Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Typically, rows of bricks—called courses— are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall, Brick is a popular medium for constructing buildings, and examples of brickwork are found through history as far back as the Bronze Age. The fired-brick faces of the ziggurat of ancient Dur-Kurigalzu in Iraq date from around 1400 BC, much older examples of brickwork made with dried bricks may be found in such ancient locations as Jericho in Judea, Çatal Hüyük in Anatolia, and Mehrgarh in Pakistan. These structures have survived from the Stone Age to the present day, parts of brickwork include bricks and perpends. The bed is the mortar upon which a brick is laid, a perpend is a vertical joint between any two bricks and is usually—but not always—filled with mortar. An example of a co-ordinating metric commonly used for bricks in the UK is as follows, Bricks of dimensions 215 mm x 102.5 mm ×65 mm, Mortar beds and perpends of a uniform 10 mm.
In this case the co-ordinating metric works because the length of a brick is equal to the total of the width of a brick plus a perpend plus the width of a second brick. There are many other brick sizes worldwide, and many of them use this same co-ordinating principle, a brick is given a classification based on how it is laid, and how the exposed face is oriented relative to the face of the finished wall. Stretcher or Stretching brick A brick laid flat with its narrow side exposed. Header or Heading brick A brick laid flat with its width exposed, soldier A brick laid vertically with its long narrow side exposed. Sailor A brick laid vertically with the face of the brick exposed. Rowlock A brick laid on the narrow side with the short end of the brick exposed. Shiner or Rowlock Stretcher A brick laid on the narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed. The practice of laying uncut full-sized bricks wherever possible gives brickwork its maximum possible strength, in some cases these special shapes or sizes are manufactured. A second practice particularly observed in older examples of brickwork is that of building brickwork thicker than the width of any of its individual bricks, in such cases, some of the bricks may well be tied together into the depth of the wall.
Historically, this was the dominant method for consolidating the transverse strength of walls, brickwork observing either or both of these two conventions is described as being laid in one or another bond. The advent during the mid twentieth century of the cavity wall saw the popularisation, a cavity wall comprises two totally discrete walls—each one of which is called a wythe or leaf. A cavity separates the two leaves so that there is no connection between them at all
St. Alban's Church, Copenhagen
St. Albans Church, locally often referred to simply as the English Church, is an Anglican church in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was built from 1885 to 1887 for the growing English congregation in the city, the church is part of Church of Englands Diocese in Europe. It is dedicated to Saint Alban, the first martyr of Great Britain, the first sizable British community in Denmark settled in Elsinore in the early 16th century. The town was an important logistical hub for the collection of Sound Dues, first to arrive was a community of Scots which had a Scottish altar dedicated to Saint Jacob, Saint Andrew and the Scottish Saint Ninian in the local Saint Olafs Church. The altar has now moved to the National Museum of Denmark. Much of the traffic was British and over the course of time many English shipping agencies were established in Elsinore. There even was a British consul there while Copenhagen only had a vice-consul, under the Kings Law from 1665, which had instituted absolutism in Denmark, Lutheranism was the only faith allowed to hold religious services in Denmark.
During the second half of the 18th century more and more foreign denominations were granted exemptions to this prohibition. Up through the 19th century the English community in Copenhagen grew as the significance as a centre of commerce increased. An English congregation held services in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade near Kongens Nytorv from 1834. The congregation had ambitions to build their own church and a Church Building Committee was established in 1854, in 1864, it made an appeal to the Prince of Wales, and his consort, the Danish-born Princess Alexandra, took it upon her to assist. The foundation stone of St. Albans Church was laid on 19 September 1885, the church was designed by Arthur Blomfield. It was consecrated two years on 17 September 1887, like Princess Alexandra, both George I and Maria Feodorovna were born Danish, issue of the Danish King and Queen Consort. Also present were the entire Diplomatic Corps, representatives of the Army and Navy, church officials and it is built in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the Early English Style, known as Lancet Gothic.
