Ambrose Edward Barlow, O. S. B. was an English Benedictine monk who is venerated as a saint in the Roman Catholic Church. He is one of a group of saints canonized by Pope Paul VI who became known as the Forty Martyrs of England, Ambrose was born at Barlow Hall, Chorlton-cum-Hardy, near Manchester in 1585. He was the son of the nobleman Sir Alexander Barlow and his wife Mary. The Barlow family had been reluctant converts to the Church of England following the suppression of the Roman Catholic Church in England, on 30 November 1585, Ambrose was baptised at Didsbury Chapel and his baptism entry reads Edwarde legal sonne of Alex Barlowe gent 30. Ambrose went on to adhere to the Anglican faith until 1607, in 1597, Ambrose was taken into the stewardship of Sir Uryan Legh, a relative who would care for him whilst he served out his apprenticeship as a page. In 1615, he returned to Douai where he became a member of the Order of Saint Benedict and was ordained as a priest in 1617. After his ordination into the priesthood, Ambrose returned to Barlow Hall, before taking up residence at the home of Sir Thomas Tyldesley, Morleys Hall, Astley.
Sir Thomas grandmother had arranged for a pension to be available to the priest which would enable him to carry out his priestly duties amongst the poor Catholics within his parish. From there he secretly catered for the needs of Catholic parishioners, offering daily Mass and reciting his Office and Rosary for the next twenty-four years. To avoid detection by the Protestant authorities, he devised a four-week routine in which he travelled throughout the parish for four weeks and he would often visit his cousins, the Downes, at their residence of Wardley Hall and conduct Mass for the gathered congregation. Ambrose was arrested four times during his travels and released without charge, ambroses parishioners implored him to flee or at least go into hiding but he refused. Their fears were compounded by a recent stroke which had resulted in the 56-year-old priest being partially paralysed, let them fear that have anything to lose which they are unwilling to part with, he told them. On 25 April 1641, Easter Day and his congregation of around 100 people were surrounded at Morleys Hall, Astley by the Vicar of Leigh, Father Ambrose surrendered, and his parishioners were released after their names had been recorded.
Father Ambrose appeared before the judge, Sir Robert Heath, on 7 September when he professed his adherence to the Catholic faith. On 8 September, the feast of the Nativity of Mary, Sir Robert Heath found Ambrose guilty, two days later, he was taken from Lancaster Castle, drawn on a hurdle to the place of execution, dismembered and boiled in oil. His head was exposed on a pike. When the news of his death and martyrdom reached his Benedictine brothers at Douai Abbey, a Mass of Thanksgiving, on 15 December 1929, Pope Pius XI proclaimed Father Ambrose as Blessed at his Beatification ceremony at St. Peters Basilica, Vatican City. Two portraits of Barlow and one of his father, Sir Alexander, are known to exist
The Ionic order forms one of the three classical orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian. There are two orders, the Tuscan, and the rich variant of Corinthian called the composite order. The Ionic columns are the thinnest and smallest columns out of the three canonic orders, the Ionic capital is characterized by the use of volutes. The Ionic columns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of the column from the stylobate or platform, since Vitruvius a female character has been ascribed to the Ionic, in contrast to the masculine Doric. The major features of the Ionic order are the volutes of its capital, the only tools required to design these features were a straight-edge, a right angle, string and a compass. Originally the volutes lay in a plane, it was seen that they could be angled out on the corners. Ionic columns are most often fluted, after a little early experimentation, the number of hollow flutes in the shaft settled at 24.
This standardization kept the fluting in a proportion to the diameter of the column at any scale. Roman fluting leaves a little of the surface between each hollow, Greek fluting runs out to a knife edge that was easily scarred. In some instances, the fluting has been omitted, mohr included 8 unfluted Ionic frontal columns on his 1928 design for the railroads St. Louis suburban stop Delmar Station. Pictorial often narrative bas-relief frieze carving provides a feature of the Ionic order. Roman and Renaissance practice condensed the height of the entablature by reducing the proportions of the architrave, the Ionic order originated in the mid-6th century BC in Ionia, the southwestern coastland and islands of Asia Minor settled by Ionian Greeks, where an Ionian dialect was spoken. The Ionic order column was being practiced in mainland Greece in the 5th century BC and it was most popular in the Archaic Period in Ionia. The first of the great Ionic temples was the Temple of Hera on Samos and it stood for only a decade before it was leveled by an earthquake.
