The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con
Vincent Ferrer, O. P. was a Valencian Dominican friar, who gained acclaim as a logician. He is honored as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church and other churches of Catholic traditions, like the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. Vincent was the fourth child of the nobleman Guillem Ferrer, a notary who came from Palamós, wife, Constança Miquel from Valencia itself or Girona. Legends surround his birth, it was said that his father was told in a dream by a Dominican friar that his son would be famous throughout the world. His mother is said never to have experienced pain, he was named after the patron saint of Valencia. He would fast on Wednesdays and Fridays and he loved the Passion of Christ much, he would distribute alms to them. He began his classical studies at the age of eight, his study of theology and philosophy at fourteen. Four years at the age of nineteen, Ferrer entered the Order of Preachers called the Dominican Order, in England known as Black Friars; as soon as he had entered the novitiate of the Order, though, he experienced temptations urging him to leave.
His parents pleaded with him to do so and become a secular priest. He practiced penance to overcome these trials, thus he succeeded in advancing to his profession. For a period of three years, he read Sacred Scripture and committed it to memory, he published a treatise on Dialectic Suppositions after his solemn profession, in 1379 was ordained a Catholic priest at Barcelona. He became a Master of Sacred Theology and was commissioned by the Order to deliver lectures on philosophy, he was sent to Barcelona and to the University of Lleida, where he earned his doctorate in theology. Vincent Ferrer is described as a man of medium height, with a lofty forehead and distinct features, his hair tonsured. His eyes were dark and expressive. Pale was his ordinary color, his voice was strong and powerful, at times gentle and vibrant. The Western Schism divided Roman Catholicism between two eventually three, claimants to the papacy. Antipope Clement VII lived at Avignon in France, Pope Urban VI in Rome. Vincent was convinced that the election of Urban was invalid, although Catherine of Siena was just as devoted a supporter of the Roman pope.
In the service of Cardinal Pedro de Luna, Vincent worked to persuade Spaniards to follow Clement. When Clement died in 1394, Cardinal de Luna was elected as the second antipope successor to the Avignon papacy and took the name Benedict XIII. Vincent was loyal to Benedict XIII known as "Papa Luna" in Castile and Aragon, he worked for Benedict XIII as apostolic Master of the Sacred Palace. Nonetheless Vincent labored to have Benedict XIII end the schism; when Benedict XIII did not resign as intended at either the Council of Pisa or the Council of Constance, he lost the support of the French king and of most of his cardinals, was excommunicated as a schismatic in 1417. Vincent encouraged King Ferdinand I of Aragon to withdraw his support from Benedict XIII. Vincent claimed that the Western Schism had had such a depressing effect on his mind that it caused him to be ill. For twenty-one years he was said to have traveled to England, Ireland, Castile, France and Italy, preaching the Gospel and converting many.
Many biographers believe that he could speak only Valencian, but was endowed with the gift of tongues. He preached to St. Colette of Corbie and to her nuns, it was she who told him that he would die in France. Too ill to return to Spain, he did, die in Brittany in 1419. Breton fishermen still invoke his aid in storms, in Spain he is the patron of orphanages. Vincent is said to have been responsible for the conversion of many Jews to Catholicism by questionable means according to the Jewish Encyclopedia. One of his converts, a former rabbi by the name of Solomon ha-Levi, went on to become the Bishop of Cartagena and the Archbishop of Burgos. Vincent is alleged to have contributed to anti-Semitism in Spain, as violence accompanied his visits to towns that had Jewish communities; because of the Spanish's harsh methods of converting Jews at the time, the means which Vincent had at his disposal were either baptism or spoliation. He won them over by his preaching, estimated at 25,000. Sources are contradictory concerning Vincent's achievement in converting a synagogue in Toledo, into the Church of Santa María la Blanca.