The church is built in limestone from the Faxe south of Copenhagen, knapped flint from Stevns, the tiles on the roof are from Broseley in Shropshire. The tower contains fifteen tubular bells and it was not deemed strong enough to support regular bells, and a set of eight was presented by the Prince of Wales when the church was built. These can be played manually on an Ellacombe Frame, on which the player pulls a rope for the relevant bell. In 2013 the Prince of Wales contributed to a new fund, which enabled a further seven bells to be installed, every quarter-hour the 80 louvres open while the bells sound a quarter chime, and after striking the hour play a hymn tune
Sundby Church is a Church of Denmark parish church located on Amagerbrogade in Copenhagen, Denmark. Completed in 1870 to designs by Hans Jørgen Holm, it is the oldest church on the part of Amager. In the middle of the 19th century, Sundby still belonged to the parish of Tårnby, a local committee was therefore established in 1868 to raise money for the construction of a new church, charging the architect Hans Jørgen Holm with its design. Construction began in 1869 and the new church was consecrated in 1870, nathanaels Parish was disjoined from Sundby Parish in 1899. The church was refurbished by Frederik Zeuthen and Cai Bertelsen in 1963, the church has a cruciform plan and is built in red brick to a Neo-Romanseque design. The roof is topped by an octagonal flèche, decorations include corner leseness and round arched friezes on the gables. A porch was built at the naves south-west gable in 1941 and its tympanum and bronze door were designed by the artist Max Andersen. The bronze door was installed in 1974 to mark the 100th anniversary of the church, the tympanums relief is identical to the one above the entrance of Absalon Church on Sønder Boulevard.
The six reliefs on the door show scenes associated with the Passion of Christ. Sundby Cemetery was established in 1872 at a site a little to the south of the church and is the cemetery for Amager. It consists of an old and a section, located on either side of Kastrupvej. The old section will be decommissioned in 2020, official website Concerts in the church
Church of Our Lady (Copenhagen)
The Church of Our Lady is the cathedral of Copenhagen. It is situated on Frue Plads and next to the building of the University of Copenhagen. The present day version of the church was designed by the architect Christian Frederik Hansen in the style and was completed in 1829. Construction of the original Collegiate Church of St. Mary, began no than 1187 under Bishop Absalon, the church was located on the highest point near the new town of Havn, Copenhagen. Bishop Absalon was Bishop of Roskilde, Denmarks capital of that era and he built many churches and monasteries, while founding Copenhagen as Denmarks Baltic port city. Named Archbishop of Lund in 1178, Absalon accepted only under threat of excommunication, the church was built in Romanesque style with its half-rounded arches inside and out. In 1314, a fire destroyed the church so completely that it was rebuilt in the popular new building material of the day. The style of building was Gothic, with its pointed arches. The rebuilding of the church with a long nave and choir continued until 1388.
Due to a lack of money, the tower was not built until the reign of Christian II. It was as high as the church was long, and from artwork of the day, a school was established early on. In 1479, parts of the school received a charter. Professors were brought from Cologne, the international faculty widened Denmarks exposure to the great ideas and philosophies of the day. The university challenged the growth of the Protestant movement, but was eventually closed, by 1537 it reopened as a centre for Lutheran studies. The Protestant Reformation was hard on St Marys, citizens of Copenhagen had elected to follow Luther, but Catholic officials at St Marys tried to maintain the church as a centre of Catholic resistance to change in Copenhagen. By royal decree both Catholic priests and Lutheran preachers were commanded to use the church jointly, which incensed the majority of Copenhagens population, on 27 December 1530 hundreds of citizens stormed St Marys, destroying every statue and dismantling the choir stalls.
The 17 richly gilt altars were stripped of jewels and gold and smashed, as were reliquaries, even the name St Marys became Vor Frue Kirke, keeping the historic reference to Mary without the use of the un-Lutheran Saint appellation. Just a year Our Lady Church celebrated the acceptance of the Lutheran Order presided over by Johan Bugenhagen,1539 saw the installation of the first Lutheran superintendents, bishops, of Denmark
Trinitatis Church is located in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is part of the 17th century Trinitatis Complex, which includes the Rundetårn astronomical observatory tower, built in the time of Christian IV, the church initially served the students of Copenhagen University. It is situated at the corner of Landemærket and Købmagergade, the interior was seriously damaged in the fire of 1728 but was rebuilt in 1731. The humanistically inspired combination was from a commission of Christian IV, there were three builders, namely Hans van Steenwinckel the Younger, Leonhard Blasius, and Albertus Mathiesen. At the time of construction, the church was the second largest in the city, second only to the Church of Our Lady. As the church was intended to be used by university students and professors, it may appear oversized. The foundation stone was laid July 7,1637, and the Round Tower was completed in 1642, the church was consecrated on Trinity Sunday 1656. The Copenhagen University Library was installed in the loft in 1657.
