May Bumps 2006
The May Bumps 2006 was a set of rowing races held at Cambridge University from Wednesday 14 June 2006 until Saturday 17 June 2006. The event was run as a bumps race and have been held annually in mid-June since 1887. See May Bumps for the format of the races. In 2006, 171 crews took part, with around 1500 participants in total. Caius for the 5th consecutive year, their 8th since 1998. Pembroke women bumped Jesus on Day 1 to take their first headship since 1998. Caius II bumped 1st & 3rd Trinity II on the last day to become the highest placed 2nd VIII, after a set of close races with Selwyn. Jesus II bumped Emmanuel II on their way to winning their blades, bumping every day to become highest 2nd women's VIII. Below are the bumps charts for the top 3 men's and women's divisions, with the men's event on the left and women's event on the right; the bumps chart represents the progress of every crew over all four days of the racing. To follow the progress of any particular crew find the crew's name on the left side of the chart and follow the line to the end-of-the-week finishing position on the right of the chart.
Note that this chart may not be displayed if you are using a large font size on your browser. The Getting-on Race allows a number of crews which did not have a place from last year's races to compete for the right to race this year. Up to ten crews are removed from the bottom of last year's finishing order, who must race alongside new entrants to decide which crews gain a place; the 2006 May Bumps Getting-on Race took place on 9 June 2006. The successful crews which will compete in the bumps are.
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Spandex, Lycra or elastane is a synthetic fiber known for its exceptional elasticity. It is a polyether-polyurea copolymer, invented in 1958 by chemist Joseph Shivers at DuPont's Benger Laboratory in Waynesboro, Virginia; the name "spandex" is an anagram of the word "expands". It is the preferred name in North America. Brand names for spandex include Lycra, Acepora, Creora, INVIYA, ROICA and Dorlastan, ESPA. Dupont textiles scientist Joseph C. Shivers was determined to find a fiber to replace rubber in garments, he made a breakthrough in the early 1950s when he used an intermediate substance to modify Dacron polyester. This modification produced a stretchy fiber. After nearly a decade of research the fiber was perfected in 1959. Called Fiber K, DuPont chose the more rich trade name Lycra to distinguish its brand of spandex fiber. Spandex fibers are produced in four ways: melt extrusion, reaction spinning, solution dry spinning, solution wet spinning. All of these methods include the initial step of reacting monomers to produce a prepolymer.
Once the prepolymer is formed, it is reacted further in various ways and drawn out to make the fibers. The solution dry spinning method is used to produce over 94.5% of the world's spandex fibers, the process has five steps: 1. The first step is to produce the prepolymer; this is done by mixing a macroglycol with a diisocyanate monomer. The two compounds are mixed in a reaction vessel to produce a prepolymer. A typical ratio of glycol to diisocyanate is 1:2. 2. The prepolymer is further reacted with an equal amount of diamine; this reaction is known as chain extension reaction. The resulting solution is diluted with a solvent to produce the spinning solution; the solvent helps make the solution thinner and more handled, it can be pumped into the fiber production cell. 3. The spinning solution is pumped into a cylindrical spinning cell where it is cured and converted into fibers. In this cell, the polymer solution is forced through a metal plate called a spinneret; this causes the solution to be aligned in strands of liquid polymer.
As the strands pass through the cell, they are heated in the presence of solvent gas. This process causes the liquid polymer to form solid strands. 4. As the fibers exit the cell, an amount of solid strands are bundled together to produce the desired thickness; each fiber of spandex is made up of many smaller individual fibers that adhere to one another because of the natural stickiness of their surface. 5. The resulting fibers are treated with a finishing agent which can be magnesium stearate or another polymer; this treatment aids in textile manufacture. The fibers are transferred through a series of rollers onto a spool. In the post World War II era, DuPont Textiles Fibers Department, formed in 1952, became its most popular division, dominating the synthetic fiber market worldwide. At this time, women began to emerge as a significant group of consumers because of their need for underwear and hosiery. DuPont conducted market research to find out what women wanted from textiles began developing fibers to meet their needs.
