Rosalind Elsie Franklin was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses and graphite. Although her works on coal and viruses were appreciated in her lifetime, her contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA were recognised posthumously. Born to a prominent British Jewish family, Franklin was educated at a private day school at Norland Place in West London, Lindores School for Young Ladies in Sussex, St Paul's Girls' School, London, she studied the Natural Sciences Tripos at Newnham College, from which she graduated in 1941. Earning a research fellowship, she joined the University of Cambridge physical chemistry laboratory under Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, who disappointed her for his lack of enthusiasm; the British Coal Utilisation Research Association offered her a research position in 1942, started her work on coals. This helped her earn a Ph. D. in 1945. She went to Paris in 1947 as a chercheur under Jacques Mering at the Laboratoire Central des Services Chimiques de l'Etat, where she became an accomplished X-ray crystallographer.
She became a research associate at King's College London in 1951 and worked on X-ray diffraction studies, which would facilitate the double helix theory of the DNA. In 1953, after two years, owing to disagreement with her director John Randall and more so with her colleague Maurice Wilkins, she was compelled to move to Birkbeck College. At Birkbeck, John Desmond Bernal, chair of the physics department, offered her a separate research team, she died in 1958 at the age of 37 of ovarian cancer. Franklin is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA Photo 51, while at King's College London, which led to the discovery of the DNA double helix for which James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962. Watson suggested that Franklin would have ideally been awarded a Nobel Prize in Chemistry, along with Wilkins, although there was not yet a rule against posthumous awards, the Nobel Committee does not make posthumous nominations.
After finishing her work on DNA, Franklin led pioneering work at Birkbeck on the molecular structures of viruses. Her team member Aaron Klug continued her research, winning the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1982. Franklin was born on 25 July 1920 in 50 Chepstow Villas, Notting Hill, into an affluent and influential British Jewish family, her father was Ellis Arthur Franklin, a politically liberal London merchant banker who taught at the city's Working Men's College, her mother was Muriel Frances Waley. Rosalind was the second child in the family of five children. David was the eldest brother, her father's uncle was Herbert Samuel, the Home Secretary in 1916 and the first practising Jew to serve in the British Cabinet. Her aunt, Helen Caroline Franklin, known in the family as Mamie, was married to Norman de Mattos Bentwich, the Attorney General in the British Mandate of Palestine. Helen Caroline Franklin was active in trade union organisation and the women's suffrage movement, was a member of the London County Council.
Her uncle, Hugh Franklin, was another prominent figure in the suffrage movement, although his actions therein embarrassed the Franklin family. Rosalind's middle name, "Elsie", was in memory of Hugh's first wife, who died in the 1918 flu pandemic, her family was involved with the Working Men's College, where her father taught the subjects of electricity and the history of the Great War in the evenings becoming the vice-principal. Franklin's parents helped settle Jewish refugees from Europe who had escaped the Nazis those from the Kindertransport, they took in two Jewish children to their home, one of them, a nine-year-old Austrian, Evi Eisenstädter, shared Jenifer's room. From early childhood, Franklin showed exceptional scholastic abilities. At the age of six, she joined her brother Roland at Norland Place School, a private day school in West London. At that time, her aunt Mamie, described her to her husband: "Rosalind is alarmingly clever – she spends all her time doing arithmetic for pleasure, invariably gets her sums right."
She developed an early interest in cricket and hockey. At the age of nine, she entered a boarding-school, Lindores School for Young Ladies in Sussex; the school was near the seaside, the family wanted a good environment for her delicate health. She was 11 when she went to St Paul's Girls' School, West London, one of the few girls' schools in London that taught physics and chemistry. At St Paul's she excelled in science and sports, she learned German, became fluent in French, a language she would find useful. She topped her classes, won annual awards, her only educational weakness was in music, for which the school music director, the composer Gustav Holst, once called upon her mother to inquire whether she might have suffered from hearing problem or tonsillitis. With six distinctions, she passed her matriculation in 1938, winning a scholarship for university, the School Leaving Exhibition of £30 a year for three years, £5 from her grandfather, her father asked her to give the scholarship to a deserving refugee student.