After marrying the widow of J. M. Radeck in 1685, during the fire of 1728, Trinitatis Church was not as badly damaged as other churches in the city. The roof structure was ignited, a spire crashed into the library, Church walls and vaults withstood the fire and subsequent repairs did not decisively change the churchs appearance. A new cornice and spire were required, the new roof was covered with black glazed tiles. New dormer windows were inserted but only in one row, the interior bases and capitals of the columns and arches were repaired. All wood furnishings were replaced, and the floor was covered with tiles from Öland, the reconstruction was in Northern Gothic-Baroque style. The church was rededicated October 7,1731 and the remains of the university library were moved again, the furnishings were renewed with an altarpiece and pulpit by Friederich Ehbisch and a large Baroque clock. The church was refurbished in 1763, the Trinitatis Complex was hit during the 1807 British bombardment of Copenhagen, and damaged by major fires.
Four bombs struck the library, but did not penetrate through to the church, thanks to the efforts of churchwarden Tvermoes, injuries were minimized. Building repairs amounted to relatively modest 3,000 rigsdaler, alterations were necessary in 1817 to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the Reformation. The small shops on the corner of Landemærket were closed, as was the remainder of the north of the church
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from the Pope in 1209. The original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, the austerity was meant to emulate the life and ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans traveled and preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties, Saint Clare, under Franciss guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans. The extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in final revision of the Rule in 1223, the degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor, previously known as the Observant branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the Capuchins and Conventuals.
The Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases, Franciscans are sometimes referred to as minorites or greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, the name of original order, Friars Minor, means lesser brothers, and stems from Francis of Assisis rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully. Francis adopted of the tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order. Those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First Order The First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are commonly called simply the Franciscans and this Order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi.
Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum, St. Francis thus referred to his followers as Fraticelli, meaning Little Brothers. Franciscan brothers are informally called friars or the Minorites and they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor, known as the Observants, most commonly simply called Franciscan friars, official name, the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or simply Capuchins, official name, Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name, Friars Minor Conventual, Second Order The Second Order, most commonly called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters. The order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as The Poor Ladies, The Poor Enclosed Nuns
Immanuel Church, Copenhagen
Immanuel Church is a church in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It belongs to Københavns Valgmenighed and Vartov Valgmenighed, two Grundtvigian congregations under Church of Denmark, the building was designed by Andreas Clemmesen and completed in 1893. The church was built for the first Grundtvigian concregation in Denmark which had separated from the Vartov congregation, the congregation first assembled at a local folk high school on Cjr. Winters Vej, but soon began construction of the new church which was consecrated on 29 October 1893, the detached clock tower was designed by af R. V. Rue in 1904 and completed in 1905 together with some of the surrounding features, the church is built in large red brick of the type in Denmark known as Munkesten in a Romanesque Revival style inspired by Italian churches in Ravenna and Sienna. It is a building under a barrel vaulted roof with a semi-circular choir to the east. The round-arched entrance is located in the west gable and it has a tympanum with a glass mosaic.
Four additional entrances, two on each side of the building, have glass mosaics in their tympana, the eastern mosaic on the south side was designed by Niels Skovgaard, while the rest are by Joakim Skovgaard. The north and south have double-height windows. There is a blinded, ornamental gallery with 11 arches supported by columns above the entrance on the west gable. The altarpiece is a painting by Niels Skovgaard with a decorated wooden frame carved by Poul S. Christiansen. The front of the table is designed by Niels Skovgaard. The altar carpet, —decorated with lilies and crocuses, was designed by Joakim Skovgaard, the organ was made by A. H. Buch and dates from 1896. Other decorative features include several reliefs of religious subjects by Joakim Skovgaard, Niels Skovgaard and Christian C. Peters
St. Luke's Church, Copenhagen
St. Lukes Church is a Church of Denmark church located in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. Completed in 1897 to the design of Valdemar Koch, who built several other churches in Copenhagen around that time. By the late 19th century, the population of Frederiksberg parish had grown to about 60,000 inhabitants, at the same time it was decided to divide Frederiksberg into four parishes with St. Luke’s Church as the first of the three new churches to be built. The architect Valdemar Koch was charged with the commission and he had already designed two churches in Copenhagen, Kapernaum Church in Nørrebro and Zions Church in Østerbro. Ground was broken on 26 April 1896 and the new church was consecrated on 29 May 1897 with Ostenfeld as pastor, the construction costs amounted to DKK 75–80,000. The church was expanded with a porch in 1964 which was replaced in 1995 by one designed by the firm Per Gents, St. Lukes is built in Neo-Romanesque style. It stands on a plinth, and is built in red brick with ornamental bands.
The reliefs and sculptures by Thomas Bærentzen are in light-coloured stone, there is a flèche at the west end of the building. The barrel vaulted interior opens into an arcade leading to the sacristy at the eastern end, the rich interior decorations are partly made to Kochs own design and include paradise flowers which can be found in all of Koch’s churches in Copenhagen. On the walls above the windows there are fluttering angels and citations from the Gospel of Luke painted by Carl Budtz Møller in 1910, on the walls over the windows there are fluttering angels and citations from St Lukes gospel, painted by Carl Budtz Møller in 1910. The altarpiece is painted by Frans Schwartz and entitled Christ who reveals himself to his disciples, the altar table is a reconstruction from 1984 based on old oil paintings and photographs. The crucifix to the right of the altarpiece is executed in bog oak by Johannes Kragh and is a donation from 1929, the baptismal font is carved in granite from drawings by Valdemar Koch.
The church is a church within the Church of Denmark. Church of Christ, Copenhagen Official website
Absalons Castle, was a fortification on the island of Slotsholmen in Copenhagen, located at the site of the Copenhagen Castle and Christiansborg Palace. According to the chronicler Saxo Grammaticus, the castle was founded by Bishop Absalon in 1167 to protect the city of Copenhagen. The castle survived for 200 years before it was destroyed in 1369 by the Hanseatic League, who first occupied and plundered it, and demolished it completely. The castle was made up by a wall, encircling an enclosed courtyard with several buildings such as the bishops residence. The ruins of Absalons Castle can be today in the subterranean excavations under Christiansborg Palace. At the death of Absalon in 1201, possession of the castle, a few decades later, however, a bitter feud erupted between crown and church, and for almost two centuries the right to possession of the castle and city was heavily contested. The following year, the castle was torn down to the ground as a result of the peace treaty, after the destruction of the castle, the remnants were covered by a motte, on top of which the Copenhagen Castle and Christiansborg Palace were constructed.
The remnants of the castle were discovered and excavated in 1907 and 1917 during the construction of the present Christiansborg Palace, the castle was surrounded by a curtain wall of limestone from Stevns Cliffs. The remains of this wall are preserved today in the ruins beneath Christiansborg. From Absalons Castle, the foundations of houses, which lay within the curtain wall
An abbey is a complex of buildings used by members of a religious order under the governance of an abbot or abbess. It provides a place for activities and housing of Christian monks. The concept of the abbey has developed over centuries from the early monastic ways of religious men and women where they would live isolated from the lay community about them. Religious life in an abbey may be monastic, an abbey may be the home of an enclosed religious order or may be open to visitors. The layout of the church and associated buildings of an abbey often follows a set plan determined by the religious order. Abbeys are often self-sufficient while using any abundance of produce or skill to provide care to the poor and needy, some abbeys offer accommodation to people who are seeking spiritual retreat. There are many famous abbeys across Europe, the earliest known Christian monasteries were groups of huts built near the residence of a famous ascetic or other holy person. Disciples wished to be close to their man or woman in order to study their doctrine or imitate their way of life.
In the earliest times of Christian monasticism, ascetics would live in social isolation and they would subsist whilst donating any excess produce to the poor. However, increasing religious fervor about the ways and or persecution of them would drive them further away from their community. For instance, the cells and huts of anchorites have been found in the deserts of Egypt, in 312 AD, Anthony the Great retired to the Thebaid region of Egypt to escape the persecution of the Emperor Maximian. Anthony was the best known of the anchorites of his due to his degree of austerity, sanctity. The deeper he withdrew into the wilderness, the more numerous his disciples became and they refused to be separated from him and built their cells close to him. This became a first true monastic community, according to Johann August Wilhelm Neander, inadvertently became the founder of a new mode of living in common, Coenobitism. At Tabennae on the Nile, in Upper Egypt, Saint Pachomius laid the foundations for the life by arranging everything in an organized manner.