The "need" was a better fiber solution for women's girdles, which were made of rubber at the time. DuPont became interested in developing a synthetic elastic fiber in the 1930s, perfected by chemist Joseph Shivers in 1959. Spandex's transformative nature allowed it to be incorporated into other garments besides girdles and undergarments. DuPont launched an extensive publicity campaign for its Lycra brand, taking advertisements and full-page ads in top women's magazines such as Vogue, Harper Bazaar, Mademoiselle, McCalls, Ladies Home Journal, Good Housekeeping. Fashion's original style icon, Audrey Hepburn helped catapult the brand on and off-screen in the late 50's. By the mid-1970s, girdle sales began to drop with the emergence of the Women's Liberation Movement. Girdles came to be associated with anti-independence and emblematic of an era, passing away. DuPont was not ready to abandon a market that they were reliant on. In response, DuPont reimagined; this expansion furthered at the 1968 Winter Olympic Games when the French ski team wore Lycra garments to compete.
This popularized the brand as essential athletic wear because of its flexible and lightweight material. The fiber proved to be popular in mid-thigh-length shorts worn by cyclists. By the 1980s, the fitness trend had reached its height in popularity and fashionistas began wearing shorts on the street. Spandex proved such a popular fiber in the garment industry that by 1987 DuPont had trouble meeting worldwide demand. In the 1990s a variety of other items made with Spandex proved popular, including a successful line of body-shaping foundation garments sold under the trade name Bodyslimmers; as the decade progressed, pants and shoes were being made with spandex blends, mass-market retailers like Banana Republic were using it for menswear. The elasticity and strength (stretching up t
Lady Margaret Boat Club
The Lady Margaret Boat Club is the rowing club for members of St John's College, England. The club is named after founder of the College; the Lady Margaret men's first boat is Head of the River for both Lent Bumps and May Bumps. They are current winners of the Oxford/Cambridge Men's Intercollegiate fixture at the Henley Boat Races, beating Oriel College, Oxford with a verdict of 4 lengths. LMBC was founded in 1825 by twelve members of the College as the first college boat club in Cambridge. In its original rules, the Club was to "consist of eighteen contributing members, besides honorary ones", all members had to be able to row. An early member was Patrick Colquhoun who in 1837 instigated the Colquhoun Sculls, in the year in which he won the Wingfield Sculls; the greatest influence in the 1860s and 1870s was J. H. D. Goldie, who raised LMBC to the "Headship of the River", won the "Colquhoun Sculls", stroked Cambridge four times; the Goldie Boathouse, used by the university crews, commemorates his services to Cambridge rowing as does the name of the university second VIII known as the Goldie Crew and competes annually against Isis just before the University Boat Race.
Another important name in LMBC history is LHK Bushe-Fox who had a long career with LMBC, becoming President of the Club in 1897. One of the greatest influences of this century was Roy Meldrum who established the "Lady Margaret" style, which he detailed in his rowing books; the Boathouse was opened in the May term of 1901. It was extended in the 1970s, was the first boathouse to have a workshop for the boatman. In the early 1980s, when the college began to admit women, further modifications were made upstairs to create the women's changing rooms; the boathouse was extended further in 2000 to create more indoor training space. A shed is now being built to house the club's fours, which are racked outside; the Club's heyday was in the late 1950s. LMBC won the "Ladies Plate" in 1949 with a new course record. In 1950, they made 4 bumps to go "Head of the Mays", stayed "Head" for five years. In 1951, Lady Margaret won the Grand at Henley Royal Regatta and had five members of the successful Cambridge crew, which defeated Harvard and Yale in the United States.
Between 1975 and 1981, Lady Margaret were Head of the Lent Bumps for 26 consecutive days, the longest continuous defence of the Lent Headship. LMBC took the men's May Headship on day 4 of the 2016 races, the first time they have held the Headship since 1989. LMBC retained the Mays headship in 2017 and 2018. In Lent Bumps 2017, LMBC took the men's Lents Headship on day 3, the first time they have held the Headship since 1990. LMBC retained the Lents headship in 2018. In March 2017, Lady Margaret's men's first boat represented the Cambridge colleges in the Men's Intercollegiate fixture at the Henley Boat Races against Oriel College, Oxford. Lady Margaret won with a verdict of 4 lengths. Members of the club are well known for their scarlet jackets, which gave rise to the modern term blazer. Members with "First May Colours" are entitled to wear trim and gold buttons on their blazer, while "First Lent" or "Second May Colours" are entitled to wear silver buttons on their blazer; the club is traditionally strong in the May CUCBC Bumps race.
