Frederik's Church, popularly known as The Marble Church for its rococo architecture, is an Evangelical Lutheran church in Copenhagen, Denmark. The church forms the focal point of the Frederiksstaden district; the church was designed by the architect Nicolai Eigtved in 1740 and was along with the rest of Frederiksstaden, a district of Copenhagen, intended to commemorate the 300 years jubilee of the first coronation of a member of the House of Oldenburg. Frederick's Church has the largest church dome in Scandinavia with a span of 31m; the dome rests on 12 columns. The inspiration was St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; the foundation stone was set by king Frederick V on October 31, 1749, but the construction was slowed by budget cuts and the death of Eigtved in 1754. In 1770, the original plans for the church were abandoned by Johann Friedrich Struensee; the church was left incomplete and, in spite of several initiatives to complete it, stood as a ruin for nearly 150 years. In 1874, Andreas Frederik Krieger, Denmark's Finance Minister at the time, sold the ruins of the uncompleted church and the church square to Carl Frederik Tietgen for 100,000 Rigsdaler — none of, to be paid in cash — on the condition that Tietgen would build a church in a style similar to the original plans and donate it to the state when complete, while in turn he acquired the rights to subdivide neighboring plots for development.
The deal was at the time controversial. On 25 January 1877, a case was brought by the Folketing at the Court of Impeachment, Krieger being charged with corruption over this deal, he was, however acquitted. Tietgen financed its construction. Due to financial restrictions, the original plans for the church to be built entirely from marble were discarded, instead Meldahl opted for construction to be done with limestone; the church was opened to the public on August 19, 1894. Inscribed in gold lettering on the entablature of the front portico are the words: HERRENS ORD BLIVER EVINDELIG. A series of statues of prominent theologians and ecclesiastical figures, including one of the eminent Danish philosopher Kierkegaard, encircles the grounds of the building. Official website
A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe. A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Oriental Orthodox, housing a cathedra, the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop.
In Greek, the adjective kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón means "belonging, or pertaining, to a Kyrios", the usage was adopted by early Christians of the Eastern Mediterranean with regard to anything pertaining to the Lord Jesus Christ: hence "Kyriakós oíkos", "Kyriakē", or "Kyriakē proseukhē". In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish. In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead and derivatives formed thereof. In Old English the sequence of derivation started as "cirice" Middle English "churche", "church" in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scots kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all derived. According to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they synagogues; the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256.
In the second half of the 3rd century AD, the first purpose-built halls for Christian worship began to be constructed. Although many of these were destroyed early in the next century during the Diocletianic Persecution larger and more elaborate church buildings began to appear during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe. In addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or the parish church was used by the community in other ways, it could serve as a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were sometimes performed in cathedrals, cathedrals might be used for fairs; the church could be used as a place to store grain. Between 1000 and 1200 the romanesque style became popular across Europe. While the name of the romanesque era refers to the tradition of Roman architecture, it was a West- and Central European trend. Romanesque buildings appear rather compact.
Typical features are circular arches, octagonal towers and cushion capitals on the pillars. In the early romanesque era, coffering on the ceiling was fashionable, while in the same era, groined vault was more popular; the rooms became the motivs of sculptures became more epic. The Gothic style emerged around 1140 in spread through all of Europe; the gothic buildings were less compact than they had been in the romanesque era and contained symbolic and allegoric features. For the first time, pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses were used, with the result that massive walls were not longer needed to stabilise the building. Due to that advantage, the area of the windows became bigger, which resulted in a brighter and more friendly atmosphere inside the church; the nave so did the pillars and the church steeple. The amibition to test out the limits of the architectural possibilities resulted in the collapse of several towers. In Germany and the Netherlands, but in Spain, it became popular to build hall churches, in which every vault has the same height.