He built several monasteries, each with about 1,600 separate cells laid out in lines and these cells formed an encampment where the monks slept and performed some of their manual tasks. There were nearby large halls such as the church, kitchen, infirmary, an enclosure protecting all these buildings gave the settlement the appearance of a walled village. This layout, known as the laurae, became popular throughout Palestine, as well as the laurae, communities known as caenobia developed
Pope Sixtus IV
Pope Sixtus IV, born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. His accomplishments as pope included building the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives, a patron of the arts, the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the citys new artistic age. Sixtus aided the Spanish Inquisition, though he fought to prevent abuses therein and he was famed for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy. Francesco was born to a family of modest means from Liguria, Italy and he was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona. He went on to lecture at Padua and many other Italian universities, in 1464, Della Rovere was elected Minister General of the Franciscan order at the age of 50. In 1467, he was appointed Cardinal by Pope Paul II with the church being the Basilica of San Pietro in Vincoli. Before his papal election, Cardinal della Rovere was renowned for his unworldliness and had even written learned treatises entitled On the Blood of Christ and On the Power of God.
His pious reputation was one of the factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four. Upon being elected pope Della Rovere adopted the name Sixtus – a name that had not been used since the 5th century, one of his first acts was to declare a renewed crusade against the Ottoman Turks in Smyrna. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded, some fruitless attempts were made towards unification with the Greek Church. For the remainder of his pontificate, Sixtus turned to temporal issues, Sixtus IV sought to strengthen his position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends. His nephew Pietro Riario benefited from his nepotism, Pietro became one of the richest men in Rome and was entrusted with Pope Sixtus foreign policy. However, Pietro died prematurely in 1474, and his role passed to Giuliano della Rovere, six of the thirty-four cardinals that he created were his nephews. Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and an organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria.
To this, Sixtus IV replied with an interdict and two years of war with Florence, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. However, such accusations are easily dismissed as propaganda, but did nevertheless prompt the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor. Sixtus continued a dispute with King Louis XI of France, who upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, according to which papal decrees needed royal assent before they could be promulgated in France. This was a cornerstone of the claimed for the Gallican Church
Church of Holmen
The Church of Holmen is a Parish church in central Copenhagen in Denmark, on the street called Holmens Kanal. First built as a forge in 1563, it was converted into a naval church by Christian IV. It is famous for having hosted the wedding between Margrethe II of Denmark, current queen of Denmark, and Prince Henrik in 1967, the appearance of the Church of Holmen today closely resembles that of the renovation in 1872, except for the colour. The windows are in glass and predominantly set in iron. The spire is dressed in copper just like small spire on the confessionals roof, the church is of Lutheran denomination. The churchs pipe organ was made by Lambert Daniel Kastens and installed in 1738. The actual organ, however, is from 1956, the current pulpit was installed in 1662 and was carved by Abel Schrøder and stands in the natural colour of its oak, except for the kings monogram which is gilded. It is the oldest preserved pulpit in Copenhagen, and the most richly decorated and it stands from floor to ceiling, and depicts Christian history from Moses holding the basket up to Jesus Christ.
The oldest baptismal font in the church is in wrought iron, a white marble font was installed in 1756, created by Carl Frederik Stanley in classicist style, but is no longer in the church. The new baptismal font from 1872 was made by the sculptor Evens by Ludvig Fengers design, in black marble, a model of Niels Juels ship Christianus Quintus hangs from the ceiling in the church. In medieval Copenhagen, Holmen was an actual island, however, in the 16th century, city restructuring made it less of an island and more of a peninsula surrounded by Holmens Canal. On this peninsula, Christian III of Denmark founded a shipyard which became synonymous with the name Holmen, when the shipyard moved to Nyholm on Christianshavn, the name Holmen followed, and Bremerholm became Gammelholm, a name which is rarely used today. Holmens Canal was filled in the 1860s, but the lives on as a street. In 1562–63, Frederick II of Denmark built a forge for Holmen. The building was shaped, as special consideration was given not to spoil the view from the kings castle.
The actual forge was hidden behind a building, called the tower, which was given a handsome front in Italian style facing the castle. In 1617, Christian IV of Denmark has built houses for the navys personnel between the Church of Saint Nikolaj and Holmen and this created an influx in population which made it necessary to build a larger church, which the king had set up in the former anchor forge. At first, the reconstruction into a church caused no redesign of the buildings blueprints, the church was consecrated on September 5,1619, but craftsmen were still working on the church during 1620