Due to its affiliation with St. John's College, the club always fields many very successful, boats with first time rowers during the first university term. Club members often go to row with university lightweight and heavyweight crews to compete against Oxford; the club motto has been "Si je puis" since 1825. The boat club song, Viva laeta, has a chorus that goes as follows: Vive laeta, Beatorum insulis. Although the music is printed in the boat club's history and the song is sung at every Boat Club Dinner, few members know the tune. Dinners are known for more controversial songs. St. John's, Cambridge has long had a close rivalry with Cambridge; every year, a strange tradition takes place during the Bumps Weeks in Lent and May term, known as the "Stomp". Crews gather on the College Backs every morning preceding the races. One crew at a time will stop at a lone tree, knock three times on its trunk and shout out the name of the crew that will be starting in front of them that day to be "bumped".
The whole club strolls through the backs towards arch-rivals Trinity. Once in Trinity College's great court, a standoff between the rival boat clubs occurs followed by a tackling session in which boat club members from each side attempt to "kidnap" members of the opposite club. If captured, one is put to shame by being bought breakfast in the rival college's hall. University rowing Henley Boat Race Rowing Blazers University of Cambridge University of Oxford Durack, John; the Bumps: An Account of the Cambridge University Bumping Races 1827-1999 ISBN 0-9538475-1-9 CUCBC - Lent and May Bumps programmes. Club Website
Pembroke College Boat Club (Cambridge)
Pembroke College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Over the last century, crews from Pembroke have held the headship of the men's Lent Bumps on four occasions, the headship of the men's May Bumps ten times; the men's 1st VIII spent their entire history in the 1st division of both events, apart from poor performances in the Lent Bumps 2000 and the May Bumps 2003, the crew is found in the top half of the division. The women's 1st VIII first raced in 1985, have not yet taken the headship of the Lent Bumps, but took the headship of the May Bumps in 1997, 1998, 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2010. University rowing Durack, John; the Bumps: An Account of the Cambridge University Bumping Races 1827-1999 ISBN 0-9538475-1-9 CUCBC - Lent and May Bumps programmes. Pembroke College Boat Club
Corpus Christi College Boat Club (Cambridge)
Corpus Christi College Boat Club is the rowing club for members of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. Corpus blade colours are maroon with a vertical white stripe and rowers wear kit of the same colour; the boat club crest features the same mythical pelican as that of the College pictured in front of a pair of crossed blades. Corpus is one of the smallest colleges in the University of Cambridge fielding 2-3 men's crews and 1-2 women's crews in the Lent and May Bumps races each year, it shares a boat house with the boat clubs of Sidney Sussex and Wolfson colleges. Corpus Christi College Boat Club was founded in 1828; the club benefited when the Lent and May Bumps became separate events in 1887. The 1st VIII managed to take the headship that year, they did again in 1891, but fell away into the 2nd division thereafter, although rising as high as 6th in 1953. Due to how the May Bumps start order was derived in 1887, Corpus started low down and has since spent most of its time in or around the 2nd division.
To date, 1887 and 1891 are the only headships. A women's crew first appeared in 1984 and has spent most of their early years in the 2nd division of both the Lents and Mays making the 1st division in the 1987 Lents. In the bumps, the small size of Corpus has meant that a periodic shortage of well-trained crews has meant Corpus is prone to yo-yo; this has meant Corpus has traditionally found it difficult to get a sufficient run of good crews to get into the 1st Division. The men were last in the Mays 1st Division in 1994, however a run of bad form in the late 1990s and 2000s saw them slip down to the top of the 3rd Division by 2009. After a few years around the bottom of the 2nd Division, they have been progressing upwards since 2014, in 2017 finished 9th in the 2nd Division. In the Lent Bumps the men have been around the middle to bottom of the 2nd Division since the early 1990s, although like in the Mays, have been moving upward in recent years, they finished the 2017 Lent Bumps 7th in the 2nd Division.
The women have fluctuated between the middle of the 2nd Division and the 3rd Division in recent years in the May Bumps. In 2016 they achieved a club record of +6. In the Lent Bumps the small size of Corpus has meant the women have sometimes been unable to field a crew in recent years. In 2016 they finished 15th in the 2nd Division. In 2016 Corpus won the Pegasus Cup for the most successful college boat club in the May races
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed