by the 9th century, tomislav became the first king by 925, elevating Croatia to the status of a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia retained its sovereignty for nearly two centuries, reaching its peak during the rule of Kings Petar Krešimir IV and Dmitar Zvonimir, Croatia entered a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, faced with Ottoman conquest, the Croatian Parliament elected Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg to the Croatian throne. In 1918, after World War I, Croatia was included in the unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs which seceded from Austria-Hungary, a fascist Croatian puppet state backed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany existed during World War II. After the war, Croatia became a member and a federal constituent of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. On 25 June 1991 Croatia declared independence, which came wholly into effect on 8 October of the same year, the Croatian War of Independence was fought successfully during the four years following the declaration. A unitary state, Croatia is a republic governed under a parliamentary system, the International Monetary Fund classified Croatia as an emerging and developing economy, and the World Bank identified it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the European Union, United Nations, the Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the service sector dominates Croatias economy, followed by the industrial sector and agriculture. Tourism is a significant source of revenue during the summer, with Croatia ranked the 18th most popular tourist destination in the world, the state controls a part of the economy, with substantial government expenditure. The European Union is Croatias most important trading partner, since 2000, the Croatian government constantly invests in infrastructure, especially transport routes and facilities along the Pan-European corridors. Internal sources produce a significant portion of energy in Croatia, the rest is imported, the origin of the name is uncertain, but is thought to be a Gothic or Indo-Aryan term assigned to a Slavic tribe. The oldest preserved record of the Croatian ethnonym *xъrvatъ is of variable stem, the first attestation of the Latin term is attributed to a charter of Duke Trpimir from the year 852. The original is lost, and just a 1568 copy is preserved—leading to doubts over the authenticity of the claim, the oldest preserved stone inscription is the 9th-century Branimir Inscription, where Duke Branimir is styled as Dux Cruatorvm. The inscription is not believed to be dated accurately, but is likely to be from during the period of 879–892, the area known as Croatia today was inhabited throughout the prehistoric period

3. Christian denomination – A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine. Individual bodies, however, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs, practices, and historical ties—are sometimes known as branches of Christianity or denominational families. Individual Christian groups vary widely in the degree to which they recognize one another, several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, however, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs. Because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term denomination to describe themselves, however, the Catholic Church does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church. This view is rejected by other Christian denominations, Protestant denominations account for approximately 37 percent of Christians worldwide. Together, Catholicism and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity, Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern, Central and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania. The Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world, unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of fully independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others. The Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, Eastern Christian denominations are represented mostly in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East and Northeast Africa. Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other, sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation. But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs and this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as an autonomous branch of the Christian Church, major synonyms include religious group, sect, Church. Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church, a related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs, and practices. Protestant leaders differ greatly from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be the direct continuation of the Church founded by Jesus Christ, from whom other denominations later broke away. These churches, and a few others, reject denominationalism, Christianity can be taxonomically divided into five main groups, the Church of the East, Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism

4. Serbian Orthodox Church – The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. It is the second oldest Slavic Orthodox Church in the world, the Serbian Orthodox Church comprises the majority of population in Serbia, Montenegro, and the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is organized into metropolises and eparchies located primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Croatia, the Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Orthodox communion. Serbian Patriarch serves as first among equals in his church, the current patriarch is Irinej, the Church achieved autocephalous status in 1219 under the leadership of St. Sava, becoming independent Archbishopric of Žiča. Its status was elevated to that of a patriarchate in 1346 and this patriarchate was abolished by the Ottoman Turks in 1766. The modern Serbian Orthodox Church was re-established in 1920 after the unification of the Patriarchate of Karlovci, the Metropolitanate of Belgrade, Christianity spread to the Balkans beginning in the 1st century. Florus and Laurus are venerated as Christian martyrs of the 2nd century, Constantine the Great, born in Niš, was the first Christian Roman Emperor. Several bishops seated in what is today Serbia participated in the First Council of Nicaea, in 380, Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius decreed that his subjects would be Christians according to the Council of Nicea formula. Greek was used in the Byzantine church, while the Roman church used Latin, with the definite split in 395, the line in Europe ran south along the Drina river. Tim Judah says that the Roman split resulted in that Serbs are Orthodox, among old Christian heritage is the Archbishopric of Justiniana Prima, established in 535, which had jurisdiction over the whole of present-day Serbia. However, the Archbishopric did not last, as the Slavs and Avars destroyed the region sometime after 602, in 731 Leo III attached Illyricum and Southern Italy to Patriarch Anastasius of Constantinople, transferring the papal authority to the Eastern Church. Slavs invaded and settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries, the history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the work De Administrando Imperio, compiled by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. The DAI drew information on the Serbs from, among others, the Serbs were said to have received the protection of Emperor Heraclius, and Porphyrogenitus stressed that the Serbs had always been under Imperial rule. The Christianization was due partly to Byzantine and subsequent Bulgarian influence, at least during the rule of Kocel in Pannonia, communications between Serbia and Great Moravia, where Methodius was active, must have been possible. This fact, the pope was presumably aware of, when planning Methodius diocese as well as that of the Dalmatian coast, there is a possibility that some Cyrillomethodian pupils reached Serbia in the 870s, perhaps even sent by Methodius himself. Serbia was accounted Christian as of about 870, the first Serbian bishopric was founded at Ras, near modern Novi Pazar on the Ibar river. According to Vlasto, the affiliation is uncertain, it may have been under the subordination of either Split or Durazzo. The early Ras church can be dated to the 9th–10th century, the names of Serbian rulers through Mutimir are Slavic dithematic names, per the Old Slavic tradition

5. Dedication – Dedication is the act of consecrating an altar, temple, church, or other sacred building. It also refers to the inscription of books or other artifacts when these are addressed or presented to a particular person. This practice, which once was used to gain the patronage, in law, the word is used of the setting apart by a private owner of a road to public use. The Feast of Dedication, today Hanukkah, once also called Feast of the Maccabees, was a Jewish festival observed for eight days from the 25th of Kislev and it was instituted in the year 165 B. C. The significant happenings of the festival were the illumination of houses and synagogues, a custom taken over from the Feast of Tabernacles. J. Wellhausen suggests that the feast was connected with the winter solstice. The Feast of Dedication is also mentioned in John 10,22 where it mentions Jesus being at the Jerusalem Temple during the Feast of Dedication and further notes, the Greek term used in John is the renewals. Josephus refers to the festival in Greek simply as lights, churches under the authority of a bishop are usually dedicated by the bishop in a ceremony that used to be called that of consecration, but is now called that of dedication. For the Catholic Church, the rite of dedication is described in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum, chapters IX-X, and in the Roman Missals Ritual Masses for the Dedication of a Church and an Altar. In the Church of England, a church may only be closed for worship after a legal process. The custom of solemnly dedicating or consecrating buildings as churches or chapels set apart for Christian worship must be almost as old as Christianity itself, when we come to the earlier part of the 4th century allusions to and descriptions of the consecration of churches become plentiful. This service is probably of Jewish origin, all these point to the probability of the Christians deriving their custom from a Jewish origin. Eusebius of Caesarea speaks of the dedication of churches rebuilt after the Diocletian persecution, the use of both holy water and of unction is attributed to St. Columbanus, who died in 615. The manuscripts and printed service-books of the church contain a lengthy. The earliest known pontifical is that of Egbert, Archbishop of York, later pontificals are numerous and somewhat varied. A good idea of the character of the service can be obtained from a skeleton of it as performed in England after the Reformation according to the use of Sarum. The service is taken from an early 15th-century pontifical in the Cambridge University Library as printed by W. Makell in Monumenta ritualia ecclesiae Anglicanae, there is a preliminary office for laying a foundation-stone. On the day of consecration the bishop is to vest in a tent outside the church, then proceed to the door of the church on the outside, there he blesses holy water, twelve lighted candles being placed outside, and twelve inside the church