Franklin went to Newnham College, Cambridge in 1938 and studied chemistry with
Churchill College, Cambridge
Churchill College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It has a primary focus on science and technology, but still retains a strong interest in the arts and humanities. In 1958, a trust was established with Sir Winston Churchill as its chairman of trustees, to build and endow a college for 60 fellows and 540 students as a national and Commonwealth memorial to Winston Churchill, it is situated on the outskirts of Cambridge, away from the traditional centre of the city, but close to the University's main new development zone, which some would argue is the new city centre. Its 16 hectares of grounds make it physically the largest of all the colleges. Churchill was the first all-male college to decide to admit women, was among three men's colleges to admit its first women students in 1972. Within 15 years all others had followed suit; the college has a reputation for relative informality compared with other Cambridge colleges, traditionally admits a larger proportion of its undergraduates from state schools.
The college motto is "Forward". It was taken from the final phrase of Winston Churchill's first speech to the House of Commons as Prime Minister – his famous "Blood, Toil and Sweat" speech – in which he said "Come let us go forward together". In 1955, on holiday in Sicily soon after his resignation as prime minister, Winston Churchill discussed with Sir John Colville and Lord Cherwell the possibility of founding a new institution. Churchill had been impressed by MIT and wanted a British version, but the plans evolved into the more modest proposal of creating a science and technology-based college within the University of Cambridge. Churchill wanted a mix of non-scientists to ensure a well-rounded education and environment for scholars and fellows; the college therefore admits students to read all subjects except land economy and theology & religious studies. The first postgraduate students arrived in October 1960, the first undergraduates a year later. Full college status was received in 1966.
All students were male. Women were not accepted as undergraduates until 1972; the bias to science and engineering remains as policy to the current day, with the statutes requiring 70% science and technology students amongst its student intake each year. The college statutes stipulate that one third of the students of the college should be studying for postgraduate qualification. Cambridge University Radio broadcast from Churchill College from 1979 until 2011. In 1958, a 42-acre site was purchased to the west of the city centre, farmland. After a competition, Richard Sheppard was appointed to design the new college. Building was completed by 1968 with nine main residential courts, separate graduate flats and a central building consisting of the dining hall, combination rooms and offices; the dining hall is the largest in Cambridge. It measures 22m square, 9m to the base of the vault beams, 11.6m to the highest point. It can cater for up to 430 guests in a formal dining arrangement; the main college buildings and courtyards are arranged around a large central space, in which the library was placed.
Only a few years being opened in 1974, an extension to the library building was added to house the Churchill Archives Centre. Its original purpose was to provide a home to Sir Winston's papers, however since it has been endowed with papers from other political figures including former Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and John Major, as well as former Leader of the Opposition Neil Kinnock, those of eminent scientists and engineers including Reginald Victor Jones, Rosalind Franklin and Sir Frank Whittle. In 1992, the Møller Centre for Continuing Education was built on the Churchill site, designed by Henning Larsen, it is a dedicated residential executive training and conference centre, aiming to bring together education and commerce. As well as the main College buildings, Sheppard designed a separate group of flats, known as the Sheppard flats, for the use of married graduate students; these are located to one side of a short distance from the main buildings. At the farthest end of the college grounds is the Chapel.
Sheppard's original design placed it within the main building complex near the college main entrance. The idea of having a religious building within a modern, scientifically-oriented academic institution annoyed some of the original fellows, leading to the resignation of Nobel Prize winner Francis Crick in protest. A compromise was found: the chapel was sited just to the west of the Sheppard Flats, funded and managed separately from the rest of the College itself, being tactfully referred to as "the Chapel at Churchill College"; the chimney of the heating system at the front of the college substitutes visually for the missing chapel tower. Crick had agreed to become a fellow on the basis. A donation was made by Lord Beaumont of Whitley to Churchill College for the establishment of one, the majority of fellows voted in favour of it. Sir Winston Churchill wrote to him saying that no-one need enter the chapel unless they wished to do so, therefore it did not need to be a problem. Crick, in short order, replied with a letter dated 12 October 1961 accompanied by a cheque for 10 guineas saying that, if that were the case, the enclosed money should be used for the establishment of a brothel.
