Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second largest city in the U. S. state of New York and the largest city in Western New York. As of 2017, the population was 258,612; the city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region. The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and by French settlers; the city grew in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.
Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light"; the city is famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams, a music and arts scene; the city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek. British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name. There are several theories regarding. While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve, it is possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York.
The first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE. Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state. During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek, the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore. For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois, utilizing animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state; these paths were paved, now function as major roads. During the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous Neutrals and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c.
1651–1653. Soon after, the Erie nation and territory was destroyed by the Iroquois over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars, it was Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle who made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s. On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes disappearing in Green Bay, Wisconsin. After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois. Land near fresh water was of considerable importance. New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile wide portion of land; the rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, two years to the Holland Land Company. As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army, Iroquois territory was whittled away in the mid-to-late-1700s by white settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek, the Treaty of Geneseo.
The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only 338 square miles of reservation territory remained. Early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek were former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges, Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789; the first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War. The first resident and landowner of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter, present in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and was granted creekside land by the Senecas as a gift of appreciation, his house was built at present-day Seneca streets. On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland; the Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lan
Buffalo Metro Rail
The Buffalo Metro Rail is the public transit rail system in Buffalo, New York, United States. The system consists of a single, 6.4-mile long light rail line that runs for most of the length of Main Street in the City of Buffalo, from KeyBank Center in Downtown Buffalo to the south campus of the University at Buffalo in the northeast corner of the city. The first section of the line opened in October 1984. Construction on the initial Metro Rail line began in 1979 and opened in stages: the surface portion opened on October 9, 1984 while the subway opened as far as Amherst Street Station on May 20, 1985, following an opening ceremony on May 18; the line was further extended to University Station, serving the University at Buffalo, on November 10, 1986 due to construction issues at LaSalle Station. At the time of the start of construction, the line was intended to be the first line for an extensive heavy rail system that would spread throughout the city and suburbs. However, during the construction of the line and afterward, Buffalo's population declined by 55% from around 580,000 in 1950 to about 261,000 in 2010 and the new line's ridership was much lower than anticipated.
The cost of the urban section was so high that no funding was available to extend the lines into the suburbs, including the Amherst campus of the University at Buffalo. Efforts to obtain funding for feeder lines have been met with little to no success. Although a centerpiece of the original line, the downtown transit mall did not live up to expectations; because of poor traffic patterns on Downtown Buffalo's Main Street, some business groups called for the removal of the transit system so that they can return to normal vehicle traffic and curbside parking on Main Street, hoping that this measure would recreate the prosperous days of the past. In 2008, Buffalo began a project to reintroduce cars to Main Street; the project in question involved creating a shared trackbed/roadway with curbside parking, as well as the permanent closure of the Theater Station, which occurred on February 18, 2013. The closure of Theater Station meant that Fountain Plaza Station, located 546 feet south in the 500 block of Main Street, now serves as the beginning and ending of the Free Fare Zone.
On January 23, 2015, after less than two years of construction, traffic was reintroduced to the 600 block of Main Street, between Tupper and Chippewa Streets, in the Theater District. On December 15, 2015, traffic was reintroduced to the 500 block of Main Street, between Chippewa and Mohawk Streets, in the Central Business District. On January 9, 2017, Governor Andrew Cuomo announced in his State of the State address that funding would be secured for the Amherst and Cobblestone line extensions. If successful, this would be the first extension in the service's history. Funding for an environmental review into the Amherst extension was approved in 2018; the study is expected to take between 30 months. Metro Rail is a light rail transit system as characterized by the American Public Transportation Association although it shares many characteristics with "heavy rail" metro systems and could be considered a "light metro." 80% of its track is an underground subway with high-level platforms. This section has eight stations that are spaced widely apart, comparable to subway systems elsewhere.