6. Pentecost – The Christian holiday of Pentecost is celebrated 50 days from Easter Sunday, counting inclusive of Easter Sunday itself, i. e.49 days or 7 weeks after Easter Sunday. Therefore it always occurs on a Sunday and it is also the tenth day after Ascension Thursday, which itself is 40 days from Easter, counting inclusive of Easter Sunday itself. Subsequently, Pentecost may refer to the Pentecost of the New Testament, Shavuot is a significant event shared by Jews and Christians but Christians do not commonly celebrate it as a separate holiday. In the Christian liturgical year it became a feast commemorating what is described by some Christians as the Birthday of the Church. The holy day is also called White Sunday or Whitsunday, especially in the United Kingdom, the Monday after Pentecost is a legal holiday in many European nations. Pentecost is the old Greek and Latin name for the Jewish Festival of Weeks which can be found in the Hebrew Bible and it is called by that name in Exodus 34,22 and Deuteronomy 16,10. It is also called the Festival of Reaping in Exodus 23,16, Jews traditionally read the Book of Ruth at Pentecost, as the story links with the grain harvest theme of the festival. The Talmud refers to Shavuot as Atzeret, referring to the prohibition against work on this holiday and to the conclusion of the holiday, since Shavuot occurs 49 days after the first day of Passover, Hellenistic Jews gave it the name Pentecost. According to Jewish tradition, Pentecost commemorates Gods giving of the Ten Commandments at Mount Sinai,49 days after the Exodus, the Talmud derives this from a calculation based on Biblical texts. There is a Jewish tradition that King David was born and died at Pentecost, in the Apostle Peters first sermon, recorded in Acts 2, 14–39, he linked the life, death and Ascension of Jesus to King Davids death, burial and hope of immortality. The biblical narrative of Pentecost is given in the chapter of the Book of Acts. Present were about one hundred and twenty followers of Christ, including the Twelve Apostles, his mother Mary, various other women disciples and his brothers. Their reception of the Holy Spirit in the Upper Room is recounted in Acts 2, 1–6, And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place. And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a mighty wind. And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other languages, as the Spirit gave them utterance. And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven, Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded, because that every man heard them speak in his own language. He also mentions that it was the hour of the day. Acts 2,41 then reports, Then they that gladly received his word were baptized, Peter stated that this event was the beginning of a continual outpouring that would be available to all believers from that point on, Jews and Gentiles alike

7. Sacred architecture – Many cultures devoted considerable resources to their sacred architecture and places of worship. Religious and sacred spaces are amongst the most impressive and permanent monolithic buildings created by humanity, conversely, sacred architecture as a locale for meta-intimacy may also be non-monolithic, ephemeral and intensely private, personal and non-public. Sacred, religious and holy structures often evolved over centuries and were the largest buildings in the world, while the various styles employed in sacred architecture sometimes reflected trends in other structures, these styles also remained unique from the contemporary architecture used in other structures. With the rise of Abrahamic monotheisms, religious buildings increasingly became centres of worship, prayer, the Western scholarly discipline of the history of architecture itself closely follows the history of religious architecture from ancient times until the Baroque period, at least. Sacred geometry, iconography, and the use of sophisticated semiotics such as signs, symbols, Sacred and/or religious architecture is sometimes called sacred space. Architect Norman L. Koonce has suggested that the goal of sacred architecture is to make transparent the boundary between matter and mind, flesh and the spirit, meanwhile, Richard Kieckhefer suggests that entering into a religious building is a metaphor for entering into spiritual relationship. Sacred architecture spans a number of ancient architectural styles including Neolithic architecture, ancient Egyptian architecture, ancient religious buildings, particularly temples, were often viewed as the dwelling place, the temenos, of the gods and were used as the site of various kinds of sacrifice. Ancient tombs and burial structures are examples of architectural structures reflecting religious beliefs of their various societies. The Temple of Karnak at Thebes, Egypt was constructed across a period of 1300 years, ancient Egyptian religious architecture has fascinated archaeologists and captured the public imagination for millennia. Around 600 BCE the wooden columns of the Temple of Hera at Olympia were replaced by stone columns, with the spread of this process to other sanctuary structures a few stone buildings have survived through the ages. Greek architecture preceded Hellenistic and Roman periods, since temples are the only buildings which survive in numbers, most of our concept of classical architecture is based on religious structures. The Parthenon which served as a building as well as a place for veneration of deity, is widely regarded as the greatest example of classical architecture. Indian architecture is related to the history and religions of the time periods as well as to the geography, the diversity of Indian culture is represented in its architecture. Indian architecture comprises a blend of ancient and varied native traditions, with building types, forms and technologies from West, Central Asia, buddhist architecture developed in South Asia beginning in the third century BCE. Two types of structures are associated with early Buddhism, viharas and stupas, an existing example is at Nalanda. The initial function of the stupa was the veneration and safe-guarding of the relics of the Buddha, the earliest existing example of a stupa is in Sanchi. In accordance with changes in practice, stupas were gradually incorporated into chaitya-grihas. These reached their highpoint in the first century BCE, exemplified by the cave complexes of Ajanta, the pagoda is an evolution of the Indian stupa that is marked by a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Japan, Korea, Nepal and other parts of Asia

8. Baroque – The style began around 1600 in Rome and Italy, and spread to most of Europe. The aristocracy viewed the dramatic style of Baroque art and architecture as a means of impressing visitors by projecting triumph, power, Baroque palaces are built around an entrance of courts, grand staircases, and reception rooms of sequentially increasing opulence. However, baroque has a resonance and application that extend beyond a reduction to either a style or period. It is also yields the Italian barocco and modern Spanish barroco, German Barock, Dutch Barok, others derive it from the mnemonic term Baroco, a supposedly laboured form of syllogism in logical Scholastica. The Latin root can be found in bis-roca, in informal usage, the word baroque can simply mean that something is elaborate, with many details, without reference to the Baroque styles of the 17th and 18th centuries. The word Baroque, like most periodic or stylistic designations, was invented by later critics rather than practitioners of the arts in the 17th, the term Baroque was initially used in a derogatory sense, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, although it was long thought that the word as a critical term was first applied to architecture, in fact it appears earlier in reference to music. Another hypothesis says that the word comes from precursors of the style, Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and he did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, and he ignored the later phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Long despised, Baroque art and architecture became fashionable between the two World Wars, and has remained in critical favour. In painting the gradual rise in popular esteem of Caravaggio has been the best barometer of modern taste, William Watson describes a late phase of Shang-dynasty Chinese ritual bronzes of the 11th century BC as baroque. The term Baroque may still be used, usually pejoratively, describing works of art, craft, the appeal of Baroque style turned consciously from the witty, intellectual qualities of 16th-century Mannerist art to a visceral appeal aimed at the senses. It employed an iconography that was direct, simple, obvious, germinal ideas of the Baroque can also be found in the work of Michelangelo. Even more generalised parallels perceived by some experts in philosophy, prose style, see the Neapolitan palace of Caserta, a Baroque palace whose construction began in 1752. In paintings Baroque gestures are broader than Mannerist gestures, less ambiguous, less arcane and mysterious, more like the stage gestures of opera, Baroque poses depend on contrapposto, the tension within the figures that move the planes of shoulders and hips in counterdirections. Baroque is a style of unity imposed upon rich, heavy detail, Baroque style featured exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and even a kind of artistic sensationalism. There were highly diverse strands of Italian baroque painting, from Caravaggio to Cortona, the most prominent Spanish painter of the Baroque was Diego Velázquez. The later Baroque style gradually gave way to a more decorative Rococo, while the Baroque nature of Rembrandts art is clear, the label is less often used for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists. Flemish Baroque painting shared a part in this trend, while continuing to produce the traditional categories