Cathedrals were built in a lavish way, as in the romanesque era. Examples for that are the Notre-Dame de Paris and the Notre-Dame de Reims in France, but the San Francesco d’Assisi in Palermo, the Salisbury Cathedral and the Wool Church in Lavenham, England. Many gothic churches contain features from the romanesque era; some of the most well-known gothic churches stayed unfinished for hundreds of years, after the gothic style was not popular anymore. About half of the Cologne Cathedral was for example build in the 19th century. In the 15th and 16th century, the change in e
Godthaab Church, Copenhagen
Godthaab Church is a Church of Denmark parish church situated on Nyelandsvej in the northern part of the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Godthaab Parish takes its name from the principal artery of the area. Godthaab Church traces its history back to 1866 when the charitable foundation Det Classenske Fideicommis acquired a 3 hectares piece of land at the site from the Sindshvile estate; this was done to build residences for indigent workers in the city after the 1853 Copenhagen cholera outbreak had highlighted the dismal living conditions for this part of the population. From 1866 to 1881 the foundation constructed 24 terraces with a total of 378 residences, they were built in yellow brick in two storeys to designs by Vilhelm Tvede. The development contained a community house, laundry, an orphanage and its own church, completed in 1880. At that point the development had 1,288 residents, a number which had increased to 1,655 in 1895; the Classen Terraces were praised and received attention abroad but as similar projects were built around the city, such as those of the Workers' Building Society, Det Classenske Fideicommis lost interest in the development.
Due to the charitable nature of the foundation, it showed great indulgence towards failure to pay rent and the development became a place for the poor and fell into neglect. This was in still stronger contrast to the surrounding community and in 1909 Frederiksberg Municipality bought the entire development to demolish it, although housing shortage and lack of economic restraints meant that the last terraces were not pulled down until the late 1950s. In connection with the sale, the foundation reserved a sum of DKK 70,000 for the construction of a new church on a lot donated for the project by H. I Nyeland, a well-to-do farmer. Godthåb Parish was created on 30 September 1909 and comprised the Classen Terraces as well as parts of Mariendal, St. Luke's and St. Thomas' parishes; the parish, like Godthåbsvej, was named after Store Godthaab, an estate which the entire area had once belonged to. Classen Church was used as a temporary parish church. Another DKK 55,000 was raised for the construction by a local church commission and Gotfred Tvede, the son of Vilhelm Tvede, was charged with the design of the new church building.
The foundation stone was set on 3 October by provost and Bishop of Zealand, Ostenfeld. The church was inaugurated on 19 March 1911; the church is built in red brick on a granite plinth. It is oriented north-south to fit the location at Nyelandsvej, it has a choir to the south and a tower with a copper-clad, octagonal belfry on the east side of the north gable. The interior has a barrel-vaulted ceiling with exposed timber structure. A series of round-arched windows on the west side provides natural light and the choir, raised three steps from the nave, is top lit. There is a gallery above the entrance in the north wall; the ceramic altartable is the work of Herman Kahler. The interior of the apse features a relief by the sculptor Carl Mortensen depicting Christ on the Cross, surrounded by worshipping angles. Official website
Frederiksberg Palace is a Baroque residence, located in Frederiksberg, adjacent to the Copenhagen Zoo. It commands an impressive view over Frederiksberg Gardens designed as a palace garden in the Baroque style. Constructed and extended from 1699 to 1735, the palace served as the royal family’s summer residence until the mid-19th century. Since 1869, it has housed the Royal Danish Military Academy; as crown prince, Frederick IV had broadened his education by travelling in Europe. He was impressed by the architecture in Italy and, on his return to Denmark, asked his father, Christian V, for permission to build a summer palace on Solbjerg as the hill in Valby was known; the original building designed by Ernst Brandenburger, was completed in 1703 for Frederick IV as a small, one-storey summer residence. The first major extension, when it was converted into a three-storey H-shaped building, was completed in 1709 by Johan Conrad Ernst, giving the palace an Italian Baroque appearance, it was Lauritz de Thurah who executed the third and final extension from 1733 to 1738 when the palace received extensions to the lateral wings encircling the courtyard.