This section is cut-and-cover from Allen/Medical Campus to Utica deep-bored from Delavan/Canisius College to University. The remaining 20% of its track are on the surface on Main Street in downtown Buffalo. On the surface section, trains interact with automobile traffic from the theater district where it emerges from the tunnel until Mohawk Street where it reverts to a transit mall and at cross streets, where movements are governed by traffic signals. Catenary poles are spaced every 130 feet to support the overhead electrical lines. Metro Rail operates electric multiple-unit light rail vehicles in two-to-four car trains with power drawn from an overhead catenary system. Three-car trains are limited to rush hour and special events and four-car trains to special events; the Buffalo trains and SEPTA's light rail cars in Philadelphia are the only modern non-articulated LRVs operating in the United States. Fares are collected through a proof-of-payment system enforced by ticket inspectors. Travel is free on the above ground portion of the system.
Regular fare is $2. All stations have ticket machines. Metro Rail runs as follows: Monday-Friday from 5:10am–12:50am, Saturdays from 7:05am–12:50am, Sundays and holidays from 8:00am–11:50pm. Trains run as as once every ten minutes at rush hour and no less than once every twenty minutes. In July 2008, the NFTA reported that the passenger count "eclipsed the previous year's tally by 23%." As a result of this, in September 2008, the NFTA began an earlier starting time to the weekday schedule in response to an 11% increase in ridership over eight months of growth. Numbers are from the Federal Transit Administration's National Transit Database, which contains statistics from 1996–2011: Buffalo Metro Rail is ranked 25th in the nation in light rail daily ridership service as of 2013, with 5,058,300 passengers. However, it is noted that the line lacks extended branches to the suburbs, being confined to the city limits of Buffalo. One group, the Citizens Regional Transit Corporation, advocates for expansion.
As indicated in its statement, the CRTC seeks to educate the public, public off
Prudential (Guaranty) Building
The Guaranty Building called the Prudential Building, is an early skyscraper in Buffalo, New York. It was designed by Louis Sullivan and Dankmar Adler. Sullivan's design for the building was based on his belief that "form follows function", he and Adler divided the building into four zones. The basement was the utility area. Since this level was below ground, it did not show on the face of the building; the next zone was the ground-floor zone, the public areas for street-facing shops, public entrances and lobbies. The third zone was the office floors with identical office cells clustered around the central elevator shafts; the final zone was the terminating zone, consisting of elevator equipment, utilities and a few offices. The supporting steel structure of the building was embellished with terra cotta blocks. Different styles of block delineated the three visible zones of the building. Writing in his Kindergarten Chats, Sullivan said that a tall building "must be every inch a proud and soaring thing, rising in sheer exultation that from bottom to top it is a unit without a single dissenting line."
The Guaranty was never meant to be the Guaranty Building. It was the brainchild of a Buffalonian businessman Hascal T. Taylor to construct a speculative office building in the developing downtown district called "The Taylor Building." The untimely demise of Mr. Taylor as the project was reaching its apogee resulted in the Guaranty Construction Company, having been contracted to construct the structure, determining to take on the project alone. Although "The entrepreneur Hascal T. Taylor intended this building to be a monument to himself," the eventual monument would symbolize Sullivan's achievements much more than its creators; the site Taylor chose for his speculative office building was strategically located adjacent to the County and City Municipal building as well as near a number of institutional structures. The intention was to attract high quality tenants such as lawyers through proximity, desirable amenities and the captivating design of an avant garde architect like Sullivan; the Guaranty Building was not alone among major private building projects in Buffalo at the time.
Two blocks away, the Ellicott Square Building was being built to be the largest retail building in the world. This structure, extant today exhibits an alternate exploration in the possibilities of new commercial urban architecture by Charles B. Atwood and Daniel Burnham; as Buffalo's downtown rose above Lake Erie, further feats of engineering were securing the future of the city and the built environment. Although earlier attempts had harnessed the power of nearby Niagara Falls, it was just after the Guaranty building was constructed in 1896 that the power was sent to Buffalo, illuminating the city with hydroelectricity. Buffalo's rise to prominence in the built environment was matched in the political; as the Guaranty building was being drafted, Grover Cleveland was re-elected 22nd president of the United States. A former Erie County Sheriff, Cleveland had risen meteorically to mayor of Buffalo, governor of New York and the presidency within five years, his platform of reform against entrenched political machines and patronage was needed in major urban centers such as New York and Chicago.