9. Classicism – Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. Classicism is a genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture, art, and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources. It was particularly expressed in the Neoclassicism of the Age of Enlightenment, Classicism is a recurrent tendency in the Late Antique period, and had a major revival in Carolingian and Ottonian art. Until that time the identification with antiquity had been seen as a history of Christendom from the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine I. Renaissance classicism introduced a host of elements into European culture, including the application of mathematics and empiricism into art, humanism, literary and depictive realism, importantly it also introduced Polytheism, or paganism, and the juxtaposition of ancient and modern. The classicism of the Renaissance led to, and gave way to and this period sought the revival of classical art forms, including Greek drama and music. Opera, in its modern European form, had its roots in attempts to recreate the combination of singing and dancing with theatre thought to be the Greek norm, examples of this appeal to classicism included Dante, Petrarch, and Shakespeare in poetry and theatre. Tudor drama, in particular, modeled itself after classical ideals, studying Ancient Greek became regarded as essential for a well-rounded education in the liberal arts. They also began reviving plastic arts such as bronze casting for sculpture, for example, the painting of Jacques-Louis David which was seen as an attempt to return to formal balance, clarity, manliness, and vigor in art. Various movements of the period saw themselves as classical revolts against a prevailing trend of emotionalism and irregularity. The 20th century saw a number of changes in the arts, thus, both pre-20th century disciplines were labelled classical and modern movements in art which saw themselves as aligned with light, space, sparseness of texture, and formal coherence. Examples of classicist playwrights are Pierre Corneille, Jean Racine and Moliere, the influence of these French rules on playwrights in other nations is debatable. In the English theatre, Restoration playwrights such as William Wycherly and those of Shakespeares plays that seem to display the unities, such as The Tempest, probably indicate a familiarity with actual models from classical antiquity. Classicism in architecture developed during the Italian Renaissance, notably in the writings and designs of Leon Battista Alberti and this style quickly spread to other Italian cities and then to France, Germany, England, Russia and elsewhere. In the 16th century, Sebastiano Serlio helped codify the classical orders, building off of these influences, the 17th-century architects Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren firmly established classicism in England. For the development of classicism from the mid-18th-century onwards, see Neoclassical architecture, for Greek art of the 5th century B. C. E. See Classical art in ancient Greece and the Severe style Italian Renaissance painting and sculpture are marked by their renewal of classical forms, motifs and subjects. In the 15th century Leon Battista Alberti was important in theorizing many of the ideas for painting that came to a fully realised product with Raphaels School of Athens during the High Renaissance

11. Croatian language – It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a recognized minority language in Serbia. Croatian is written in Gajs Latin alphabet, besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects, Chakavian and Kajkavian. It is still used now in parts of Istria, which became a crossroads of various mixtures of Chakavian with Ekavian/Ijekavian/Ikavian dialects, the cultural apex of this 17th century idiom is represented by the editions of Adrianskoga mora sirena by Petar Zrinski and Putni tovaruš by Katarina Zrinska. However, this first linguistic renaissance in Croatia was halted by the execution of Petar Zrinski. Subsequently the Croatian elite in the 18th century gradually abandoned this combined Croatian standard, specifically, three major groups of dialects were spoken on Croatian territory, and there had been several literary languages over four centuries. The leader of the Illyrian movement Ljudevit Gaj standardized the Latin alphabet in 1830–1850, the uniform Neo-Shtokavian then became common in the Croatian elite. In the 1860s, the Zagreb Philological School dominated the Croatian cultural life, drawing upon linguistic, while it was dominant over the rival Rijeka Philological School and Zadar Philological Schools, its influence waned with the rise of the Croatian Vukovians. Croatian is commonly characterized by the Ijekavian pronunciation, the use of the Latin alphabet. Some differences are absolute, while some appear mainly in the frequency of use, Croatian, although technically a form of Serbo-Croatian, is sometimes considered a distinct language by itself. Differences between various forms of Serbo-Croatian are often exaggerated for political reasons. Most Croatian linguists regard Croatian as a language that is considered key to national identity. The issue is sensitive in Croatia as the notion of a language being the most important characteristic of a nation is widely accepted. The terms Serbo-Croatian or Serbo-Croat are still used as a term for all these forms by foreign scholars. Within ex-Yugoslavia, the term has largely replaced by the ethnic terms Serbian, Croatian. In 2013, the EU started publishing a Croatian language version of its official gazette, Standard Croatian is the official language of the Republic of Croatia and, along with Standard Bosnian and Standard Serbian, one of three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is also official in the regions of Burgenland, Molise, additionally, it has co-official status alongside Romanian in the communes of Carașova and Lupac, Romania. Croatian is officially used and taught at all the universities in Croatia, there is no regulatory body that determines the proper usage of Croatian

12. Serbian Cyrillic alphabet – The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić. It is one of the two used to write standard modern Serbian, Bosnian and Montenegrin, the other being Latin. During the same period, Croatian linguists led by Ljudevit Gaj adapted the Latin alphabet, in use in western South Slavic areas, using the same principles. As a result of this joint effort, Cyrillic and Latin alphabets for Serbo-Croatian have a complete one-to-one congruence, with the Latin digraphs Lj, Nj, and Dž counting as single letters. Vuks Cyrillic alphabet was adopted in Serbia in 1868, and was in exclusive use in the country up to the inter-war period. Both alphabets were co-official in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and later in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, in Serbia, Cyrillic is seen as being more traditional, and has the official status. It is also a script in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro, along with Latin. The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet was used as a basis for the Macedonian alphabet with the work of Krste Misirkov, Cyrillic is in official use in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Serbian language in Croatia is officially recognized as a minority language, however, Cyrillic is an important symbol of Serbian identity. In Serbia, official documents are printed in Cyrillic only even though, according to a 2014 survey, Glagolitic appears to be older, predating the introduction of Christianity, only formalized by Cyril and expanded to cover non-Greek sounds. Cyrillic was created by the orders of Boris I of Bulgaria by Cyrils disciples, the earliest form of Cyrillic was the ustav, based on Greek uncial script, augmented by ligatures and letters from the Glagolitic alphabet for consonants not found in Greek. There was no distinction between capital and lowercase letters, the literary Slavic language was based on the Bulgarian dialect of Thessaloniki. Part of the Serbian literary heritage of the Middle Ages are works such as Vukan Gospels, St. Savas Nomocanon, Dušans Code, Munich Serbian Psalter, the first printed book in Serbian was the Cetinje Octoechos. Vuk Stefanović Karadžić fled Serbia during the Serbian Revolution in 1813, there he met Jernej Kopitar, a linguist with interest in slavistics. Kopitar and Sava Mrkalj helped Vuk to reform the Serbian language and he finalized the alphabet in 1818 with the Serbian Dictionary. Karadžić also translated the New Testament into Serbian, which was published in 1868 and he wrote several books, Mala prostonarodna slaveno-serbska pesnarica and Pismenica serbskoga jezika in 1814, and two more in 1815 and 1818, all with the alphabet still in progress. In his letters from 1815-1818 he used, Ю, я, Ы and Ѳ, in his 1815 song book he dropped the Ѣ. The alphabet was adopted in 1868, four years after his death

13. Serbs of Croatia – The Serbs of Croatia or Croatian Serbs constitute the largest national minority in Croatia. The community is predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christian by religion, as opposed to the Croats who are Roman Catholic, there has been a substantial Serb population in the territory of what is today Croatia since the Early Modern period. Serbs settled in several waves, and they populated the Dalmatian hinterland, Lika, Kordun, Banija, Western Slavonia, Eastern Slavonia. An important part of their identity is the Habsburg military service, the population has been declining sharply since 1991 and the Croatian War, from 12% to 4%. According to the 2011 census there were 186,633 ethnic Serbs living in Croatia,4. 4% of the total population. Their number was reduced by more than two thirds in the aftermath of the 1991–95 War in Croatia as the 1991 pre-war census had reported 581,663 Serbs living in Croatia,12. 2% of the total population. The lands of Pagania, Zachumlia and Travunia were inhabited by Serbs, the event would have taken place during the rule of either Radoslav or his son, Prosigoj. In the 880s, the Serb Prince Mutimir exiled his two brothers due to treachery, but kept his nephew Petar at the court, Petar later fled to the Croatian principality. When Mutimirs son Pribislav had ruled for a year, Petar returned and defeated him, in 894 Bran returned but was defeated and blinded. Pavle, the son of Bran, later returned and defeated Pavle with Bulgarian aid, King Mihailo I built the St. Michaels Church in Ston, which has a fresco depicting him. Beloš Vukanović, a member of the Serb Vukanović dynasty, was given the title of Ban of Croatia by the Kingdom of Hungary and ruled 1142-1158 and briefly in 1163. The first Serbian Orthodox monastery in Croatia, Krupa, was built in 1317 by Stephen Uroš II Milutin of Serbia, other monuments include Krka. Many monasteries and churches were damaged in the War in Croatia, members of the Orlović Serb clan settled in Lika and Senj in 1432, they later joined the Uskoks. On 22 November 1447, the Hungarian King Ladislaus V wrote a letter which mentioned Rascians, as many former inhabitants of the Austrian-Ottoman borderland fled northwards or were captured by the Ottoman invaders, they left unpopulated areas. After the Ottoman capture of Smederevo fortress in 1459 up to 200,000 Orthodox Christians moved into central Slavonia, at the beginning of the 16th century settlements of Orthodox Christians were also established in western Croatia. In the first half of the 16th century Serbs settled Ottoman part of Slavonia while in the part of the 16th century they moved to Austrian part of Slavonia. In 1550 they established the Lepavina Monastery, the Austrian Empire encouraged people from the Ottoman Empire to settle as free peasant soldiers, establishing the Military Frontiers in 1522. They were mostly of Orthodox faith, Serbs and Vlachs, Catholic Vlachs were assimilated into Croats, while the Orthodox, under the Serbian Orthodox Church, identified with Serbs

