Cockfield is a village and civil parish located 3 1⁄2 miles from Lavenham in Suffolk, England. The village consists of a central point and several outlying hamlets: Buttons Green, Colchester Green, Cross Green, Great Green, Oldhall Green, Smithwood Green and Windsor Green. Surrounded by fields used for farming, with few roads, its population was 839 in 2001, increasing to 868 at the 2011 Census; the village had a railway station on the Long Melford-Bury St Edmunds branch line, but it was closed in 1961 as part of the Beeching Axe. Its football team, Cockfield United play in the Ipswich Football League; the present village has been inhabited for well over 2000 years. The finding of a sword is evidence of Bronze Age settlement, a number of findings indicate ancient defensive ditches, known as The Warbanks; the village's present name is derived from "Cochan-feld" indicating a site established by a person named Cochan. The village appeared in the Domesday Book of 1086 under the name of "Cothefelda" and is listed as a prosperous manor whose wealth had grown since the Norman Conquest.
During the Middle Ages, the village became "Cokefield" and "Cockfield". Cockfield became a centre a Puritanism during the 17th century. During the 19th century the parish was one of the largest and wealthiest in Suffolk and the seat of a number of prestigious rectors. A landmark visible for a distance across the neighbouring countryside, the church of St Peter's is one of the finest of Suffolk's many village churches, with the present building dating from the 14th and 15th centuries; the church's size is unusual for such a rural location, but this becomes less surprising when one considers its location between the three great medieval merchant towns of Bury St Edmunds and Sudbury. There is no record of a church in the Domesday Book although a village of Cockfield's size would certainly have had one; the first surviving record of the parish's ecclesiastical history dates from 1190 when William de Cullum was installed as the first rector, although there is no existing record of the site prior to the building of the present church in the 14th century.
The church fell under the patronage of the Abbot of St Edmundsbury until the Reformation when the Spring family, wealthy Lavenham clothiers and noblemen, took over, resulting in a close link with the region's strong wool trade. From 1708 the patronage fell to St John's College, Cambridge who appointed a number of distinguished Fellows of the College. Rectors of St Peter's have included John Knewstub the Presbyterian, William Ludlam the mathematician, Churchill Babington the archaeologist and botanist; the church's sizeable square flint tower dates from the 14th century and is buttressed to the top. The tower was nearly destroyed by a storm during the winter of 1774-5 and on August 2, 1775, after repairs were nearly completed, an apparent lightning strike resulted in a fire that damaged it once again; the mathematician William Ludlam, rector from 1767, installed an astronomical observatory on the tower whose filled in windows can still be seen. In the same road as the church is the village school, serving the village and surrounding communities.
Children from the ages of four to nine attend the school. Find more information at the school website. School website has changed to www.cockfieldprimaryschool.co.uk because the previous site manager has gone out of business Media related to Cockfield, Suffolk at Wikimedia Commons
Oriental studies is the academic field of study that embraces Near Eastern and Far Eastern societies and cultures, peoples and archaeology. Traditional Oriental studies in Europe is today focused on the discipline of Islamic studies, while the study of China traditional China, is called Sinology; the study of East Asia in general in the United States, is called East Asian studies, while the study of Israel and Jews are called Israel studies and Jewish studies although they are considered the same field. European study of the region known as "the Orient" had religious origins, which has remained an important motivation until recent times. Learning from Arabic medicine and philosophy, the Greek translations from Arabic, was an important factor in the Middle Ages. Linguistic knowledge preceded a wider study of cultures and history, as Europe began to encroach upon the region and economic factors encouraged growth in academic study. From the late 18th century archaeology became a link from the discipline to a wide European public, as treasures pillaged during colonial contacts filled new European museums.
The modern study was influenced both by imperialist attitudes and interests, the sometimes naive fascination of the exotic East for Mediterranean and European writers and thinkers, captured in images by artists, embodied in a repeatedly-surfacing theme in the history of ideas in the West, called "Orientalism". In the last century, scholars from the region itself have participated on equal terms in the discipline; the original distinction between the "West" and the "East" was crystallized in the Greco-Persian Wars of the 5th century BC, when Athenian historians made a distinction between their "Athenian democracy" and the Persian monarchy. An institutional distinction between East and West did not exist as a defined polarity before the Oriens- and Occidens-divided administration of the Emperor Diocletian's Roman Empire at the end of the 3rd century AD, the division of the Empire into Latin and Greek-speaking portions; the classical world had intimate knowledge of their Ancient Persian neighbours, but imprecise knowledge of most of the world further East, including the "Seres".
However, there was substantial direct Roman trade with India in the Imperial period. The rise of Islam and Muslim conquests in the 7th century established a sharp opposition, or a sense of polarity, between medieval European Christendom and the medieval Islamic world. During the Middle Ages and Jews were considered the "alien" enemies of Christendom. Popular medieval European knowledge of cultures farther to the East was poor, dependent on the wildly fictionalized travels of Sir John Mandeville and legends of Prester John, although the famous, much longer, account by Marco Polo was a good deal more accurate. Scholarly work was very linguistic in nature, with a religious focus on understanding both Biblical Hebrew and languages like Syriac with early Christian literature, but from a wish to understand Arabic works on medicine and science; this effort called the Studia Linguarum existed sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, the "Renaissance of the 12th century" witnessed a particular growth in translations of Arabic texts into Latin, with figures like Constantine the African, who translated 37 books medical texts, from Arabic to Latin, Herman of Carinthia, one of the translators of the Qur'an.
The earliest translation of the Qur'an into Latin was completed in 1143, although little use was made of it until it was printed in 1543, after which it was translated into other European languages. Gerard of Cremona and others based themselves in Al-Andaluz to take advantage of the Arabic libraries and scholars there. With the Christian Reconquista in full progress, such contacts became rarer in Spain. Chairs of Hebrew and Aramaic were established at Oxford, four other universities following the Council of Vienne. There was vague but increasing knowledge of the complex civilizations in China and India, from which luxury goods were imported. Although the Crusades produced little in the way of scholarly interchange, the eruption of the Mongol Empire had strategic implications for both the Crusader kingdoms and Europe itself, led to extended diplomatic contacts. From the Age of Exploration, European interest in mapping Asia, the sea-routes, became intense, though pursued outside the universities.
University Oriental studies became systematic during the Renaissance, with the linguistic and religious aspects continuing to dominate. There was a political dimension, as translations for diplomatic purposes were needed before the West engaged with the East beyond the Ottoman Empire. A landmark was the publication in Spain in 1514 of the first Polyglot Bible, containing the complete existing texts in Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to Greek and Latin. At Cambridge University there has been a Regius Professor of Hebrew since 1540, the chair in Arabic was founded in about 1643. Oxford followed for Hebrew in 1546. Distinguished scholars included Edmund Castell, who published his Lexicon Heptaglotton Hebraicum, Syriacum, Aethiopicum, Arabicum, et Persicum in 1669, whilst some scholars like E
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A botanical name is a formal scientific name conforming to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants and, if it concerns a plant cultigen, the additional cultivar or Group epithets must conform to the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. The code of nomenclature covers "all organisms traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants, whether fossil or non-fossil, including blue-green algae, oomycetes, slime moulds and photosynthetic protists with their taxonomically related non-photosynthetic groups."The purpose of a formal name is to have a single name, accepted and used worldwide for a particular plant or plant group. For example, the botanical name Bellis perennis denotes a plant species, native to most of the countries of Europe and the Middle East, where it has accumulated various names in many languages; the plant was introduced worldwide, bringing it into contact with more languages. English names for this plant species include: daisy, English daisy, lawn daisy.
The cultivar Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' is a golden-variegated horticultural selection of this species. The botanical name itself is fixed by a type, a particular specimen of an organism to which the scientific name is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the defining features of that particular taxon; the usefulness of botanical names is limited by the fact that taxonomic groups are not fixed in size. For example, the traditional view of the family Malvaceae has been expanded in some modern approaches to include what were considered to be several related families; some botanical names refer to groups that are stable while for other names a careful check is needed to see which circumscription is being used. Depending on rank, botanical names may be in two parts or three parts; the names of cultivated plants are not similar to the botanical names, since they may instead involve "unambiguous common names" of species or genera. Cultivated plant names may have an extra component, bringing a maximum of four parts: in one part Plantae Marchantiophyta Magnoliopsida Liliidae Pinophyta Fagaceae Betula in two parts Acacia subg.
Phyllodineae lchemilla subsect. Heliodrosium Berberis thunbergii a species name, i.e. a combination consisting of a genus name and one epithet Syringa'Charisma' – a cultivar within a genus Hydrangea Lacecap Group – a genus name and Group epithet Lilium Darkest Red Group – a genus name and Group epithet Paphiopedilum Greenteaicecreamandraspberries grex snowdrop'John Gray' – an unambiguous common name for the genus Galanthus and a cultivar epithetin three parts Calystegia sepium subsp. Americana, a combination consisting of a genus name and two epithets Crataegus azarolus var. pontica Bellis perennis'Aucubifolia' – a cultivar Brassica oleracea Gemmifera Group – a species name and Group epithetin four parts Scilla hispanica var. campanulata'Rose Queen' – a cultivar within a botanical variety apart from cultivars, the name of a plant can never have more than three parts. A botanical name in three parts, i.e. an infraspecific name needs a "connecting term" to indicate rank. In the Calystegia example above, this is "subsp.", for subspecies.
In botany there are many ranks below that of species. A name of a "subdivision of a genus" needs a connecting term; the connecting term is not part of the name itself. A taxon may be indicated by a listing in more than three parts: "Saxifraga aizoon var. aizoon subvar. Brevifolia f. multicaulis subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch." But this is a classification, not a formal botanical name. The botanical name is Saxifraga aizoon subf. surculosa Engl. & Irmsch.. Generic and infraspecific botanical names are printed in italics; the example set by the ICN is to italicize all botanical names, including those above genus, though the ICN preface states: "The Code sets no binding standard in this respect, as typography is a matter of editorial style and tradition not of nomenclature". Most peer-reviewed scientific botanical publications do not italicize names above the rank of genus, non-botanical scientific publications do not, in keeping with two of the three other kinds of scientific name: zoological and bacterial.
For botanical nomenclature, the ICN prescribes a two-part name or binary name for any taxon below the rank of genus down to, including the rank of species. Taxa below the rank of species get a three part. A binary name consists of the name of an epithet. In the case of a species this is a specific epithet:Bellis perennis is the name of a species, in which perennis is the specific epithet. There is no connecting term involved. In t
The Fitzwilliam Museum is the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge. It is located on Trumpington Street opposite Fitzwilliam Street in central Cambridge. Founded in 1816, the Fitzwilliam Museum includes one of the best collections of antiquities and modern art in western Europe. With over half a million objects and artworks in its collections, the displays in the Museum explore world history and art from antiquity to the present; the treasures of the museum include artworks by Monet, Rubens, Vincent van Gogh, Rembrandt, Cézanne, Van Dyck, Canaletto, as well as a winged bas-relief from Nimrud. Admission to the public is always free; the museum is a partner in the University of Cambridge Museums consortium, one of 16 Major Partner Museum services funded by Arts Council England to lead the development of the museums sector. The museum was founded in 1816 with the legacy of the library and art collection of Richard FitzWilliam, 7th Viscount FitzWilliam; the bequest included £100,000 "to cause to be erected a good substantial museum repository".
The Fitzwilliam now contains over 500,000 items and is one of the best museums in the United Kingdom. The collection was placed in the Perse School building in Free School Lane, it was moved in 1842 to the Old Schools in central Cambridge, which housed the Cambridge University Library. The "Founder's Building" was built during the period 1837-1843 to the designs of George Basevi, completed by C. R. Cockerell; the foundation stone of the new building was laid by Gilbert Ainslie in 1837. The museum opened in 1848; the Palladian Entrance Hall, by Edward Middleton Barry, was completed in 1875. A further large bequest was made to the University in 1912 by Charles Brinsley Marlay, including £80,000 and 84 paintings from his private collection. A two-storey extension to the south-east, paid for by the Courtauld family, was added in 1931 expanding the space of the museum and allowing research teams to work on site; the museum buildings and, the boundary along the street frontage, are Grade I listed. The museum has five departments: Antiquities.
Together these cover antiquities from ancient Egypt, Nubia and Rome, Romano-Egyptian art, Western Asiatic displays, a new gallery of Cypriot art. Among the notable works in the antiquities collection is a bas-relief from Persepolis. There is the largest collection of 16th-century Elizabethan virginal manuscript music written by some of the most notable composers of the time, such as William Byrd, Doctor John Bull, Orlando Gibbons and Thomas Tallis; the Egyptian Galleries at the Fitzwilliam Museum reopened in 2006 after a two-year, £1.5 million programme of refurbishment and research. The redevelopment allowed for the public display of more antiquities, confined to the Fitzwilliam's underground storage facility; the Egyptian Galleries are among the museum's most popular exhibits. They feature an immersive public display which allows families and young visitors to understand the context and landscape of ancient Egyptian through participatory exhibitions. Today, the Fitzwilliam's Egyptian Galleries contain some of the best displays on Egyptian antiquities outside the British Museum.
The museum has a wide collection of paintings and sketches, including works by Monet, Rubens, Vincent van Gogh, Cézanne, Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Canaletto and Renoir. It has extensive works by J. M. W. Turner, which has its origins in a set of 25 watercolour drawings donated to the university by John Ruskin in 1861. Sir Sydney Cockerell, serving as director of the museum at the time, acquired a further eight Turner watercolours and some of his writings; the museum's collection of Pre-Raphaelite paintings includes a version of Ford Madox Brown's The Last of England, voted eighth-greatest painting in Britain in 2005's Radio 4 poll, the Greatest Painting in Britain Vote. Many items in the museum are on loan from colleges of the University of Cambridge, for example an important group of impressionist paintings owned by King's College, which includes Cézanne's The Abduction and a study for Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte by Seurat. Many of the Fitzwilliam's paintings were donated by alumni and donors of the University of Cambridge, for instance, the economist Maynard Keynes donated his personal collection, including Cezanne's Still Life With Apples which he bought in 1918.