Cleveland's fiscal policies had resulted in his loss of the presidency in 1888, but the results of Benjamin Harrison's interim term brought him back to the office in 1892. Curiously the panic of 1893 which destroyed the firm of Adler & Sullivan had destroyed Cleveland's first presidential term, but resulted in Cleveland's return to office and the final commission of Adler & Sullivan in Buffalo. While the exterior skin of the Guaranty expresses a new form for the steel skyscraper, its plan indicates those hard realities of function necessary to construct such a building and to sell it; the building is a U-shaped plan stacked upon a rectangular solid. The interstitial spaces between wings of the "U" create opportunities to introduce skylights to the lobby below, to cover the ceilings with stained glass; the plan contained a single vertical circulation core with four elevators, a mail slot, staircase. No fire-stair was provided or necessary; the internal portion of the "U" faces south so as to collect light for the interior recesses of the building- light being a necessary commodity to attract good tenants.
Sullivan spared nothing to accomplish this end for: "In order to increase the amount of light to the interior, the stairwell and the light slit facing the inner courtyard were lined with white glazed terra-cotta, more costly than normal tiles."The first and second floors are united both spatially and visually through additional staircases and the intention of retail occupation. Mechanical systems were relegated to the basement, including the motors for the elevators and electrical "dynamos." Entrances were provided on both Pearl Streets. A concierge desk offered services to guests including mail delivery. Above the "base" of the building a series of office floors of identical plan were placed; these floors featured private lavatories in reconfigurable office spaces. The halls were defined by wood and glass partition walls, intended to give the interior a bright and "club" like feeling; the elevators and staircases were enclosed not by walls, but metal cages permitting southern light to penetrate through the circulatory systems and into the hallways.
The only exception to the rise of offices was the seventh floor with lavatories and a barbershop, the top floor with a US Weather Service Bureau office and spaces for building attendants. The most remarkable problem for those wishing to cast Sullivan in the camp of proto-modernist
Fountain Plaza station
Fountain Plaza is a Buffalo Metro Rail station located in the 500 block of Main Street between Huron and Chippewa Streets. Fountain Plaza serves the northern section of the Buffalo Downtown Central Business District and the Buffalo Theater District since the permanent closing of Theater Station on February 18, 2013. Fountain Plaza is at the north end of the Free Fare Zone, where customers traveling north are required to have proof-of-payment. At West Chippewa and Pearl Streets: 7 Baynes-Richmond 8 Main 64 Lockport 66 Williamsville 67 Cleveland Hill 81 Eastside 204 Airport-Downtown Express At East Chippewa and Washington Streets: 74 Hamburg Fountain Plaza station is located near: Alleyway Theatre Andrews Theatre Babeville Courier Express Building Market Arcade Building AMC Market Arcade 8 Shea's Performing Arts Center Trinity Episcopal Church Fountain Plaza Buffalo Savings Bank Calumet Building Electric Building Genesee Building Genesee Hotel New Era Cap Company The Avant List of Buffalo Metro Rail stations Media related to Fountain Plaza at Wikimedia Commons
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform
Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority
The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority is a New York State public-benefit corporation responsible for the public transportation oversight of Erie and Niagara counties in the state of New York. The NFTA, as an authority, oversees a number of subsidiaries, including the NFTA Metro bus and rail system, the Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, the Niagara Falls International Airport and NFTA Small Boat Harbor; the NFTA Metro bus and rail system is a multi-modal agency, utilizing various vehicle modes, using the brand names: NFTA Metro Bus, NFTA Metro Rail, NFTA Metrolink and NFTA PAL. In addition, the NFTA owns and manages a number of properties, including the Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center in Downtown Buffalo. Of note, many of the bus loops have been in continuous operation since the days of the International Railway Company, a predecessor to the NFTA. Agency-wide, the NFTA employs 1,500 part-time employees. There are three business centers that operate as the NFTA organization: Surface Transportation, which handles ground transportation throughout Erie and Niagara counties, which handles air related business at the Buffalo-Niagara International Airport and Niagara Falls International Airport and Property Risk/Management, which operates the NFTA-Boat Harbor and handles other properties that are owned and/or operated by the NFTA.