14. Serbia – Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. Relative to its territory, it is a diverse country distinguished by a transitional character, situated along cultural, geographic, climatic. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents, and its capital, Belgrade, following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans from the 6th century onwards, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome and the Byzantine Empire in 1217, in the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the regions first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro which dissolved peacefully in 2006, in 2008 the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of organizations such as the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC. An EU membership candidate since 2012, Serbia has been negotiating its EU accession since January 2014, the country is acceding to the WTO and is a militarily neutral state. Serbia is an income economy with dominant service sector, followed by the industrial sector. The country ranks high on the Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index, relatively high on the Human Development Index, located at the crossroads between Central and Southern Europe, Serbia is found in the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain. Serbia lies between latitudes 41° and 47° N, and longitudes 18° and 23° E. The country covers a total of 88,361 km2, which places it at 113th place in the world, with Kosovo excluded, the area is 77,474 km2. Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km, all of Kosovos border with Albania, Macedonia and Montenegro are under control of the Kosovo border police. The Pannonian Plain covers the third of the country while the easternmost tip of Serbia extends into the Wallachian Plain. The terrain of the part of the country, with the region of Šumadija at its heart. Mountains dominate the third of Serbia. Dinaric Alps stretch in the west and the southwest, following the flow of the rivers Drina, the Carpathian Mountains and Balkan Mountains stretch in a north–south direction in eastern Serbia. Ancient mountains in the southeast corner of the country belong to the Rilo-Rhodope Mountain system, elevation ranges from the Midžor peak of the Balkan Mountains at 2,169 metres to the lowest point of just 17 metres near the Danube river at Prahovo. The largest lake is Đerdap Lake and the longest river passing through Serbia is the Danube, the climate of Serbia is under the influences of the landmass of Eurasia and the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

16. St. Michael's Cathedral, Belgrade – There was an older church, dedicated to St. Arch. It is one of the most important places of worship in the country and it is commonly known as just Saborna crkva among the city residents. The Cathedral has been proclaimed as the 1st category cultural property in 1979, the Cathedral Church in Belgrade with its architecture, art work and rich treasury is an impressive cultural monument. There was a church, dedicated to St. Archangel Michael. Protestant priest and a writer on travel Stjepan Gerlach gives us precious records of its looks in descriptions of travels of Emperor’s delegates to Istanbul, although spacious with all necessary liturgical accessories and furniture it was not large enough to receive all the Christian citizens of town of Belgrade. Later records of existence of church were mainly saved by writers on travel from the 17th and the 18th century. Unfortunately, serious historical circumstances once again affected the life of the Church resulting in this not the only restoration. Impressive Residence of Serbian Metropolitan was torn down, and the church rubbed, few decades later, at the beginning of 1798 the church once again suffered from damage, this time in fire. Repaired for services it served until the beginning of 1813, when after breaking of the First Serbian Uprising Turks desecrated and robbed it, necessary restoration work was performed after the Second Serbian Uprising. For the purpose of casting a great fire was lit, which burned for three days, people would pass by and throw diff erent silver objects to mould with bronze that was melting, so bells would have a more silvery sound. Former Belgrade citizens were waiting for this happening as for something great, for them the sound of bells did not represent just an ordinary religious custom. The bells represented a symbol of centuries expected victory, decision brought by Prince Milos was accepted among Turks with doubt and threat. The brave Duke replied, I know, I know Efendi Pasha, if I raise them I shall die of Turkish hand, I prefer to die of the Turkish hand then from hand of my master, as his disobedient servant. Today, the bell of the old Cathedral Church is situated in the tower of the Church of Ascension with its five bells different in size. This bell sounded for the fi rst time on 15 February 1830 when Serbian Princedom got its autonomy, construction of the new Cathedral Church had begun on 28 April 1837. The cannons were roaring and people were saying church blessing this happy, on the day of Patron’s Feast Day of the Church, St. Archangel Michael, on 8 November 1845, Metropolitan Petar Jovanović has consecrated the fi nished Church and served the first liturgy in it. Although the author of the design remained controversial for a time, it is certain that the Church was built by constructors from Pančevo. The cathedral was built from 1837-40, the Cathedral church was one of the biggest religious buildings in Serbia, and after the Church of Peter and Paul in Topčider, the oldest in Belgrade

17. St. Mark's Church, Belgrade – Marks Church or Church of St. Mark is a Serbian Orthodox church located in the Tašmajdan park in Belgrade, Serbia, near the Parliament of Serbia. It was built in the Serbo-Byzantine style by the Krstić brothers, completed in 1940 and it is one of the largest churches in the country. There is a small Russian Orthodox church next to St. Marks, the church, dedicated to Holy Apostle and Evangelist Mark, was built in the Interwar period between 1931 and 1940 in the Tašmajdan Park, in the centre of Belgrade. It was built north of a wooden 19th-century church that was destroyed in 1941. The original, wooden church, was built in the days of Belgrade Metropolitan Petar Jovanović, the main donator was merchant Lazar Panća. Dedicated to St. Mark, it was built within an existing cemetery and it was a rectangular building whose exterior surface area was 11.5 by 21 m and whose interior was 7.75 by 17.46 m. At the same time Prince Miloš Obrenović built the church of the Holy Apostles Peter. Work on both churches was supervised by architect Nikola Živković, in 1838, Prince Milošs eldest son Prince Milan and bishop Gavrilo Popović of Šabac were buried directly by the church. After the May Coup, the couple, King Alexander Obrenović I. 1870, the church was the seat of Terazije with 312 homes. It was destroyed during World War I by Austrian troops, then reconstructed in 1917 and it was destroyed in the 1941 German bombing of Belgrade. Due to the growth of the city and population increase. Marks Church was built according to their drawings between 1931 and 1940, the Gračanica Monastery was used as a model. The eruption of World War II interrupted the full completion of the church, only the construction work was finished. Divine service took place in the new church during the war, on that date the church was consecrated and the church opened for divine service. There were plans to decorate the interior with frescoes. The external walls are in two colors of materials in the Serbo-Byzantine style. The church bell tower is a part of the church itself on the west side, the Anniversary Day of Operation Storm, held for mourning killed and exiled Serbs from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, is held on August 5 in St

18. Church of St. Basil of Ostrog, Belgrade – Church of Saint Basil of Ostrog is a Serbian Orthodox Church located in Bežanijska Kosa neighbourhood of New Belgrade. Its construction started in 1996 and completed in 2001, and is the first church built in New Belgrade since World War II, the architect Mihajlo Mitrović adopted an old Christian rotunda-plan combined with side galleries and a tall bell-tower to the west. Funding for the project was provided by civilians, whom the saint is known to as the Miracle maker, official site of the Church of St Basil of Ostrog

19. Church of St. Achillius, Arilje – The Church of St. Achillius, or the Arilje Monastery is a Serbian Orthodox church in Arilje, western Serbia. It is dedicated to Saint Achillius of Larissa, a fighter against Arianism, the church was built in 1296 by King Stefan Dragutin of the Nemanjić dynasty, on the location of an earlier monastery built in 1219. The earlier monastery was the seat of the Bishop of Moravica and it is dedicated to Saint Achillius from Larissa, a fighter against Arianism and participant of the First Council of Nicaea in 325. God made him celebrate victory over Arianism, making a miracle to Achillius confession of the water runs from stone. According to its properties, it belongs to the Raška architectural style. At the time of Emperor Dušan, the Eparchy of Moravica was elevated to the rank of Metropolitanate, metropolis in Arilje monastery brotherhood and shared the fate of his people and country in a terrible rush of the Turks led by Mehmed II the Conqueror of Constantinople. They had to go nearly two centuries to the end of the forties 17th century revived again in the metropolitanate Moravica, Arilje bells will ring no sooner than in 1833. But this time not from the metropolitanate, but the parish church, the Church of St. Achillius was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979, and it is protected by Republic of Serbia. In addition to value and historic significance, the church stands out as a gallery of precious frescoes. The most interesting part of the fresco-assembly make portraits of rulers from the Nemanjić, their relatives, for the first time in the history of Serbian fresco-paintings appears a new iconographic solution. Until then, it was common for the donor or the Virgin performances brought patron saint protector of Christ on the throne, bowed his head with the model of the temple in his hands. Fresco of St. Archangel Gabriel, called The Blue Angel, St. noble character in brilliant, simple Tunica, certainly set a figure of Archangel, clearly marked characters with strong muscles and a rich gown of warriors, is very artistic value. This fresco is classified in the narrowest circle of masterpieces of Serbian paintings, authors of Arilje frescoes are not known by name, but we know that they originated from Thessaloniki. The stylistic and iconographic terms of the paintings is a work that announces a milestone in the development of Serbian mural painting. Urošic, Dragutins younger son, was buried in the church, indicating the importance of the temple for the king, Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance Tourism in Serbia Јанковић, Марија. Епископије и митрополије Српске цркве у средњем веку, Српски јерарси од деветог до двадесетог века. The Serbian Episcopal sees in the thirteenth century, Saint Achillius Church Serbian Orthodox Diocese of Kosovo-Metohija

20. Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, Ras – The Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, commonly known as Church of St. It is part of the Stari Ras complex, an UNESCO World Heritage Site and it is dedicated to Saint Peter and Paul. The exact date of founding is unknown, it is mentioned in the 9th century as the seat of the eparchy of Serbia, the findings are presently at the National Museum of Serbia, in Belgrade. Roman, Byzantine and medieval Slavic tombs surround the church, the present church has been built on several earlier churches of which remains have been well preserved. Archaeological findings point that the church has been several times in history, beginning in the 4th century. The architectural style resembles that of churches in Pomorje, Armenia, Georgia. The first Serbian bishopric was founded at the center at Ras. Ras itself originates from ancient Arsa, and it is mentioned as a Serbian town in Constantine VIIs De Administrando Imperio, the initial ecclessiastical affiliation is uncertain, it was subordinate to either Split or Durazzo, both then Byzantine. The church served as seat of the Serbian eparchy, as the plan is characteristic of first court chapels. Similarly, the Eparchy of Braničevo was founded in 878, Prince Petar, was entombed in the church. Christianity was spreading in his time, Prince Časlav may have added the frescoes, which are dated to the 10th century. Byzantine Emperor John I Tzimiskes recognized the Ras region as being the focus of the Serbian lands, the Eparchy of Ras was organized into the newly established Archbishopric of Ohrid, amid the renewed annexation of the region, as part of a wider Byzantine-Slavic Orthodox area. In the chrysobulls of Emperor Basil II, dated 1020, the Eparchy of Ras is mentioned as serving the whole of Serbia, sometime before 1163, Stefan Nemanja, then only a Prince, was baptized in the church. Stefan Nemanja held the council that outlawed the Bogumils at the church, rastko left Serbia in 1192, for Mount Athos, where he took monastic vows and was given the name Sava. Stefan Nemanja abdicated in 1195, crowning Stefan Nemanjić at the Church of Peter, the father and son soon asked the Holy Community for the establishment of the Serbian religious base at the abandoned Hilandar, which they renovated, marking the beginning of cultural prospering. The ancient cell of Helandaris was donated by Emperor Alexios III Angelos to the Serbs as an eternal gift. and Stefan Nemanja establishes, Nemanja dies at Hilandar in 1199, while Sava continues his work in establishing the Serbian church. Henceforth, the Church of Peter ends its service as the seat of the Serbian church, in the same year he published the first constitution in Serbia – St. Savas Nomocanon. After the Nemanjić era, not much is mentioned about the church, the church frescoes date to the 10th, 12th and 13th centuries, while some frescoes were repainted in the mid-13th century

21. Lazarica Church – Church of the Holy First Martyr Stephen, better known as the Lazarica Church, is a Serbian Orthodox church in Kruševac, Serbia. It was built in 1375-1378 as an endowment of prince Lazar of Serbia, Lazarica, as an outstanding achievement of the Serbian medieval architecture, was declared a Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979, and it is protected by the Republic of Serbia. Lazarica was built as a prototype of the Morava school of architecture, as a palace church associated with the Kruševac Fortress, today, only Lazarica and parts of the keep remain from the vast fortress complex. Informations about the founding of the church can be found in the Žitije despota Stefana Lazarevića by Constantine of Kostenets, Lazar of Serbia built the church at the same time as the fortifications for the capital Kruševac. In 1455, Kruševac fell under Ottoman Empire rule, and the church was abandoned and desecrated, Lazarica was used as a stable for horses, and the roof was torn down for use elsewhere. During the Russo-Austrian-Turkish War, from 1736 to 1739, Lazarica was partially reconstructed, after that, Kruševac fell under Ottoman rule again. The first major reconstruction of Lazarica occurred after the establishment of the independent Principality of Serbia, with numerous modifications over the next hundred years. The church is in the form of a trefoil, a variant of the cruciform plan and it has a semicircular apse on the inside, which is five-sided on the outside, with attached colonettes. The church is oriented five degrees from a perfect west–east orientation, the foundation of Lazarica is at an elevation of 159 metres. Internal length, from the top of the apse to the west wall of the narthex, is 15.65 feet. The western width of the nave is from 5.15 to 5.20 metres, internal height to the apex of the semicalotte main dome is 17.25 metres. Wall thickness ranges from 1 to 1.75 metres, the foundations were laid at a depth of 0.60 metres. A peculiar process was used to draw thick mortar joints out from the wall, ravanica monastery Tourism in Serbia Official website ЛАЗАРИЦА Lazarica at TO Kruševac

22. Church of St. George, Lukovo – The Church of St. George, also known as the Lukovo Church, is a Serbian Orthodox church in the village of Lukovo, southern Serbia. It was built during the reign of king Milutin near mines of lead, copper and it was damaged in the end of the 14th century and reconstructed in 1871, destroyed again in 1871 and rebuilt 1895. It is located on Nenads Stone at the slopes of Kopaonik. According to legend, Saint Sava raised a cross on Nenads Stone

23. Saint George's Cathedral (Novi Sad) – The Cathedral Church of the Holy Great-Martyr George is the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Bačka, located in Novi Sad, northern Serbia. The present-day church was completed in 1905, on the ruins of a built in 1734. It is located next to the Eparchy offices in the Bishops Palace and it is commonly known as Saborna crkva among the city residents. An older church in the style began building in 1720. It was burnt down in a bombing in 1849, during the Revolutions in the Habsburg areas, a new tower with new bells from Budapest was added during the rebuilding. The Cathedral is dedicated to the Saint George, the wall paintings were made by Stevan Aleksić. It is one of the foremost monuments of the architecture in Novi Sad. The Cathedral Church of Saint George in Novi Sad

24. Church of the Assumption, Zrenjanin – Uspenska church was built in 1746, in Bečkerek, today Zrenjanin. It is located in Svetosavska street and it is the oldest church in Zrenjanin. Thanks to the fact that it was covered with roof tiles, the church is built in Baroque style, and it is very similar to the Orthodox Cathedral in Sremski Karlovci. Iconostasis was done by Dimitrije Popović, and continued in 1815 by Georgije Popović, the wall paintings were done between 1928 and 1930 by academic painter Aleksandar Sekulić, who was born in Veliki Bečkerek. The Uspenska church testifies to the Bečkerek Serbs full acceptance of the modern European artistic streams around the middle of the 18th century, the church was last time renovated in 2000. Flood lights were installed in 2005, so it is possible to see all its beauty during night hours, Uspenska church is protected by law as a cultural and historical monument of interest. In the church yard, there are two crosses, which were removed from Zrenjanins two squares during the 1950s