This story was repeated by Crick in an interview with Matt Ridley, quotes from which are reported in the Daily Telegraph. The
W. T. Stead
William Thomas Stead was an English newspaper editor who, as a pioneer of investigative journalism, became a controversial figure of the Victorian era. Stead published a series of hugely influential campaigns whilst editor of The Pall Mall Gazette, he is best known for his 1885 series of articles, The Maiden Tribute of Modern Babylon; these were written in support of a bill dubbed the "Stead Act", that raised the age of consent from 13 to 16. Stead's "new journalism" paved the way for the modern tabloid in Great Britain, he was influential in demonstrating how the press could be used to influence public opinion and government policy, advocated "Government by Journalism". He was well known for his reportage on child welfare, social legislation and reformation of England's criminal codes. Stead died in the sinking of the RMS Titanic. Stead was born in Embleton, the son of the Reverend William Stead, a poor but respected Congregational minister, Isabella, a cultivated daughter of a Yorkshire farmer.
A year the family moved to Howdon on the River Tyne, where his younger brother, Francis Herbert Stead, was born. Stead was educated at home by his father, by the age of five he was well-versed in the Holy Scriptures and is said to have been able to read Latin as well as he could read English, it was Stead's mother who had the most lasting influence on her son's career. One of Stead's favourite childhood memories was of his mother leading a local campaign against the government's controversial Contagious Diseases Acts — which required prostitutes living in garrison towns to undergo medical examination. From 1862 he attended Silcoates School in Wakefield, until 1864, when he was apprenticed to a merchant's office on the Quayside in Newcastle upon Tyne where he became a clerk. From 1870, Stead contributed articles to the fledgling liberal Darlington newspaper The Northern Echo, in 1871 despite his inexperience, was made the editor of the newspaper. At the time, Stead at just 22, was the youngest newspaper editor in the country.
Stead used Darlington's excellent railway connections to his advantage, increasing the newspaper's distribution to national levels. Stead was always guided by a moral mission, influenced by his faith, wrote to a friend that the position would be "a glorious opportunity of attacking the devil". In 1873, he married his childhood sweetheart, Emma Lucy Wilson, the daughter of a local merchant and shipowner. In 1876, Stead joined a campaign to repeal the Contagious Diseases Act, befriending the feminist Josephine Butler; the law was repealed in 1886. He gained notoriety in 1876 for his coverage of the Bulgarian atrocities agitation, he is credited as "a major factor" in helping Gladstone win an overwhelming majority in the 1880 general election. In 1880, Stead went to London to be assistant editor of the Liberal Pall Mall Gazette, where he set about revolutionizing a traditionally conservative newspaper "written by gentlemen for gentlemen"; when its editor, John Morley, was elected to Parliament, Stead took over the role.
When Morley was made Secretary of State for Ireland, Gladstone asked the new cabinet minister if he were confident that he could deal with that most distressful country. Morley replied. Over the next seven years Stead would develop what Matthew Arnold dubbed "The New Journalism", his innovations as editor of the Gazette included incorporating maps and diagrams into a newspaper for the first time, breaking up longer articles with eye-catching subheadings, blending his own opinions with those of the people he interviewed. He made a feature of the Pall Mall extras, his enterprise and originality exercised a potent influence on contemporary journalism and politics. Stead's first sensational campaign was based on a Nonconformist pamphlet, The Bitter Cry of Outcast London, his lurid stories of squalid life in the slums had a wholly beneficial effect on the capital. A Royal Commission recommended that the government should clear the slums and encourage low-cost housing in their place, it was Stead's first success.
He introduced the interview, creating a new dimension in British journalism when he interviewed General Gordon in 1884. In 1884, Stead pressured the government to send his friend General Gordon to the Sudan to protect British interests in Khartoum; the eccentric Gordon disobeyed orders, the siege of Khartoum, Gordon's death, the failure of the hugely expensive Gordon Relief Expedition was one of the great imperial disasters of the period. After General Gordon's death in Khartoum in January 1885, Stead ran the first 24-point headline in newspaper history, "TOO LATE!", bemoaning the relief force's failure to rescue a national hero.1885 saw him force the British government to supply an additional £5.5million to bolster weakening naval defences, after which he published a series of articles. Stead was no hawk however, he distinguished himself in his vigorous handling of public affairs and his brilliant modernity in the presentation of news. However, he is credited as originating the modern journalistic technique of creating a news event rather than just reporting it, as his most famous "investigation", the Eliza Armstrong case, was to demonstrate.