A longer-lasting 6th century Ionic temple was the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, the Parthenon, although it conforms mainly to the Doric order, has some Ionic elements. A more purely Ionic mode to be seen on the Athenian Acropolis is exemplified in the Erechtheum, following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila. Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can seen as far away as Patna, especially with the Pataliputra capital. Renaissance architectural theorists took his hints, to interpret the Ionic order as matronly in comparison to the Doric order, the Ionic is a natural order for post-Renaissance libraries and courts of justice and civilized
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation and doctrine. Individual bodies, may use alternative terms to describe themselves, groups of denominations—often sharing broadly similar beliefs and historical ties—are sometimes known as branches of Christianity or denominational families. Individual Christian groups vary widely in the degree to which they recognize one another, several groups claim to be the direct and sole authentic successor of the church founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century AD. Others, believe in denominationalism, where some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same regardless of their distinguishing labels, beliefs. Because of this concept, some Christian bodies reject the term denomination to describe themselves, the Catholic Church does not view itself as a denomination, but as the original pre-denominational church. This view is rejected by other Christian denominations, Protestant denominations account for approximately 37 percent of Christians worldwide.
Together and Protestantism comprise Western Christianity, Western Christian denominations prevail in Western, Northern and Southern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Americas and Oceania. The Eastern Orthodox Church, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents, is the second-largest Christian organization in the world, unlike the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church is itself a communion of fully independent autocephalous churches that mutually recognize each other to the exclusion of others. The Eastern Orthodox Church, together with Oriental Orthodoxy and the Assyrian Church of the East, Eastern Christian denominations are represented mostly in Eastern Europe, North Asia, the Middle East and Northeast Africa. Christians have various doctrines about the Church and about how the church corresponds to Christian denominations. Both Catholics and Eastern Orthodox hold that their own organizations faithfully represent the One Holy catholic and Apostolic Church to the exclusion of the other, sixteenth-century Protestants separated from the Catholic Church because of theologies and practices that they considered to be in violation of their own interpretation.
But some non-denominational Christians do not follow any particular branch, though regarded as Protestants. Each group uses different terminology to discuss their beliefs and this section will discuss the definitions of several terms used throughout the article, before discussing the beliefs themselves in detail in following sections. A denomination within Christianity can be defined as an autonomous branch of the Christian Church, major synonyms include religious group, Church. Some traditional and evangelical Protestants draw a distinction between membership in the church and fellowship within the local church. Becoming a believer in Christ makes one a member of the universal church, a related concept is denominationalism, the belief that some or all Christian groups are legitimate churches of the same religion regardless of their distinguishing labels and practices. Protestant leaders differ greatly from the views of the leaders of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church, each church makes mutually exclusive claims for itself to be the direct continuation of the Church founded by Jesus Christ, from whom other denominations broke away.
These churches, and a few others, reject denominationalism, Christianity can be taxonomically divided into five main groups, the Church of the East, Oriental Orthodoxy, Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Protestantism
In church architecture, the chancel is the space around the altar, including the choir and the sanctuary, at the liturgical east end of a traditional Christian church building. It may terminate in an apse and it is generally the area used by the clergy and choir during worship, while the congregation is in the nave. Direct access may be provided by a door, usually on the south side of the church. In smaller churches, where the altar is backed by the outside east wall and there is no distinct choir, in churches with a retroquire area behind the altar, this may only be included in the broader definition of chancel. In a cathedral or other large church there may be a choir area at the start of the chancel, before reaching the sanctuary. All these may be included in the chancel, at least in architectural terms, in churches with less traditional plans the term may not be useful in either architectural or ecclesiastical terms. The chancel may be a step or two higher than the level of the nave, and the sanctuary is often raised still further and this is an arch which separates the chancel from the nave and transept of a church.