One source says he preached to the mobs whose riots led to the appropriation of the synagogue and its transformation into a church in 1391. A third source identifies two distinct incidents, one in Valencia in 1391 and one in Toledo at a date, but says that Vincent put down an uprising against Jews in one place and defused a persecution against them in the other. Vincent attended the Disputation of Tortosa, called by Avignon Pope Benedict XIII in an effort to convert Jews to Catholicism after a debate among scholars of both faiths. Vincent participated in the management of a significant political crisis in his homeland. King Martin of Aragon died in 1410 without a legitimate heir, five potential candidates came forth to claim the throne, a
Valencian Gothic is an architectural style. It occurred under the Kingdom of Valencia between the 13th and 15th centuries, which places it at the end of the European Gothic period and at the beginning of the Renaissance; the term "Valencian Gothic" is confined to the Kingdom of Valencia and its area of influence, which has its own characteristics. The common characteristics of the Valencian Gothic are the following: Development of the architecture by techniques used in Roman architecture and of the Mediterranean countries. On these lines, the Kingdom of Valencia was influenced by arriving from France. Clear predominance of the architecture of the cultures of the Mediterranean countries respect of the influence of the French Gothic; the architectural proportions do not change with the arrival of the Renaissance. Divergence with the classic Gothic style. Clear influence of Flamboyant Gothic, which confers uniqueness. Cladding and concealment during the 17th to 19th centuries of the Valencian Gothic by newer styles such as the Baroque or the Neoclassical, so today much of the Valencian Gothic remains hidden.
Little impact of mudejar architecture, but in spite of this, there are interesting examples of mudejar architecture in the Valencian Community, that given the occasional use, are of great singularity. The most important valencian architects of the Valencian Gothic style are: Pere Compte, Francesc Baldomar, Pere Balaguer, Andreu Julià, etc. Province of AlicanteIn Alicante, Basilica of Santa Maria, Concatedral de San Nicolás. In Castalla, Ermita de la Sangre. In Jávea, Iglesia de San Bartolomé. In Orihuela, Orihuela Cathedral. In Teulada, Iglesia de Santa Catalina. In Villena, Iglesia Arciprestal de Santiago, Iglesia de Santa María. Province of CastellónIn L'Alcora, Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción. In Burriana, Basílica de El Salvador. In Castellfort, Ermita de San Pedro. In Castellón, Castelló Cathedral, El Fadrí. In Jérica, Ermita de San Roque. In Morella, Iglesia de Santa María. In Sant Mateu, Iglesia arciprestal de San Mateo In Segorbe Cathedral. In Vallibona, Iglesia de la Asunción de la Virgen.
Province of ValenciaIn Ademuz, Ermita de Nuestra Señora de la Huerta. In Alfauir, Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba. In Carcaixent, Ermita de San Roque de Ternils. In Castielfabib, Ermita de Nuestra Señora de Gracia. In Gandia, Collegiate Basilica of Convent of Santa Clara of Gandia. In Luchente, Monastery of the Corpus Christi. In Serra, Cartuja de Porta Coeli. In Simat de la Valldigna, Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna. In Valencia, Cathedral of Valencia, El Miguelete, Iglesia de San Juan del Hospital, Iglesia de San Martín, Antiguo Convento del Carmen, Convento de Santo Domingo, Iglesia de Santa Catalina, Monasterio de la Trinidad, Church of San Nicolás, Iglesia de San Agustín, etc. In Xativa, Iglesia de San Francisco, Hermitage of Santa Ana, etc; the most important buildings of the Valencian civil Gothic style are: Province of AlicanteIn Cocentaina, Palace of the Counts of Cocentaina. In Alcoy, palace of the Archaeological Museum Camil Visedo. Province of CastellónIn Cinctorres, Palacio de los San Juan.