In 1886, he started a campaign against Sir Charles Dilke, 2nd Baronet over his nominal exoneration in the Crawford scandal. The campaign contributed to Dilke's misguided attempt to clear his name and his consequent ruin. In 1885, in the wake of Josephine Butler's
Sir James Chadwick, was a British physicist, awarded the 1935 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of the neutron in 1932. In 1941, he wrote the final draft of the MAUD Report, which inspired the U. S. government to begin serious atomic bomb research efforts. He was the head of the British team that worked on the Manhattan Project during the Second World War, he was knighted in Britain in 1945 for his achievements in physics. Chadwick graduated from the Victoria University of Manchester in 1911, where he studied under Ernest Rutherford. At Manchester, he continued to study under Rutherford until he was awarded his MSc in 1913; the same year, Chadwick was awarded an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851. He elected to study beta radiation under Hans Geiger in Berlin. Using Geiger's developed Geiger counter, Chadwick was able to demonstrate that beta radiation produced a continuous spectrum, not discrete lines as had been thought. Still in Germany when the First World War broke out in Europe, he spent the next four years in the Ruhleben internment camp.
After the war, Chadwick followed Rutherford to the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge, where Chadwick earned his Doctor of Philosophy degree under Rutherford's supervision from Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, in June 1921. He was Rutherford's assistant director of research at the Cavendish Laboratory for over a decade at a time when it was one of the world's foremost centres for the study of physics, attracting students like John Cockcroft, Norman Feather, Mark Oliphant. Chadwick followed his discovery of the neutron by measuring its mass, he anticipated. Chadwick left the Cavendish Laboratory in 1935 to become a professor of physics at the University of Liverpool, where he overhauled an antiquated laboratory and, by installing a cyclotron, made it an important centre for the study of nuclear physics. During the Second World War, Chadwick carried out research as part of the Tube Alloys project to build an atomic bomb, while his Manchester lab and environs were harassed by Luftwaffe bombing.
When the Quebec Agreement merged his project with the American Manhattan Project, he became part of the British Mission, worked at the Los Alamos Laboratory and in Washington, D. C, he surprised everyone by earning the almost-complete trust of Jr.. For his efforts, Chadwick received a knighthood in the New Year Honours on 1 January 1945. In July 1945, he viewed the Trinity nuclear test. After this, he served as the British scientific advisor to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. Uncomfortable with the trend toward Big Science, Chadwick became the Master of Gonville and Caius College in 1948, he retired in 1959. James Chadwick was born in Bollington, Cheshire, on 20 October 1891, the first child of John Joseph Chadwick, a cotton spinner, Anne Mary Knowles, a domestic servant, he was named James after his paternal grandfather. In 1895, his parents moved to Manchester, he went to Bollington Cross Primary School, was offered a scholarship to Manchester Grammar School, which his family had to turn down as they could not afford the small fees that still had to be paid.
Instead he attended the Central Grammar School for Boys in Manchester. He now had two younger brothers and Hubert. At the age of 16, he sat two examinations for university scholarships, won both of them. Chadwick chose to attend Victoria University of Manchester, which he entered in 1908, he enrolled in physics by mistake. Like most students, he lived at home, walking the 4 miles to the back each day. At the end of his first year, he was awarded a Heginbottom Scholarship to study physics; the physics department was headed by Ernest Rutherford, who assigned research projects to final-year students, he instructed Chadwick to devise a means of comparing the amount of radioactive energy of two different sources. The idea was that they could be measured in terms of the activity of 1 gram of radium, a unit of measurement which would become known as the curie. Rutherford's suggested approach was unworkable—something Chadwick knew but was afraid to tell Rutherford—so Chadwick pressed on, devised the required method.