As well as the altar, the sanctuary may house a credence table, in some churches, the congregation may gather on three sides or in a semicircle around the chancel. In some churches, the pulpit and lectern may be in the chancel, the word chancel derives from the French usage of chancel from the Late Latin word cancellus. This refers to the form of rood screens. The chancel was formerly known as the presbytery, because it was reserved for the clergy, a large chancel made most sense in monasteries and cathedrals where there was a large number of singing clergy and boys from a choir school to occupy the choir. These usually sat in the nave, with any lay congregation, however the screen enjoyed a small revival in the 19th century, after the passionate urgings of Augustus Pugin, who wrote A Treatise on Chancel Screens and Rood Lofts, and others. After the Reformation Protestant churches generally moved the forward, typically to the front of the chancel. The rear of deep chancels became little used in churches surviving from the Middle Ages, with the emphasis on sermons, and their audibility, some churches simply converted their chancels to seat part of the congregation.
Fleming, Honour, Pevsner, Dictionary of Architecture,1980, Nikolaus, Priscilla Metcalf, The Cathedrals of England, Southern England,1985, Viking White, James F. The Cambridge Movement, The Ecclesiologists and the Gothic Revival,1962, Wipf and Stock Publishers, ISBN1592449379,9781592449378, google books Chancel
Dedication is the act of consecrating an altar, church, or other sacred building. It refers to the inscription of books or other artifacts when these are addressed or presented to a particular person. This practice, which once was used to gain the patronage, in law, the word is used of the setting apart by a private owner of a road to public use. The Feast of Dedication, today Hanukkah, once called Feast of the Maccabees, was a Jewish festival observed for eight days from the 25th of Kislev and it was instituted in the year 165 B. C. The significant happenings of the festival were the illumination of houses and synagogues, a custom taken over from the Feast of Tabernacles. J. Wellhausen suggests that the feast was connected with the winter solstice. The Feast of Dedication is mentioned in John 10,22 where it mentions Jesus being at the Jerusalem Temple during the Feast of Dedication and further notes, the Greek term used in John is the renewals. Josephus refers to the festival in Greek simply as lights, churches under the authority of a bishop are usually dedicated by the bishop in a ceremony that used to be called that of consecration, but is now called that of dedication.
For the Catholic Church, the rite of dedication is described in the Caeremoniale Episcoporum, chapters IX-X, and in the Roman Missals Ritual Masses for the Dedication of a Church and an Altar. In the Church of England, a church may only be closed for worship after a legal process. The custom of solemnly dedicating or consecrating buildings as churches or chapels set apart for Christian worship must be almost as old as Christianity itself, when we come to the earlier part of the 4th century allusions to and descriptions of the consecration of churches become plentiful. This service is probably of Jewish origin, all these point to the probability of the Christians deriving their custom from a Jewish origin. Eusebius of Caesarea speaks of the dedication of churches rebuilt after the Diocletian persecution, the use of both holy water and of unction is attributed to St. Columbanus, who died in 615. The manuscripts and printed service-books of the church contain a lengthy. The earliest known pontifical is that of Egbert, Archbishop of York, pontificals are numerous and somewhat varied.
A good idea of the character of the service can be obtained from a skeleton of it as performed in England after the Reformation according to the use of Sarum. The service is taken from an early 15th-century pontifical in the Cambridge University Library as printed by W. Makell in Monumenta ritualia ecclesiae Anglicanae, there is a preliminary office for laying a foundation-stone. On the day of consecration the bishop is to vest in a tent outside the church, proceed to the door of the church on the outside, there he blesses holy water, twelve lighted candles being placed outside, and twelve inside the church
Bishop of Lichfield
The Bishop of Lichfield is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lichfield in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers 4,516 km² of the counties of Powys, Shropshire, the bishops seat is located in the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Chad in the city of Lichfield. The Bishops residence is Bishops House, Lichfield, in the past, the title has had various forms. The currently bishop is Michael Ipgrave, following the confirmation of his election on 10 June 2016, the diocese of Mercia was founded 656 by Diuma with its see at Repton. When Chad was made Bishop in 669, he moved his seat to Lichfield, in 691 the area over which the bishop held authority was divided to form the smaller dioceses of Lichfield, Lindsey and Hereford. It was briefly the seat of an archbishop under Hygeberht from 787 to 799 during the ascendancy of the kingdom of Mercia. Offa, King of Mercia seemed to resent his own bishops paying allegiance to the Archbishop of Canterbury in Kent who, whilst under Offas control, was not of his own kingdom of Mercia.