25. Church of St. Elijah, Podujevo – The Church of Saint Elijah, also known as Saint Andrews Church, is а Serbian Orthodox church located on a small hill near the city of Podujevo, in Kosovo. The complex includes an Orthodox cemetery and it was built in 1929, and has been demolished several times, as of 2010, the church has been rebuilt and renovated five times. The Church was shelled and dome was destroyed in 1941, during World War II, later, after the collapse of Fascist Albania, the church was restored by the Serbian residents of Podujevo. Reconstruction was finally finished in 1971, in 1999, the church was burnt down in what appeared to be a well-planned action, conducted by criminal elements after KFOR patrols changed shifts. The barb wire that guarded building was cut and the door was forced open, in 2003, UNMIK made a request of the Diocese of Raška and Prizren to evacuate movable church inventory, as an attack seemed inevitable. The church was destroyed on 18 March 2004, during 2004 Kosovo Unrest, according to Czech KFOR Captain, Jindrich Plescher, the church was attacked by a mob of 500 Albanians. Czech media confirmed that Czech soldiers had to leave the Church compound that was destroyed along with the cemetery, the Albanians set a large fire in the middle of the church which severely burned it. Plescher stated that the Albanian attackers had dug up coffins from the nearby Serbian cemetery, St. Andrew was shelled, a bell tower completely destroyed with explosives and the wall that surrounded the church was demolished. Elijah Church from an Albanian family, the bell was a gift from Yugoslav King Alexander I Karađorđević to the Podujevo Church in 1932, two years prior to his assassination in Marseilles. The Albanian representatives asked three times for the bell, saying that the bell belonged to the Podujevo municipality, the chaplain of the battalion personally cleaned the bell. On 12 May 2006, the church was attacked again by Kosovo Albanians. After partial reconstruction, led by the Council of Europe fund, the doors of the church were breached. Anti-Serb sentiment Battle of Podujevo Podujevo bus bombing Podujevo massacre Video of the destruction and desecration of St. Elijahs Church

26. Church of St. Nicholas, Prizren – The Church of St. Nicholas, also known as Tutić Church is a Serbian Orthodox church located in Prizren in Kosovo. It was founded in 1331-1332 by Dragoslav Tutić, whose name was Nikola. Later, the became a possession of the Visoki Dečani Monastery. Since 1990, it has been on Serbias list of Monuments of Culture of Exceptional Importance, at the time of the 2004 unrest in Kosovo, the church was vandalized. Since 2005, with support from the European Union, work has been undertaken to restore the church to its original state. The church of St. Nicholas is a stone and brick single-nave church, with a central octagonal dome. The altar apse is semicircular, with niches for diaconicon. The builders inscription is partially preserved but 19th century manuscripts indicate that the church was built in 1331-1332. The frescoes in the church are preserved to a degree and are assumed to have been introduced immediately after the churchs construction, Monuments of Culture of Exceptional Importance Prizren Notes, References

27. Mala Gospojina Church – The Church of the Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God is a Serbian Orthodox Church in Obilić, central Kosovo. As of 2008, it serves some 2,200 Serbs in the municipality of Obilić and it is ecclesiastically part of the Eparchy of Raška and Prizren. It was left during the Kosovo War, the first liturgical service was held in 2003, on the Nativity of the Theotokos. It was damaged in the 2004 unrest but has since been partially renovated, BISHOP ARTEMIJE SERVES HOLY LITURGY IN OBILIC. Srbi u Obiliću obeležili Malu Gospojinu - Studio B. naslovi. net

28. Church of Christ the Saviour, Pristina – The Cathedral church of Christ the Saviour in Pristina, Kosovo is an unfinished Serbian Orthodox Christian church whose construction began in 1995. Due to have completed in 1999, its construction, on the campus of the pre-war University of Pristina, was interrupted by the Kosovo War. Its construction was not welcomed by the predominantly Muslim population of Kosovo, ownership of the building and the land on which it is located is disputed between the current University of Pristina and the Serbian Orthodox Church. Seen as a symbol of the rule of Slobodan Milošević, various Kosovo Albanian intellectuals have called for its demolition

29. Montenegro – Montenegro is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe. Its capital and largest city is Podgorica, while Cetinje is designated as the Old Royal Capital. In the 9th century, three Slavic principalities were in the territory of Montenegro, Duklja, roughly corresponding to the half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia. In 1042, archon Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja, Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislavs son, Mihailo, and his grandson Bodin. By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by Venice and the First French Empire and Austria-Hungary, from 1515 until 1851, the prince-bishops of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled the country from 1697 to 1918, from 1918, it was a part of Kingdom of Yugoslavia, which was succeeded by SFR Yugoslavia in 1945, FR Yugoslavia in 1992, and subsequently by the state union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. On the basis of a referendum held on 21 May 2006. Montenegro is also a candidate negotiating to join the European Union, on 2 December 2015, Montenegro received an official invitation to join NATO, whereby it would be the 29th member country. This invitation was meant to start accession talks. The countrys name in most Western European languages reflects an adaptation of the Venetian Montenegro, many other languages, particularly nearby ones, use their own direct translation of the term black mountain. Examples are the Albanian name for the country, Mali i Zi, the Greek name Μαυροβούνιο, the Chinese name 黑山, all Slavic languages use slight variations on the Montenegrin name Crna Gora, examples include the Czech Černá Hora and the Polish Czarnogóra. Chechen and Ingush people call the country Ӏаьржаламанчоь, the name Crna Gora came to denote the majority of contemporary Montenegro only in the 15th century. The aforementioned region became known as Old Montenegro by the 19th century to distinguish it from the acquired territory of Brda. Its borders have changed little since then, losing Metohija and gaining the Bay of Kotor, the ISO Alpha-2 code for Montenegro is ME and the Alpha-3 Code is MNE. By 1000 BC, a common Illyrian language and culture had spread across much of the Balkans, interaction amongst groups was not always friendly – hill forts were the most common form of settlement – but distinctive Illyrian art forms such as amber and bronze jewellery evolved. In time, the Illyrians established a federation of tribes centred in what is now Macedonia

30. Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ, Podgorica – The Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ in Podgorica, Montenegro, is a cathedral of the Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The cathedral is located in the New Town of Podgorica, west of the Morača River, construction of the church of around 14,000 square feet began in 1993 to a design by Predrag Ristić. Consecration occurred on October 7,2014 on the occasion of the 1700-year anniversary of the Edict of Milan on freedom of religion, the Orthodox Arts Journal writes that the cathedral is certainly one of the most interesting Orthodox churches built in our times. Unlike other new cathedrals we have recently, the exterior does not seek to reflect High-Byzantine perfection. Rather, it is a charmingly eccentric design and it has the slightly awkward qualities of any real cathedral, expressing the cultural tensions between the high Imperial style and the capabilities of local craftsmen. The church, with its towers and prominent arch is clearly influenced by the medieval Cathedral of St. Tryphon in Kotor, with Romanesque, Italianate. The interior is adorned with iconographic murals with gold backgrounds, marble floors. Ostrog Monastery Media related to Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ at Wikimedia Commons Cathedral website Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral Serbian Orthodox Church

31. Vlah Church – The Vlah Church is a Serbian Orthodox church built in 1450 in the village, Donji Kraj, Zeta, Serbian Despotate. The church was built around 1450 on the site of Bogumils necropolis, only two of them are preserved today. Originally they faced each other, and were recently reoriented to be side by side, according to some legends, recorded for the first time by Ljubomir Nenadović, the 17th-century military commander Bajo Pivljanin and his wife are buried beneath them. According to another legend and documentary evidence the stećci mark the graves of the founders of the church -- Ivan Borojević, born in Stari Vlah and this church received its name for the Vlahs who guarded the cattle of Ivan Crnojević and built the church around 1450. There are several theories about the origin of the term Vlah in the name of the church. Some authors believe that the term Vlahs in the name of church is used as an exonym. Other theories connect the name of the church to Eastern Orthodox Christianity, the church was initially made of plot, i. e. of sticks, switches and mud. First as suvomeđa, which means of stones without mortar, then of klačena, which is stones with lime mortar, a guard rail around the church was built in 1897 using barrels of Ottoman rifles captured in 1858 during the Battle of Grahovac

32. Bosnia and Herzegovina – Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, in short, often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is the capital and largest city, in the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography, Bosnia and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age, during and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally, politically, and socially, the country has a rich history, the Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period, Bosnia was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. The country is home to three ethnic groups or, officially, constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third, a native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a rather than ethnic distinction. Moreover, the country was simply called Bosnia until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the 19th century, Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is itself complex and consists of 10 cantons, additionally, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008. The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could be derived from Illyrian Bass-an-as which would be a diversion of the Proto-Indo-European root bos or bogh, meaning the running water. According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna, the name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stephen Vukčić Kosačas title, Herceg of Hum and the Coast. Hum, formerly Zahumlje, was a medieval principality that was conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century. Bosnia is located in the western Balkans, bordering Croatia to the north and west, Serbia to the east and it has a coastline about 20 kilometres long surrounding the city of Neum. It lies between latitudes 42° and 46° N, and longitudes 15° and 20° E, the countrys name comes from the two regions Bosnia and Herzegovina, which have a very vaguely defined border between them