In Vilafamés, palacio del Museo de Villafamés. Province of ValenciaIn Gandia, Ducal Palace of Gandia, Archaeological Museum of Gandia. In Valencia, Llotja de la Seda, Palace of the Borgias, Torres de Serranos, Almudín de Valencia, Atarazanas del Grao, Casa del Almirante, Palacio de Joan de Valeriola, Palacio de los Escrivà, etc. In Xativa, Almudin de Xativa. Province of CastellónIn Jérica, Torre mudéjar de la Alcudia. In Onda, Iglesia de la Sangre. In Segorbe, artesonado del Salón de Sesiones del antiguo Palacio Ducal. Province of ValenciaIn Alfauir, the cloister of the Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba. In Godella, la capilla del Cristo de la Paz en la Iglesia de San Bartolomé Apóstol. In Llíria, la iglesia de la Sangre de Liria. In Sagunto, la iglesia vieja de Sagunto. In Torres Torres, baños árabes. In Valencia, Baños del Almirante. Arturo Zaragozá Catalán. Valencian Gothic Architecture. Valencia, Generalitat Valenciana, 2000, ISBN 978-84-482-2545-2 Arturo Zaragozá Catalán. Memorias Olvidadas. Imágenes de la escultura gótica valenciana.
Valencia, Generalitat Valenciana, 2015, ISBN 978-84-482-6017-0 Mariano Torreño Calatayud. Arquitectura gótica valenciana. Valencia. Carena Editors, 2010. ISBN 978-84-96419-96-4 Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics "Valencian Gothic architecture", by Arturo Zaragozá
Acislo Antonio Palomino de Castro y Velasco was a Spanish painter of the Baroque period, a writer on art, author of El Museo pictórico y escala óptica, which contains a large amount of important biographical material on Spanish artists. Antonio Palomino was born to a respectable family at Bujalance, near Córdoba in 1653, he studied philosophy and law at Córdoba, had lessons in painting from Juan de Valdés Leal, who visited there in 1672, afterwards from Juan de Alfaro y Gamez in 1675. After taking minor orders Palomino moved to Madrid in 1678, where he associated with Alfaro, Claudio Coello, Juan Carreño de Miranda, executed some indifferent frescoes, he soon afterwards married a lady of rank, having been appointed alcalde of the mesta, was himself ennobled. The artist visited Valencia in 1697, remained there for three or four years, again devoting himself to fresco painting, including the ceilings of the church of the Santos Juanes. Between 1705 and 1715 he spent considerable amounts of time in Granada and Córdoba.
He painted the ceiling fresco in the dome of the sacristy of the Cartuja de Granada. After the death of his wife in 1725 Palomino took priest's orders, he died on 13 August 1726. Palomino's El Museo pictórico y escala óptica first appeared in 1715–24 in a three-volume folio edition; the first two parts, on the theory and practice of the art of painting, have had little influence. The third, subtitled El Parnaso español pintoresco laureado, contains a large amount of important biographical material relating to Spanish artists, despite its uneven style, has led to the author being called "the Spanish Vasari", it was translated into English in 1739 as An account of the lives and works of the most eminent Spanish painters and architects. A German version was published at Dresden in 1781, a reprint of the entire work at Madrid in 1797. A modern English translation of the abridgment by Nina Ayala Mallory came out in 1987 from Cambridge University Press. Las vidas de los pintores y estatuarios eminentes españoles, que con sus heroycas obras, han ilustrado la nacion An account of the lives and works of the most eminent Spanish painters and architects, tr. from the Musæum pictorium
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term dioikesis meaning "administration". Today, when used in an ecclesiastical sense, it refers to the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. In the organization of the Roman Empire, the subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. After Christianity was given legal status in 313, the Churches began to organize themselves into dioceses based on provinces, not on the larger regional imperial districts; the dioceses were smaller than the provinces since there were more bishops than governors. Christianity was declared the Empire's official religion by Theodosius I in 380. Constantine I in 318 gave litigants the right to have court cases transferred from the civil courts to the bishops; this situation must have hardly survived Julian, 361-363. Episcopal courts are not heard of again in the East until 398 and in the West in 408; the quality of these courts were low, not above suspicion as the bishop of Alexandria Troas found out that clergy were making a corrupt profit.
Nonetheless, these courts were popular. Bishops had no part in the civil administration until the town councils, in decline, lost much authority to a group of'notables' made up of the richest councilors and rich persons exempted from serving on the councils, retired military, bishops post-450 A. D; as the Western Empire collapsed in the 5th century, bishops in Western Europe assumed a larger part of the role of the former Roman governors. A similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division. For Gaul, Bruce Eagles has observed that "it has long been an academic commonplace in France that the medieval dioceses, their constituent pagi, were the direct territorial successors of the Roman civitates."Modern usage of'diocese' tends to refer to the sphere of a bishop's jurisdiction.
This became commonplace during the self-conscious "classicizing" structural evolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 9th century, but this usage had itself been evolving from the much earlier parochia, dating from the formalized Christian authority structure in the 4th century. Most archdioceses are metropolitan sees. A few are suffragans of a metropolitan are directly subject to the Holy See. While the terms "diocese" and "episcopal see" are applicable to the area under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of any bishop, a bishop in charge of an archdiocese thereby holds the rank of archbishop. If the title of archbishop is granted on personal grounds to a diocesan bishop, his diocese does not thereby become an archdiocese; as of January 2019, in the Catholic Church there are 2,886 regular dioceses: 1 papal see, 645 archdioceses and 2,240 dioceses in the world. In the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy; the Eastern Orthodox Church calls dioceses episkopē in the Greek tradition and eparchies in the Slavic tradition.
After the English Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as dioceses, not archdioceses: they are the metropolitan bishops of their respective provinces and bishops of their own diocese and have the position of archbishop. Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics; these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, the Church of Norway. From about the 13th century until the German mediatization of 1803, the majority of the bishops of the Holy Roman Empire were prince-bishops, as such exercised political authority over a principality, their so-called Hochstift, distinct, considerably smaller than their diocese, over which they only exercised the usual authority of a bishop.
Some American Lutheran church bodies such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America have a bishop acting as the head of the synod, but the synod does not have dioceses and archdioceses as the churches listed above. Rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory; the Lutheran Church - International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure, with four dioceses in North America. Its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes; the Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States. In the COGIC, most states are divided into at least three or more dioceses that are each led by a bishop; these dioceses are called "jurisdictions" within COGIC. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the term "bishopric" is used to describe the bishop himself, together with his two counselors, not the ward or congregation of which a bishop has charge. In the United Methodist Church, a bishop is given oversight over a geographical area called an episcopal area; each episcopal area contains one or more an
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
The 15th century was the century which spans the Julian years 1401 to 1500. In Europe, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Late Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, the Early modern period. Many technological and cultural developments of the 15th century can in retrospect be seen as heralding the "European miracle" of the following centuries. In religious history, the Roman Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades, until the Council of Constance; the division of the Catholic Church and the unrest associated with the Hussite movement would become factors in the rise of the Protestant Reformation in the following century. Constantinople, in what is today Turkey the capital of the Christian Byzantine Empire, falls to the emerging Muslim Ottoman Turks, marking the end of the tremendously influential Byzantine Empire and, for some historians, the end of the Middle Ages; the event forced Western Europeans to find a new trade route, adding further momentum to what was the beginning of the Age of Discovery, which would lead to the global mapping of the world.
Explorations by the Portuguese and Spanish led to European sightings of the Americas and the sea passage along Cape of Good Hope to India, in the last decade of the century. These expeditions ushered in the era of the Portuguese and Spanish colonial empires; the fall of Constantinople led to the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy, while Johannes Gutenberg's invention of the mechanical movable type began the Printing Press. These two events played key roles in the development of the Renaissance; the Spanish Reconquista leads to the final fall of the Emirate of Granada by the end of the century, ending over seven centuries of Muslim rule and returning Spain back to Christian rulers. The Hundred Years' War end with a decisive French victory over the English in the Battle of Castillon. Financial troubles in England following the conflict results in the Wars of the Roses, a series of dynastic wars for the throne of England; the conflicts end with the defeat of Richard III by Henry VII at the Battle of Bosworth Field, establishing the Tudor dynasty in the part of the century.