Offa therefore created his own archbishopric in Lichfield, who presided over all the bishops from the Humber to the Thames, in 786 and it was vehemently opposed, but Offa and the papal representatives defeated Jænberht, Archbishop of Canterbury, installing Hygeberht as the new Archbishop of Lichfield. Pope Adrian sent Hygeberht his ceremonial garment, obviously denoting his support for this move, in gratitude, Offa promised to send an annual shipment of gold to the pope for alms and supplying the lights in St. Peters church in Rome. The bishops seat was moved to Chester in 1075. From 1228 Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield became the title with seats at both cathedrals, though various older names remained in common usage. After the Reformation of the 1530s the cathedral at Coventry was demolished, in 1837 the ancient bishopric was divided. The archdeaconry of Coventry was transferred to the see of Worcester, the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield 1603–1642. Oligarchy and conflict, Lichfield Cathedral clergy in the sixteenth century in Midland History,19.
Greenway, D. E. Porter, S. Roy, I
Heaton Norris is a suburban area of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England. It is part of the Four Heatons, and neighbours Heaton Chapel, Heaton Mersey, historically part of Lancashire, Heaton Norris was part of the Manchester barony of the Grelley family, but between 1162 and 1180 it belonged to William le Norreys. In the early 13th century, Heaton Norris, a sub manor of Manchester and it was escheated to the manor of Manchester around 1280. In 1322, there were 32 dwellings suggesting a population of 150, there was no chapel of ease, unlike neighbouring St Ostwalds at Didsbury, and didnt get one till St Thomas was built in 1758. The township remained part of the parish of Manchester in the Salford Hundred of Lancashire until 1835 when the portion of the parish was absorbed into Stockport. A further 16 acres transferred in 1901, and the remainder, Heaton Moor, there was a plebiscite in the 1930 on whether the area wished to become part of Manchester again, but the vote was lost. In 1901, the population was recorded as 26,251, since 1974 it has formed part of the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport in Greater Manchester.
Weaving was first recorded in 1580 and by 1776 farms were being advertised as having cowsheds, in spite of the industrial developments nearby in Stockport and Manchester, most of Heaton Norris remained agricultural, though in 1836 there were 20 mills employing upwards of 5,000. The rural nature changed with the arrival of the station at Heaton Norris in 1840 and Heaton Chapel in 1852. The majority of Heaton Norris is characterised by deck-access or high-rise estates, Heaton Norris Rovers, now known as Stockport County Football Club, was formed in 1883, and used to play on a pitch behind the Nursery Inn on Green Lane. In 1902, they left the Green Lane ground and moved to Edgeley Park. Heaton Norris, Heaton Mersey, Heaton Moor and Heaton Chapel are on the bank of the River Mersey, and south of the Cringle Brook, to the west of Reddish. The land slopes gently towards the north from a point in the south above a steep descent to the Mersey. Most of the townships are between 60 m and 70 m above sea level, and 30 m to 60 m above the river, Heaton Norris is about 7 km south of St Anns Square, Manchester.
The soil is clay on marl and red sandstone, the former Manchester to Buxton Roman road and the turnpike, now the A6, pass through Heaton Norris, as does the London to Manchester railway. This is carried from Edgeley to Heaton Norris by the massive brick-built Stockport Viaduct, along the north bank of the River Mersey ran the Great Central Railways line from Warrington to Stockport. Today this route is used by the M60 motorway, Junction 1 serves Heaton Norris, the Stockport branch of the Ashton Canal terminated at Heaton Norris. In 1820, William Nelstrop established his mill on Lancashire Hill
Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 514,414 as of 2013. It lies within the United Kingdoms second-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.55 million, Manchester is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council and it was historically a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated during the 20th century. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a township but began to expand at an astonishing rate around the turn of the 19th century. Manchesters unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and its fortunes declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation.