The results became Chadwick's first paper, which, co-authored with Rutherford, was published in 1912. He graduated with first class honours in 1911. Having devised a means of measuring gamma radiation, Chadwick proceeded to measure the absorption of gamma rays by various gases and liquids; this time the resulting paper was published under his name alone. He was awarded his Master of Science degree in 1912, was appointed a Beyer Fellow; the following year he was awarded an 1851 Exhibition Scholarship, which allowed him to study and research at a university in continental Europe. He elected to go to the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt in Berlin in 1913, to study beta radiation under Hans Geiger. Using Geiger's developed Geiger counter, which provided more accuracy than the earlier photographic techniques, he was able to demonstrate that beta radiation did not produce discrete lines, as has been thought, but rather a continuous spectrum with peaks in certain regions. On a visit to Geiger's laboratory, Albert Einstein told Chadwick that: "I can explain either of these things, but I can't explain them both at the same time."
The continuous spectrum would remain an unexplained phenomenon for many years. Chadwick was still in Germany at the start of the First World War, an
Neil Gordon Kinnock, Baron Kinnock, is a Welsh Labour Party politician. He served as a Member of Parliament from 1970 until 1995, first for Bedwellty and for Islwyn, he was the Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition from 1983 until 1992. Kinnock led the Labour Party to a surprise fourth consecutive defeat at the 1992 general election, despite the party being ahead in most opinion polls, which had predicted either a narrow Labour victory or a hung parliament. Afterwards, he resigned as Leader of the Labour Party after nine years, he resigned from the House of Commons in 1995 to become a European Commissioner. He went on to become the Vice-President of the European Commission under Romano Prodi from 1999-2004; until the summer of 2009, he was the Chairman of the British Council and the President of Cardiff University. Kinnock, an only child, was born in Wales, his father, Gordon Herbert Kinnock was a former coal miner who suffered from dermatitis and worked as a labourer. Gordon died of a heart attack in November 1971 aged 64.
In 1953, at eleven years old, Kinnock began his secondary education at Lewis School, which he criticised for its record on caning. He went on to the University College of South Wales and Monmouthshire in Cardiff, where he graduated with a degree in Industrial Relations and History in 1965; the following year, Kinnock obtained a postgraduate diploma in education. Between August 1966 and May 1970, he worked as a tutor for a Workers' Educational Association, he has been married to Glenys Kinnock since 1967. They have two children – son Stephen Kinnock, daughter Rachel Kinnock. In June 1969, he won the Labour Party nomination for Bedwellty in South Wales, which became Islwyn for the 1983 general election, he was first elected to the House of Commons on 18 June 1970, became a member of the National Executive Committee of the Labour Party in October 1978. On his becoming an MP for the first time, his father said "Remember Neil, MP stands not just for Member of Parliament, but for Man of Principle." The Labour government policy at that time was in favour of devolution for Wales, but the wider party was split.
Calling himself a "unionist", Kinnock was one of six south Wales Labour MPs to campaign against devolution. He dismissed the idea of a Welsh identity, saying that "between the mid-sixteenth century and the mid-eighteenth century Wales had no history at all, before that it was the history of rural brigands who have been ennobled by being called princes". In the Welsh referendum of 1979, the proposal for devolution was rejected. Following Labour's defeat at the 1979 general election, James Callaghan appointed Neil Kinnock to the Shadow Cabinet as Education spokesman, his ambition was noted by other MPs, David Owen's opposition to the changes to the electoral college was thought to be motivated by the realisation that they would favour Kinnock's succession. He remained as Education spokesman following the resignation of Callaghan as Leader of the Labour Party and the election of Michael Foot as his successor in late 1980. In 1981, when still serving as Labour's Education spokesman, Kinnock was alleged to have scuppered Tony Benn's attempt to replace Denis Healey as Labour's Deputy Leader by first supporting the candidacy of the more traditionalist Tribunite John Silkin and urging Silkin supporters to abstain on the second, run-off, ballot.
He was known as a left-winger, gained prominence for his attacks on Margaret Thatcher's handling of the Falklands War in 1982, although it was in fact this conflict which saw support for the Conservative government increase, contribute to its landslide re-election the following year. After Labour's landslide defeat in June 1983, Michael Foot resigned as leader aged sixty nine, from the outset it was expected that the much younger Kinnock would succeed him, he was elected as Labour Party leader on 2 October 1983, with 71% of the vote, Roy Hattersley was elected as his deputy. His first period as party leader – between the 1983 and 1987 general elections – was dominated by his struggle with the hard-left Militant tendency still strong in the party. Kinnock was determined to move the party's political standing to a centrist position, in order to improve its chances of winning a future general election. Although Kinnock had come from the Tribune left of the party, he parted company with many of his former allies after his appointment to the Shadow Cabinet.