Before the creation of the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority, the first bus operations in Buffalo dates back to 1923 under the private operator International Bus Company. The International Railway Company operated the vast network of streetcar routes in Erie and Niagara counties. In 1947, the proposed Niagara Frontier Rapid Transit Commission received ownership of the International Railway Company, gave way to the creation of the Niagara Frontier Transit System, Incorporated in 1950; the Niagara Frontier Transit System was replaced by the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority Corp. in 1967, as part of New York State's efforts in the late 1960s and early 1970s at creating public agencies that would oversee the development and continuation of public transportation in a number of key urban areas of the state. In 1974, the NFTA purchased the street transportation rights from a number of other agencies, starting with the Niagara Falls Municipal Transit System on September 8, 1974, D&F Transit on September 15, T-NT Transit on October 7, Lockport Bus Lines on March 15, 1975 and Grand Island Transit on April 20, 1975.
Administrative offices and buses were housed in the former Niagara Frontier Transit Buildings at 855 Main Street until 1977. The NFTA's operations are overseen by a 12-member Board of Commissioners that the Executive Director reports to; the members are nominated by the Governor of the State of New York, with two chosen by the Erie County Executive. Most appointments are for five year terms, but some commissioners have been appointed part-way into a term, replacing a previous commissioner; the current executive director is Kimberley A. Minkel, who served as the Director of Health and Environmental Quality. Minkel will carry the recognition as the NFTA's first female executive director. In 2017, the NFTA had operating expenses of $253.57 million, an outstanding debt of $133.57 million, a staffing level of 1,714 people. NFTA's Metro system serves the urbanized areas of Erie and Niagara counties with service throughout the day and selected suburban and rural areas of Erie and Niagara counties; the cities receiving service include Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Lackawanna and North Tonawanda.
Service to less populated areas during prime ridership hours extend to Alden, Boston, Grand Island, Lancaster, Evans, Orchard Park, East Aurora and West Seneca in Erie County. The NFTA inherited a large number of General Motors New Look buses from the private carriers that were absorbed into the agency. In addition, a small fleet of Highway Products' Twin Coaches and Mack buses that were nearing the end of their life span were added to the fleet; the first major purchase of new buses by the NFTA began in 1975 with AM General's "Metropolitan" series buses. These buses were withdrawn from service in 1987 due to severe structural issues. To address this immediate shortage of buses, the NFTA purchased a number of mothballed GMC buses from the Dallas Area Rapid Transit system, Flxible buses from Rochester's Regional Transit Service and General Motors New Looks from Broome County Transit of Binghamton; this temporary arrangement filled most of the gap left by the removal of the AM General buses. The next major purchase of new buses came in their RTS-II Series.
These buses were purchased between 1978 and 1983. As mentioned earlier, in 1987, due to the premature retirement of the AM General buses, the NFTA purchased a number of used, earlier series RTS series buses from Dallas' DART system; these buses provided comfortable padded seats not seen on standard NFTA transit coaches. These bus
County and City Hall
County and City Hall known as Erie County Hall, is a historic city hall and courthouse building located at Buffalo in Erie County, New York. It is a monumental granite structure designed by Rochester architect Andrew Jackson Warner and constructed between 1871 and 1875; the building features a 270-foot high clock tower. The County and City Hall building held offices for the City of Buffalo and Erie County. City offices moved to the Buffalo City Hall as it was being constructed starting in 1929, the building now houses Erie County court offices and records, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, maintained by the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior in 1976. List of tallest buildings in Buffalo County and City Hall - U. S. National Register of Historic Places on Waymarking.com Historic American Buildings Survey No. NY-6034, "Erie County Hall, Erie County, NY", 1 photo, 1 photo caption page "County and City Hall". SkyscraperPage