Anglo-American Benjamin West – 2 paintings.
Ancient Roman pottery
Pottery was produced in enormous quantities in ancient Rome for utilitarian purposes. It is found all beyond. Monte Testaccio is a huge waste mound in Rome made entirely of broken amphorae used for transporting and storing liquids and other products – in this case mostly Spanish olive oil, landed nearby, was the main fuel for lighting, as well as its use in the kitchen and washing in the baths, it is usual to divide Roman domestic pottery broadly into coarse wares and fine wares, the former being the everyday pottery jars and bowls that were used for cooking or the storage and transport of foods and other goods, in some cases as tableware, which were made and bought locally. Fine wares were serving vessels or tableware used for more formal dining, are of more decorative and elegant appearance; some of the most important of these were made at specialised pottery workshops, were traded over substantial distances, not only within, but between, different provinces of the Roman Empire. For example, dozens of different types of British coarse and fine wares were produced locally, yet many other classes of pottery were imported from elsewhere in the Empire.
The manufacture of fine wares such as terra sigillata took place in large workshop complexes that were organised along industrial lines and produced standardised products that lend themselves well to precise and systematic classification. There is no direct Roman equivalent to the artistically central vase-painting of ancient Greece, few objects of outstanding artistic interest have survived, but there is a great deal of fine tableware, many small figures incorporated into oil lamps or similar objects, with religious or erotic themes. Roman burial customs varied over time and space, so vessels deposited as grave goods, the usual source of complete ancient pottery vessels, are not always abundant, though all Roman sites produce plenty of broken potsherds. "Fine" rather than luxury pottery is the main strength of Roman pottery, unlike Roman glass, which the elite used alongside gold or silver tableware, which could be extravagant and expensive. It is clear from the quantities found that fine pottery was used widely in both social and geographic terms.
The more expensive pottery tended to use relief decoration moulded, rather than colour, copied shapes and decoration from the more prestigious metalwork. In the Eastern Empire, local traditions continued, hybridizing with Roman styles to varying extents. From the 3rd century the quality of fine pottery declined because of economic and political disturbances, because glassware was replacing pottery for drinking cups. Fired clay or terracotta was widely employed in the Roman period for architectural purposes, as structural bricks and tiles, as architectural decoration, for the manufacture of small statuettes and lamps; these are not classified under the heading'pottery' by archaeologists, but the terracottas and lamps will be included in this article. Pottery is a key material in the dating and interpretation of archaeological sites from the Neolithic period onwards, has been minutely studied by archaeologists for generations. In the Roman period, ceramics were produced and used in enormous quantities, the literature on the subject, in numerous languages, is extensive.
The designation'fine wares' is used by archaeologists for Roman pottery intended for serving food and drink at table, as opposed to pots designed for cooking and food preparation, storage and other purposes. Although there were many types of fine pottery, for example, drinking vessels in delicate and thin-walled wares, pottery finished with vitreous lead glazes, the major class that comes first to mind is the Roman red-gloss ware of Italy and Gaul make, traded, from the 1st century BC to the late 2nd century AD, traditionally known as terra sigillata; these vessels have fine hard and well-fired buff to pink fabrics, with a glossy surface slip ranging in colour from light orange to quite a bright red. The variations in the colour and texture of both body fabric and slip, as well as the vessel-shapes and the designs on the decorated forms can enable a trained student to identify source and individual workshop quite accurately. Arretine ware, made at Arezzo in Tuscany, was the pre-eminent type of fine pottery in the 1st century BC and early 1st century AD, was succeeded by samian ware, manufactured in a number of centres in Gaul, modern France and Germany.
However the definition of all these terms has varied and evolved over the many generations during which the material has been studied. Technically, red-gloss wares have much in common with earlier Greek painted pottery, but the decorated forms employ raised, relief decoration rather than painting. African Red Slip ware belonged to the same tradition, continued to be made much than Italian and Gaulish sigillata, right through to the Islamic conquest. ARS in turn influenced the production of Phocaean red slip, common in the Eastern Mediterranean and appeared as far west as Southern France and Britain; the production of related types of wares existed in Asia Minor and in other eastern regions of the Empire, while the Iberian provinces had local industries producing terra sigillata hispanica, which had some similarities with the Gaulish products. Most of these wares were distributed and produced on an industrial scale, undoubtedly using a
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website