The Labour Party was threatened by the rise of the Social Democratic Party/Liberal Alliance, which pulled out more centrist adherents. On a broader perspective, the traditional Labour voter was disappearing in the face of growing education and social mobility that the Conservative government had promoted since 1979. Kinnock focused on modernising the party, upgrading its technical skills such as use of the media and keeping track of voters, while at the same time battling the Militants. Under his leadership, the Labour Party abandoned unpopular old positions the nationalisation of certain industries, although this process was not completed until future Labour leader Tony Blair abandoned Clause IV from the party's manifesto in 1995, he stressed economic growth, which had a much broader appeal to the middle-class than the idea of redistributing wealth to benefit the poor. He accepted membership in the European Economic Community, whereas the party had pledged immediate withdrawal from it under Michael Foot.
He discarded the rhetoric of class warfare. All
The Yalta Conference known as the Crimea Conference and code-named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization. The three states were represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively; the conference convened near Yalta in Crimea, Soviet Union, within the Livadia and Vorontsov Palaces. The aim of the conference was to shape a post-war peace that represented not just a collective security order but a plan to give self-determination to the liberated peoples of post-Nazi Europe; the meeting was intended to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. However, within a few short years, with the Cold War dividing the continent, Yalta became a subject of intense controversy. Yalta was the second of three major wartime conferences among the Big Three.
It was preceded by the Tehran Conference in November 1943, was followed by the Potsdam Conference in July 1945. It was preceded by a conference in Moscow in October 1944, not attended by President Roosevelt, in which Churchill and Stalin had carved up Europe into Western and Soviet spheres of influence; the Potsdam Conference was to be attended by Stalin and Harry S. Truman, Roosevelt's successor after his death. General Charles de Gaulle was not present at either the Potsdam conferences. De Gaulle attributed his exclusion from Yalta to the longstanding personal antagonism towards him by Roosevelt, although the Soviet Union had objected to his inclusion as a full participant, but the absence of French representation at Yalta meant that extending an invitation for De Gaulle to attend the Potsdam Conference would have been problematic. By the time of the Yalta Conference, the Western forces consisting of the United Kingdom, the United States, Poland and the governments-in-exile of France and Belgium, led by British general Bernard Montgomery and American generals Dwight D. Eisenhower and Omar Bradley, had liberated all of France and Belgium and were advancing into Germany, leading to the Battle of the Bulge.
In the east, Red Army Marshal Georgy Zhukov's forces were 65 km from Berlin, having pushed back the Nazis from Poland, Romania and most of Yugoslavia. By February, Germany only had loose control over the Netherlands, Denmark, Northern Italy, Northern Yugoslavia; the initiative for calling a second'Big Three' conference had come from Roosevelt hoping to meet before the US Presidential elections in November 1944, but subsequently pressing for a meeting early in 1945 at a'neutral' location in the Mediterranean. Stalin, rejected these options, he proposed instead that they meet instead in the Crimea. Stalin's fear of flying was a contributing factor in this decision. Stalin formally deferred to Roosevelt as the'host' for the conference; each of the three leaders liberated Europe. Roosevelt wanted Soviet support in the U. S. Pacific War against Japan for the planned invasion of Japan, as well as Soviet participation in the United Nations. Stalin's position at the conference was one. According to U. S. delegation member and future Secretary of State James F. Byrnes, "it was not a question of what we would let the Russians do, but what we could get the Russians to do."Poland was the first item on the Soviet agenda.
Stalin stated that "For the Soviet government, the question of Poland was one of honor" and security because Poland had served as a historical corridor for forces attempting to invade Russia. In addition, Stalin stated regarding history that "because the Russians had sinned against Poland", "the Soviet government was trying to atone for those sins." Stalin concluded that "Poland must be strong" and that "the Soviet Union is interested in the creation of a mighty and independent Poland." Accordingly, Stalin stipulated that Polish government-in-exile demands were not negotiable: the Soviet Union would keep the territory of eastern Poland they had annexed in 1939, Poland was to be compensated for that by extending its western borders at the expense of Germany. Contrasting with his prior statement, Stalin promised free elections in Poland despite the Soviet sponsored provisional government installed by him in Polish territories occupied by the Red Army. Roosevelt wanted the USSR to enter the Pacific War with the Allies.