The city centre was devastated in a bombing in 1996, but it led to extensive investment, in 2014, the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city in the UK and it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the worlds first inter-city passenger railway station and in the city scientists first split the atom, the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are generally thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, both meanings are preserved in languages derived from Common Brittonic, mam meaning breast in Irish and mother in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford.
Central Manchester has been settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell, much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North. Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral, the premises of the college house Chethams School of Music. The library, which opened in 1653 and is open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282, around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the regions textile industry
City Tower, Manchester
City Tower is a 30-storey skyscraper situated in the Piccadilly Gardens area of Manchester, England. It is one of the highest office spaces currently available in Manchester and it is currently the fourth tallest building in Manchester. The Tower has retail and leisure units on the floor and is Manchesters main radio transmitting station. The developer Bruntwood sold City Tower to the management company Schroders for £132 million in 2014. The Piccadilly Plaza was remodelled by Leslie Jones Architects in 2001-02, City Tower stands at right angles to Piccadilly and the north-facing wall is covered with designs based on circuit boards. In the remodeling the building to the west of City Tower, the Tower has entrances on York Street and Piccadilly Gardens. Over the years, the Tower became increasingly run down and many tenants left, a refurbishment programme was drawn up in the late 1990s, but this was never realised until Bruntwood purchased Piccadilly Plaza for £65 million in 2004. This plan is complete, with a new ground floor entrance.
The next phase involved repainting and fitting an atrium to the sides of the Tower, an advertising screen has been erected showing full motion video clips to passers-by in the Gardens. The penthouse on floor 28 differs from the floors as it originally had a walkway around the perimeter. When Bruntwood acquired City Tower, they removed the walkway and installed wider windows, the redesign included an overhang with floor to ceiling windows. Although City Tower is not the tallest building in the city and this floor was occupied by UKFast but now appears to be at least partly vacant. Architecture of Manchester List of tallest buildings in Manchester City Tower, Manchester at www. skyscrapernews. com BBC Highest office space in Manchester City Tower Official Website
The CIS Tower is an office skyscraper on Miller Street in Manchester, England. It was completed in 1962 and rises to 387 feet in height, the Grade II listed building, which houses the Co-operative Banking Group, is Manchesters second-tallest building and the tallest office building in the United Kingdom outside London. The tower remained as built for over 40 years until maintenance issues on the tower required an extensive renovation which included covering its facade in photovoltaic panels. The tower was designed as a headquarters to showcase the Co-operative movement in Manchester. In 1958 the company proposed building a tower block, construction began the following year and was completed in 1962. It was designed by Gordon Tait of Burnett, Tait & Partners and Co-operatives own architect, in the 1990s, it was granted Grade II listed building status by English Heritage. The tower, described as the best of the Manchester 1960s office blocks, was listed for its discipline and it is part of a group with New Century House and its Conference Hall on Corporation Street.
The towers design was influenced by Skidmore, Owings & Merrills Inland Steel Building in Chicago after a visit by the architects in 1958. In 1962, at 387 feet, the CIS Tower overtook the Shell Centre as the tallest building in the United Kingdom, in 2006 the Beetham Tower became the tallest building in Manchester. The office tower building rises above a five-storey podium block and it has a steel frame and glass curtain walls with metal window frames. Black vitreous enamel panels demarcate the floor levels, the building materials, enamelled steel and aluminium, were chosen so that the building could remain clean in the polluted Manchester atmosphere. The projecting reinforced concrete service shaft houses lifts and emergency stairs, the ground floor is set back behind six pillars. A green bronze-like, abstract mural sculpted by William George Mitchell made from fibreglass covers the entrance halls rear wall, the building has 700,000 square feet of floor area with clear open spaces on the office floors.