33. Cathedral Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos – The Cathedral Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos is the largest Serbian Orthodox church in Sarajevo and one of the largest in the Balkans. The cathedral is dedicated to the nativity of the Theotokos and it was erected at the request of the Orthodox parish of Sarajevo, with construction taking place between 1863 and 1868. The church is constructed as a three-section basilica inscribed in a cross-shaped plan, the domes are built on the beams, the central one is much larger than the other four side domes. The church is arched by round elements, the small gilded baroque-style belfry is built in front of the entrance. The interior walls are decorated by painted ornaments, in the lower zones of the walls the painted ornaments are simulating the marble stone construction look. Arches and vaults are decorated in ornaments only, in 1898, the Orthodox Metropolitan Palace was built near the cathedral. The construction of the church commenced in 1863 when Sarajevo was part of the Bosnia Vilayet, most of the 36,000 dukat construction cost was covered by Sarajevos Serb merchants, led by Manojlo Jeftanović who donated 2,000 dukats. In a symbolic act, the Ottoman sultan Abdülaziz and the ruler of Serbia, Prince Mihailo Obrenović, russian Tsar Alexander II sent expert craftsmen to construct the iconostasis. The same group also objected to a bell that was installed on the old Serbian Orthodox Church at around the same time. The new church dedication ceremony was scheduled for May 1871, however, when notified of the intended obstruction, the Bosnian Vilayets Ottoman governor ordered the police to arrest Hadži Lojo and his followers. Six got arrested while others fled when the police arrived, the dedication ceremony got postponed for a year. The next year, in the summer of 1872, the Ottoman officials dispatched a new commander with more than thousand men in order to provide security for the church dedication. Concerned about local Muslim vandal attacks, as a show of force the Ottoman governor ordered the positioning of a cannon above the city and the deployment of troops to guard the ceremony. The festive dedication on 20 July 1872, attended by high Ottoman officials and by the young Austro-Hungarian ambassador to Serbia, Béni Kállay, Sarajevo Old Orthodox Church Sites of interest in Sarajevo List of cathedrals Donia, Robert J. Sarajevo, A Biography

34. Church of the Holy Transfiguration, Sarajevo – The Church of the Holy Transfiguration is a Serbian Orthodox church in Novo Sarajevo, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Originally planned for Split in Croatia, it was built in 1940 by Aleksandar Deroko and it was the place of worship for 50,000 adherents in the region. It is the only Orthodox church in Novo Sarajevo, during the Yugoslav Wars, the Church was heavily damaged, and after the war it was renovated. Reworking of frescoes began in 2004, serb Orthodox Cathedral Serbs of Sarajevo Dabro-Bosnian Metropolitanate 70th Church anniversary