Frederick IV spent many happy years at the palace. In 1716, he received the Russian czar Peter the Great at Frederiksberg Palace and in 1721, shortly after the death of his first wife, Queen Louise, he married his mistress Anne Sophie Reventlow there. Christian VII, married to the English princess Caroline Matilda spent some time in the palace, their son, to become Frederick VI, loved the palace and lived there both as crown prince and as king. After Frederick VI's dowager wife Queen Marie died at the palace in March 1852, the building lay empty and fell into disrepair. In 1868, it was transferred to the War Ministry and the following year it became the Officers Academy; the building has twice undergone significant restoration work, first from 1927 to 1932 and from 1993 to 1998. During the construction of the original palace building, it was decided that there should be a chapel in the east wing; this explains why there is no indication of the chapel from the outside. It covers the space behind the six central windows on the ground floor.
Wilhelm Friedrich von Platen and Ernst Brandenburger designed the chapel in the Baroque style. It was inaugurated on 31 March 1710; when the palace was taken over by the Officers Academy, the chapel's furnishings, including the impressive pulpit, were transferred elsewhere. However, they can still be seen there today; the palace and the chapel can be visited. They contain imposing stucco work, ceiling paintings, an elegant marble bathroom with a secret access staircase, the Princesses' pancake kitchen. In 1854, British MP S. M. Peto gave an altar window to the King of Demark for the chapel. Since 1932, the chapel has been used as the local parish church; the palace overlooks Frederiksberg Gardens which dates back to the first palace in 1703. At that time, it was designed by H. H. Scheel with the assistance of garden architect J. C. Krieger as a symmetrical Baroque garden with waterfalls and rows of linden trees along the palace terrace. From 1795 to 1804, it was redesigned by Peter Pedersen as an English landscape garden with the winding paths, lakes and canals which can be seen today.
It was during this period that the Apis Temple were added. List of castles and palaces in Denmark Tourism in Denmark Media related to Frederiksberg Slot at Wikimedia Commons
Philip's Church, Copenhagen
Philip's Church is a Church of Denmark parish church on Amager in Copenhagen, Denmark. The first Philip's Church was a wooden structure built in connection with the establishment of Philip's Parish, disjoined from the Parish of Sundby on 19 October 1907, it was replaced by the current church, completed in 1924 to a design by Rasmus Rue. The congregation house, attached to the church, was added in 1928; the church is built in a traditional style inspired by Danish village churches. Above the entrance to the porch is an inscription quoting Philip's words to Nathanael in John 1.46: "Come and see". In the fifth epoide of the DR television series Huset på Christianshavn, Der bydes til bryllup and Egon are married in the church. Official website
Bispebjerg, more referred to as Nordvest, is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located on the northern border of the municipality, it covers an area of 5.39 km² and a population of 40,033. More Bispebjerg refers to a smaller neighbourhood within the district, located on the Bispebjerg Hill from which it takes its name. Bispebjerg covers an area of 5.39 km² and has a population of 40,033, giving a population density of 7,389 per km². The district is bounded by Gentofte Municipality to the north, Østerbro and Nørrebro to the east and south-east, Frederiksberg to the south, Vanløse and Brønshøj-Husum to the west and Gladsaxe Municipality to the northwest; the name Bispebjerg is known from 1681 as Biszebierg. A windmill was built in the area in 1808. Bispebjerg belonged to the civil parish of Brønshøj but in the 1890s, the City of Copenhagen acquired large pieces of land in the area with the intention of establishing a cemetery and a hospital in the grounds. Bispebjerg was together with the rest of Brønshøj merged with Copenhagen in 1901.
Bispebjerg Cemetery opened in 1903 and Bispebjerg Hospital was built between 1908 and 1913. The district was built over with a combination of residential neighbourhoods and industry in the 1920s and 1930s. Grundtvig's Church was built between 1921 and 1940. Bispebjerg portal Bispebjerg station Bispebjerg Hospital
Solbjerg Church is a church in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located at 34 Howitzvej, just north of Frederiksberg Gardens, is one of 16 churches which have been designated for closure by the Diocese of Copenhagen. Solbjerg Church was designed by Kristoffer Varming and built from 1907 to 1908; the area was still open at that time. In 1921, the church was joined by a courthouse. In 1980, the interior was hit by fire. In 2011, the governing body of the Diocese of Copenhagen listed it as one of 16 churches which were designated for closure; the church is constructed in red brick. A colonnade connects it to a complex consisting of the former Frederiksberg Police Station and Frederiksberg Courthouse