Interiors were designed by Misha Black of the Design Research Unit, the executive areas are delineated by the use of teak and cherry wood veneers. Within six months of some of the mosaic tiles on the service tower became detached owing to cement failure. Although the tower was granted listed building status in 1995, falling tiles were an ongoing problem, English Heritage had to be consulted as alterations could change the buildings appearance. The work was completed by Arup and at time was the largest commercial solar façade in Europe. The PV cells made by Sharp Electronics began feeding electricity to the National Grid in November 2005, the solar power project was chosen by the DTI as one of the 10 best green energy projects of 2005
The nave /ˈneɪv/ is the central aisle of a basilica church, or the main body of a church between its western wall and its chancel. It is the zone of a church accessible by the laity, the nave extends from the entry — which may have a separate vestibule — to the chancel and may be flanked by lower side-aisles separated from the nave by an arcade. If the aisles are high and of a width comparable to the central nave and it provides the central approach to the high altar. The term nave is from medieval Latin navis, a ship was an early Christian symbol. The term may have suggested by the keel shape of the vaulting of a church. The earliest churches were built when builders were familiar with the form of the Roman basilica and it had a wide central area, with aisles separated by columns, and with windows near the ceiling. Old St. Peters Basilica in Rome is a church which had this form. It was built in the 4th century on the orders of Roman emperor Constantine I, the nave, the main body of the building, is the section set apart for the laity, while the chancel is reserved for the clergy.
In medieval churches the nave was separated from the chancel by the rood screen, medieval naves were divided into bays, the repetition of form giving an effect of great length, and the vertical element of the nave was emphasized. During the Renaissance, in place of dramatic effects there were more balanced proportions, longest nave in Denmark, Aarhus Cathedral,93 metres. Longest nave in England, St Albans Cathedral, St Albans,84 metres, longest nave in Ireland, St Patricks Cathedral, Dublin,91 metres. Longest nave in France, Bourges Cathedral,91 metres, including choir where a crossing would be if there were transepts, longest nave in Germany, Cologne cathedral,58 metres, including two bays between the towers. Longest nave in Italy, St Peters Basilica in Rome,91 metres, longest nave in Spain, Seville,60 metres, in five bays. Longest nave in the United States, Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York City, highest vaulted nave, Beauvais Cathedral, France,48 metres high but only one bay of the nave was actually built but choir and transepts were completed to the same height.
Highest completed nave, Rome, St. Peters, Italy,46 metres high, with architectural discussion and groundplans Cathedral architecture Cathedral diagram List of highest church naves
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was executed two and a half years after Elizabeths birth. Annes marriage to Henry VIII was annulled, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate, edwards will was set aside and Mary became queen, deposing Lady Jane Grey. During Marys reign, Elizabeth was imprisoned for nearly a year on suspicion of supporting Protestant rebels, in 1558, Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister to the throne and set out to rule by good counsel. She depended heavily on a group of trusted advisers, led by William Cecil, one of her first actions as queen was the establishment of an English Protestant church, of which she became the Supreme Governor. This Elizabethan Religious Settlement was to evolve into the Church of England and it was expected that Elizabeth would marry and produce an heir to continue the Tudor line.
She never did, despite numerous courtships, as she grew older, Elizabeth became famous for her virginity. A cult grew around her which was celebrated in the portraits, pageants, in government, Elizabeth was more moderate than her father and half-siblings had been. One of her mottoes was video et taceo, in religion, she was relatively tolerant and avoided systematic persecution. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs, manoeuvring between the powers of France and Spain. She only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France, by the mid-1580s, England could no longer avoid war with Spain. Englands defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 associated Elizabeth with one of the greatest military victories in English history, Elizabeths reign is known as the Elizabethan era. Some historians depict Elizabeth as a short-tempered, sometimes indecisive ruler, towards the end of her reign, a series of economic and military problems weakened her popularity.
Such was the case with Elizabeths rival, Queen of Scots, after the short reigns of Elizabeths half-siblings, her 44 years on the throne provided welcome stability for the kingdom and helped forge a sense of national identity. Elizabeth was born at Greenwich Palace and was named after both her grandmothers, Elizabeth of York and Elizabeth Howard and she was the second child of Henry VIII of England born in wedlock to survive infancy. Her mother was Henrys second wife, Anne Boleyn, at birth, Elizabeth was the heir presumptive to the throne of England. She was baptised on 10 September, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, the Marquess of Exeter, the Duchess of Norfolk, Elizabeth was two years and eight months old when her mother was beheaded on 19 May 1536, four months after Catherine of Aragons death from natural causes. Elizabeth was declared illegitimate and deprived of her place in the royal succession, eleven days after Anne Boleyns execution, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died shortly after the birth of their son, Prince Edward, in 1537