In Asia, under the rule of the Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zheng He to explore the world overseas, the Ming Dynasty's territory reached its pinnacle. Tamerlane established a major empire in the Middle East and Central Asia, in order to revive the Mongol Empire. In Africa, the spread of Islam leads to the destruction of the Christian kingdoms of Nubia, by the end of the century leaving only Alodia; the vast Mali Empire teeters on the brink of collapse, under pressure from the rising Songhai Empire. In the Americas, both the Inca Empire and the Aztec Empire reach the peak of their influence. 1400s 1401: Dilawar Khan establishes the Malwa Sultanate in present-day central India 1402: Ottoman and Timurid Empires fight at the Battle of Ankara resulting in Timur's capture of Bayezid I. 1402: Sultanate of Malacca founded by Parameshwara. 1403: The Yongle Emperor moves the capital of China from Nanjing to Beijing. 1403: The settlement of the Canary Islands signals the beginning of the Spanish Empire.
1405–1433: Zheng He of China sails through the Indian Ocean to India and East Africa to spread China's influence and sovereignty. 1405: Paregreg war, Majapahit civil war of succession between Wikramawardhana against Wirabhumi. 1405–1407: The first voyage of Zheng He, a massive Ming dynasty naval expedition visited Java, Malacca, Aru and Lambri. 1410s 1410: The Battle of Grunwald is the decisive battle of the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War leading to the downfall of the Teutonic Knights. 1410–1413: Foundation of St Andrews University in Scotland. 1414: Khizr Khan, deputised by Timur to be the governor of Multan, takes over Delhi founding the Sayyid dynasty. 1415: Henry the Navigator leads the conquest of Ceuta from the Moors marking the beginning of the Portuguese Empire. 1415: Battle of Agincourt fought between the Kingdom of England and France. 1415: Jan Hus is burned at the stake as a heretic at the Council of Constance.1420s 1420: Construction of the Chinese Forbidden City is completed in Beijing.
1420–1434: Hussite Wars in Bohemia. 1424: James I returns to Scotland after being held hostage under three Kings of England since 1406. 1424: Deva Raya II succeeds his father Veera Vijaya Bukka Raya as monarch of the Vijayanagara Empire. 1425: Catholic University of Leuven founded by Pope Martin V. 1429: Joan of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans and turns the tide of the Hundred Years' War. 1429: Queen Suhita succeeds Wikramawardhana as ruler of Majapahit.1430s 1431 January 9 – Pretrial investigations for Joan of Arc begin in Rouen, France under English occupation. March 3 – Pope Eugene IV succeeds Pope Martin V, to become the 207th pope. March 26 – The trial of Joan of Arc begins. May 30 – Nineteen-year-old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake. June 16 – the Teutonic Knights and Švitrigaila sign the Treaty of Christmemel, creating anti-Polish alliance September – Battle of Inverlochy: Donald Balloch defeats the Royalists. October 30 – Treaty of Medina del Campo, consolidating peace between Portugal and Castille.
December 16 – Henry VI of England is crowned King of France. 1438: Pachacuti founds the Inca Empire.1440s 1440: Eton College founded by Henry VI. 1440s: The Golden Horde breaks up into the Siberia Khanate, the Khanate of Kazan, the Astrakhan Khanate, the Crimean Khanate, the Great Horde. 1440–1469: Under Moctezuma I, the Aztecs become the dominant power in Mesoamerica. 1440: Oba Ewuare comes to power in the West African city of Benin, turns it into an empire. 1441: Jan van Eyck, Flemish painter, dies. 1441: Portuguese navigators cruise West