Markušica [videos]
Markušica (Hungarian: Márkusfalva, Serbian Cyrillic: Маркушица) is a village and a municipality in Vukovar-Srijem
125 px
125 px
Image: Markušica 1 Маркушица 1
Image: Markušica Local Elections 2013
Croatia [videos]
Croatia ((listen) kroh-AY-shə; Croatian: Hrvatska [xř̩ʋaːtskaː]), officially the Republic of Croatia (Croatian:
The Branimir Inscription is the oldest preserved monument containing an inscription defining a Croatian medieval ruler as a duke of Croats
The Arrival of the Croats at the Adriatic Sea, painting by Oton Iveković
The Baška tablet, the oldest evidence of the glagolitic script
Serbian Orthodox Church [videos]
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Serbian: Српска православна црква/Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous
Saint Sava, first Serbian archbishop
Patriarchate of Peć in Kosovo, the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church from the 14th century when its status was upgraded into a patriarchate
The Great Serb Migrations, led by Patriarch Arsenije III Carnojevic, 17th century.
Cathedral of Saint Sava, one of the largest Orthodox building in the world, being built continuously since the end of the 1980s on the site where relics of Saint Sava were desecrated by the Ottomans
Pentecost [videos]
The Christian holiday of Pentecost, which is celebrated on the fiftieth day after Easter, commemorates the descent of
Image: Pentecost mosaic
A Protestant church altar, decorated for Pentecost with red burning candles and red banners and altar cloth depicting the movement of the Holy Spirit
A Protestant church altar and font, decorated for Pentecost with red flowering plants and green birch branches
Holy Ghost hole, Saints Peter and Paul Church in Söll
Sacred architecture [videos]
Sacred architecture (also known as religious architecture) is a religious architectural practice concerned with the
Image: Kairouan Mosque Courtyard
Larger-than-life structures remain at the ancient Egyptian Luxor Temple approximately 3400 years after it was built.
An illustrated layout of the traditional interior of a Christian Orthodox church.
The interior of the ancient Egyptian Karnak Temple.
Baroque [videos]
The Baroque (US: or UK: ) is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that
The Church of Sant'Andrea al Quirinale, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini
The Triumph of the Immaculate by Paolo de Matteis
Aeneas Flees Burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598
St. Nicholas Church in Lesser Town in Prague was founded in 1703 under the lead of the Baroque architect Christoph Dientzenhofer.
Classicism [videos]
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784, an icon of Neoclassicism in painting
Fountain of the Four Rivers, Bernini, 1651.
Classicist door in Olomouc, The Czech Republic.
Molière in classical dress, by Nicolas Mignard, 1658.
Serbs of Croatia [videos]
The Serbs of Croatia (Serbian: Срби у Хрватској / Srbi u Hrvatskoj, Croatian: Srbi u Hrvatskoj ) or Croatian Serbs
Krka monastery, one of the oldest Serbian Orthodox monastery in Croatia
Serbs are expelled by Ustaše as part of Serbian Genocide
Nikola Tesla Memorial Center in Smiljan
House in Dalj where Milutin Milanković was born
The Cathedral Church of St. Michael the Archangel (Serbian: Саборна Црква Св. Архангела Михаила, Saborna Crkva Sv.
Image: Saborna crkva
King Peter I's coronation on 21 September 1904
The Cathedral
Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul, Ras [videos]
The Church of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul (Serbian: Црква светих апостола Петра и Павла / Crkva svetih apostola
The Church and gravestones
The Church and old graveyard.
The Church
The Church and gravestones
Our Lady of Ljeviš (Serbian: Богородица Љевишка, Bogorodica Ljeviška; Albanian: Kisha e Shën Premtës) is a 14th-century
Image: Bogorodica Ljeviska 1
Image: Ljeviska 007
Image: Ljeviska 007b
Image: Ljevis 31
Montenegro [videos]
Montenegro ((listen) MON-ti-NAYG-roh, -NEEG-, -NEG-; Montenegrin: Crna Gora/Црна Гора, Serbo-Croatian pronunciation:
Jovan Vladimir, the ruler of Duklja.
Montenegrin refugees during Montenegrin-Turkish war
Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ, Podgorica [videos]
The Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ (Serbian: Саборни Храм Христовог Васкрсења or Saborni Hram Hristovog
Image: Podgorica, cattedrale della resurrezione di cristo, esterno 01
Image: Podgorica, cattedrale della resurrezione di cristo, esterno 02
Image: Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ (Podgorica), at night, closer view
Image: Podgorica, cattedrale della resurrezione di cristo, interno 01
Bosnia and Herzegovina [videos]
Bosnia and Herzegovina ((listen) or ; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и
Mogorjelo, ancient Roman suburban Villa Rustica from the 4th century, near Čapljina
Gazi Husrev-beg Mosque in Sarajevo dating from 1531
Austro-Hungarian troops enter Sarajevo, 1878
Dome and towers on the Academy of Arts in Sarajevo, designed by the Czech-born architect Karel Pařík
Church of St. Nikola, Dobrelja [videos]
The Church of St Nikola is located in Dobrelja, a village in municipality of Gacko, Republic of Srpska. The church was
Church of St Nikola (Dobrelja)
Image: 4 .Crkvica u Dobreljima
Image: 5. Crkvica u Dobreljima
Image: 8č. Crkvica u Dobreljima
Old Church of St. Nicholas, Javorani [videos]
Old St. Nicholas Church or Wooden church in Javorani (Serbian Cyrillic: Стари храм светог Николе/Црква брвнара у
Old St. Nicholas Church
Image: Stara crkva Javorani
Image: Unutrašnjost stare crkve
Image: Crkva brvnara u Javoranima
Church of the Holy Venerable Mother Parascheva [videos]
Church of the Holy Venerable Mother Parascheva (Serbo-Croatian: Hram svete prepodobne majke Paraskeve, Serbian
St. Petka orthodox church
Image: St. Petka orthodox church
Image: St. Petka's Church, Šidski Banovci 1
Image: St. Petka's Church, Šidski Banovci 2
Diocese [videos]
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration". When now used in an
Pope Pius XI (left) blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. In Roman Catholicism, the pope as the bishop of the Diocese of Rome, creates the other Catholic dioceses throughout the world and chooses their bishops.
Dioceses of the Roman Empire, 400 AD
Serbian Cyrillic alphabet [videos]
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (Serbian: српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced [sr̩̂pskaː t͡ɕirǐlit͡sa]) is an
Serbian Cyrillic, from Comparative orthography of European languages. Source: Vuk Stefanović Karadžić "Srpske narodne pjesme" (Serbian folk poems), Vienna, 1841
Vuk's dictionary
Example of proper cursive modern Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
Serbia [videos]
Serbia ((listen), Serbian: Србија / Srbija, IPA: [sř̩bija]), officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република
Church of Saint Sava [videos]
The Church of Saint Sava (Serbian: Храм светог Саве/Hram svetog Save, literal translation into English: "The Temple of
Image: Interior Cathedral of Saint Sava, Belgrade
Image: St. Sava Temple
Image: Temple of Saint Sava's parish home
St. Mark's Church or Church of St. Mark (Serbian: Црква Светог Марка/Crkva Svetog Marka) is a Serbian Orthodox church
Image: Crkva svetog Marka, Beograd 05
Old church after bombing.
Iconostasis.
Church of St. Achillius, Arilje [videos]
The Church of St. Achillius (Serbian: Црква светог Ахилија), or the Arilje Monastery (манастир Ариље) is a Serbian
Image: Arilje church
Stefan Nemanja's council, from the church.
Founder fresco of King Stefan Dragutin, founder of the church, 1296. Note that he is depicted holding his endowment.
Lazarica Church [videos]
Church of the Holy First Martyr Stephen (Serbian: Црква Светог Првомученика Стефана/Crkva Svetog Prvomučenika Stefana),
Image: Lazarica Church
Front of the palace church with details of the rosettes (1375-1378).
Lazarica Church.
Church of Pentecost, Vinkovci [videos]
Church of Pentecost (Croatian: Hram silaska Duha svetoga, Serbian Cyrillic: Храм силаска Духа светога) in Vinkovci is a
Church of Pentecost
Image: Wappen Vinkovci
Image: Flag of Croatia
Dedication [videos]
Dedication is the act of consecrating an altar, temple, church, or other sacred building. It also refers to the
Mosaic showing the Greek and Latin alphabets in Notre-Dame de la Daurade, France
Saint George's Cathedral (Novi Sad) [videos]
The Cathedral Church of the Holy Great-Martyr George ([Саборни храм Светог великомученика Георгија, Saborni hram Svetog
View of the church
Iconostasis of the church, painted by Paja Jovanović
Church of the Assumption, Zrenjanin [videos]
Uspenska church (Serbian: Uspenska crkva, Hram Uspenja Bogorodice, Temple of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin) was
Uspenska church at night
One of two crosses in the yard
Cathedral of Saint George, Prizren [videos]
Cathedral of Saint George in Prizren (Serbian: Саборни храм Светог Ђорђа у Призрену) is the Cathedral church of the
Image: Sv. Djordje Prizren
Serbian Orthodox Cathedral of Saint George in Prizren, burned during the March Pogrom of 2004
Church of Christ the Saviour, Pristina [videos]
The Cathedral church of Christ the Saviour (Serbian: Саборни храм Христа Спаса у Приштини/Saborni hram Hrista Spasa u
The building in February 2013
The unfinished interior in October 2012
Cathedral Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos [videos]
The Cathedral Church of the Nativity of the Theotokos (Serbo-Croatian: Саборна црква Рођења Пресвете Богородице /
Serb Orthodox Cathedral
Cathedral during winter
Cathedral of the Holy Trinity, Mostar [videos]
The Cathedral of the Holy Trinity (Serbo-Croatian: Saborna crkva Svete Trojice/Саборна црква Свете Тројице) was a Serb
Serb Orthodox cathedral in Mostar
Serb Orthodox cathedral in Mostar (white church with black roof in the background(
Church of St. Nicholas, Vukovar [videos]
Church of St Nicholas (Serbian: Hram svetog Nikole, Serbian Cyrillic: Храм светог Николе) in Vukovar is Serbian
Church of St Nicholas
Serbian Home Vukovar building still waiting for restoration
Christian denomination [videos]
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name,
Christian Schisms and their Councils
Door of the Schlosskirche (castle church) in Wittenberg to which Luther is said to have nailed his 95 Theses on 31st October 1517, sparking the Reformation.
Major branches and movements within Protestantism.
Image: Christianity Branches
Eparchy of Osječko polje and Baranja [videos]
Eparchy of Osječko polje and Baranja (Serbian Cyrillic: Епархија осјечкопољска и барањска or Епархија осечкопољска и
Image: Rezidencija.dalj
Image: Map of Eparchies of Serbian Orthodox Church (including Orthodox Ohrid Archbishopric) en
Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord, Trpinja [videos]
The Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord (Croatian: Hram Uznesenja Gospodnjeg, Serbian Cyrillic: Храм Вазнесења
Church of the Transfiguration of the Lord
Image: Flag of Vukovar Syrmia County
Church of St. George, Banovo Brdo [videos]
Church of St. George is the Serbian Orthodox Church, located in Čukarica, Belgrade, in Banovo Brdo and built between
Image: St. George church, Banovo Brdo
Ružica Church [videos]
Ružica Church ([Црква Ружица/Crkva Ružica] , tran. Little Rose Church) is a Serbian Orthodox church located in the
Destroyed church converted to military magazine for the Turks
Cave Church, Lukovo [videos]
The Church of Holy Apostles Peter and Paul (Serbian: Црква Светих апостола Петра и Павла), known as the Cave Church
Image: Church of Sts. Peter and Paul, Lukovo
Odžaklija [videos]
The Odžaklija church (Serbian: Оџаклија, Chimney church also known as the Old church, Стара црква) is an early
The church
Kađenica [videos]
The Smoke Cave or Kađenica is a cave-church located in the village of Dljina near Čačak on the right bank of the
Kađenica chapel
Church of Holy Ascension, Krupanj [videos]
Church of Holy Ascension in Krupanj is Serbian Orthodox church in western Serbia. — References...
Church of Holy Ascension
Church of the Virgin Hodegetria, Mušutište [videos]
The Church of the Virgin Hodegetria (Serbian: Црква Богородице Одигитриjе/Crkva Bogorodice Odigitrije) was a
Church of Virgin Hodegetria before destruction.
Church of St. Nicholas, Prizren [videos]
The Church of St. Nicholas (Serbian: Црква светог Николе/Crkva Svetog Nikole, Albanian: Kisha e Shën Nikollës
Image: Church of St. Nicholas, Prizren
Mala Gospojina Church [videos]
The Church of the Nativity of the Most Holy Mother of God (Serbian: Црквa Мала Госпојина / Crkva Mala Gospojina) is a
The Church, in the center of Obilić.
Vlah Church [videos]
The Vlah Church (Serbian: Влашка Црква) is a Serbian Orthodox church built in 1450 in the village, Donji Kraj (on
Image: Vlah Church, Cetinje
Church of the Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel, Sarajevo [videos]
The Church of the Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel (Serbian: црква св. Арханђела Михаила и Гаврила - crkva sv.
The Old Orthodox Church in March 2006.
Church of the Holy Transfiguration, Sarajevo [videos]
The Church of the Holy Transfiguration (Serbian: Црква Светог Преображења / Crkva Svetog Preobraženja) is a Serbian
Church of Sveto Preobraženje
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Banja Luka [videos]
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour is Serbian Orthodox Cathedral located in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina. — References...
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
Church of St. George, Sopotnica [videos]
The Church of Saint George, Sopotnica (Serbian: Црква светог Ђорђа, Сопотница) is a Serbian Orthodox church located at
Church of Saint George, Sopotnica