One Soviet precondition for a declaration of war against Japan was an American official recognition of Mongolian independence from China (the Mongolian People's Republic had been the Soviet satellite s
Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, its impact on the societies and economies thereof, as well as the resulting changes to local and international relationships. Professional historians focus on military affairs that had a major impact on the societies involved as well as the aftermath of conflicts, while amateur historians and hobbyists take a larger interest in the details of battles and uniforms in use; the essential subjects of military history study are the causes of war, the social and cultural foundations, military doctrine on each side, the logistics, technology and tactics used, how these changed over time. On the other hand, Just War Theory explores the moral dimensions of warfare, to better limit the destructive reality caused by war, seeks to establish a doctrine of military ethics; as an applied field, military history has been studied at academies and service schools because the military command seeks to not repeat past mistakes, improve upon its current performance by instilling an ability in commanders to perceive historical parallels during a battle, so as to capitalize on the lessons learned from the past.
When certifying military history instructors the Combat Studies Institute deemphasizes rote detail memorization and focuses on themes and context in relation to current and future conflict, using the motto "Past is Prologue."The discipline of military history is dynamic, changing with development as much of the subject area as the societies and organisations that make use of it. The dynamic nature of the discipline of military history is related to the rapidity of change the military forces, the art and science of managing them, as well as the frenetic pace of technological development that had taken place during the period known as the Industrial Revolution, more in the nuclear and information ages. An important recent concept is the Revolution in Military Affairs which attempts to explain how warfare has been shaped by emerging technologies, such as gunpowder, it highlights the short outbursts of rapid change followed by periods of relative stability. In terms of the history profession in major countries, military history is an orphan, despite its enormous popularity with the general public.
William H. McNeill points out: This branch of our discipline flourishes in an intellectual ghetto; the 144 books in question fall into two distinct classes: works aimed at a popular readership, written by journalists and men of letters outside academic circles, professional work nearly always produced within the military establishment.... The study of military history in universities remains underdeveloped. Indeed, lack of interest in and disdain for military history constitute one of the strangest prejudices of the profession. Historiography is the study of the history and method of the discipline of history or the study of a specialised topic. In this case, military history with an eye to gaining an accurate assessment of conflicts using all available sources. For this reason military history is periodised, creating overlaying boundaries of study and analysis in which descriptions of battles by leaders may be unreliable due to the inclination to minimize mention of failure and exaggerate success.
Military historians use Historiographical analysis in an effort to allow an unbiased, contemporary view of records. One military historian, Jeremy Black, outlined problems 21st-century military historians face as an inheritance of their predecessors: Eurocentricity, a technological bias, a focus on leading military powers and dominant military systems, the separation of land from sea and air conflicts, the focus on state-to-state conflict, a lack of focus on political "tasking" in how forces are used. If these challenges were not sufficient for the military historians, the limits of method are complicated by the lack of records, either destroyed or never recorded for its value as a military secret that may prevent some salient facts from being reported at all. Researching Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, for example, have presented unique challenges to historians due to records that were destroyed to protect classified military information, among other reasons. Historians utilize their knowledge of government regulation and military organization, employing a targeted and systematic research strategy to piece together war histories.
Despite these limits, wars are some of the most studied and detailed periods of human history. Military historians have compared organization and strategic ideas and national support of the militaries of different nations. In the early 1980s, historian Jeffrey Kimball studied the influence of a historian's political position on current events on interpretive disagreement regarding the causes of 20th century wars, he surveyed the ideological preferences of 109 active diplomatic historians in the United States as well as 54 active military historians. He finds that their current political views are moderately correlated with their historiographical interpretations. A clear position on the left-right continuum regarding capitalism was apparent in most cases. All groups agreed with the proposition, "historically, Americans have tended to view questions of their national security in terms of such extremes as good vs. evil." Though the Socialists were split, the other groups agreed that "miscalculation and/or misunderstanding of the situation" had caused U.
S. interventionism." Kimball reports that: Of historians in the field of diplomatic history, 7% are Socialist, 19% are O