Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland, of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula; the province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2016 census. Newfoundland was home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken. Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.
A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's name to Newfoundland and Labrador; the name "New founde lande" was uttered by King Henry VII in reference to the land explored by the Cabots. In Portuguese it is Terra Nova, which means "new land", the French name for the Province's island region; the name "Terra Nova" is in wide use on the island. The influence of early Portuguese exploration is reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Labrador's name in the Inuttitut language is Nunatsuak, meaning "the big land". Newfoundland's Inuttitut name is Ikkarumikluak meaning "place of many shoals".
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, is at the north-eastern corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical parts: Labrador, a large area of mainland Canada, Newfoundland, an island in the Atlantic Ocean; the province includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Newfoundland is triangular; each side is about 400 km long, its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its neighbouring small islands have an area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N. Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belongs to Quebec. Most of Labrador's southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labrador's extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador's area is 294,330 km2. Together and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada's area, with a total area of 405,720 km2.
Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, as such has been designated a World Heritage Site; the Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains. The north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate, while most of Newfoundland has a humid continental climate: cool summer subtype. Newfoundland and Labrador has a wide range of climates and weather, due to its geography; the island of Newfoundland spans 5 degrees of latitude, comparable to the Great Lakes.
The province has been divided into six climate types, but broadly Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate. Monthly average temperatures and snowfall for four places are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. Climate data for 56 places in the province is available from Environment Canada; the data for the graphs is the average over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount that fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground; this distinction is important for St. John's, where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain, so no snow remains on the ground.
CFB Goose Bay
Canadian Forces Base Goose Bay referred to as CFB Goose Bay, is a Canadian Forces Base located in the municipality of Happy Valley-Goose Bay in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It is operated as an air force base by the Royal Canadian Air Force, its primary RCAF lodger unit is 5 Wing referred to as 5 Wing Goose Bay. The airfield at CFB Goose Bay is used by civilian aircraft, with civilian operations at the base referring to the facility as Goose Bay Airport; the airport is classified as an airport of entry by Nav Canada and is staffed by the Canada Border Services Agency. CBSA officers at this airport can handle general aviation aircraft only, with no more than 15 passengers; the mission of 5 Wing is to support the defence of North American airspace, as well as to support the RCAF and allied air forces in training. Two units comprise 5 Wing: 5 Wing Air Reserve Flight. CFB Goose Bay serves as a forward operating location for RCAF CF-18 Hornet aircraft and the base and surrounding area is used to support units of the Canadian Army during training exercises.
While the flat and weather-favoured area around North West River had for years been under consideration for an airport for the anticipated North Atlantic air routes, it was not until Eric Fry of the Dominion Geodetic Survey investigated the area on 1 July 1941 that the Goose Bay location was selected. Fry beat by three days a similar United States Army Air Forces survey team under Captain Elliott Roosevelt; these surveys used amphibious aircraft. Eric Fry recalled: "The airport is located on the plateau at the west end of Terrington Basin but it is only five miles inland from the narrows between Goose Bay and Terrington Basin. Having a Gander air base in Newfoundland I suggested we call the Labrador site Goose Bay airport and the suggestion was accepted."Under pressure from Britain and the United States the Canadian Air Ministry worked at a record pace, by November, three 2,100-metre gravel runways were ready. The first land aircraft movement was recorded on 9 December 1941. By spring of 1942 the base, now carrying the wartime codename Alkali, was bursting with air traffic destined for the United Kingdom.
In time, the USAAF and the British Royal Air Force each developed sections of the triangular base for their own use, but the airport remained under overall Canadian control despite its location in the Dominion of Newfoundland, not yet a part of Canada. The 99-year lease arrangement with the United Kingdom was not finalized until October 1944. In 1942 the aerodrome was listed as RCAF Aerodrome - Goose Bay, Labrador at 53°20′N 60°24′W with a variation of 35 degrees west and elevation of 45 metres; the field was listed as "All hard-surfaced" and had three runways listed as follows: The northeast side of the facility was built to be a temporary RCAF base, complete with its own hangars and control tower, while the south side of the facility, built for the Americans, was being upgraded with its own aprons, earth-covered magazines, control tower and infrastructure. The Canadian and American bases were built as an RCAF station and a United States Air Force base known as Goose AB, housing units of the Strategic Air Command and Aerospace Defense Command.
It was home to permanent detachments of the RAF, Aeronautica Militare, Royal Netherlands Air Force, in addition to temporary deployments from several other NATO countries. 1950 – The Rivière-du-Loup Incident Goose Air Base was the site of the first US nuclear weapons in Canada, when in 1950 the United States Air Force Strategic Air Command stationed 11 model 1561 Fat Man atomic bombs at the base in the summer, flew them out in December. While returning to Davis–Monthan Air Force Base with one of the bombs on board, a USAF B-50 heavy bomber encountered engine trouble, had to drop, conventionally detonate, the bomb over the St. Lawrence, contaminating the river with uranium-238. 1954 – Construction of the Strategic Air Command Weapons Storage AreaConstruction of Strategic Air Command's Weapons Storage Area at Goose Air Base was completed in 1954. The area was surrounded by two fences, topped with barbed wire, it was the highest security area in Goose Air Base and comprised One guard house One administration building Three warehouses Six guard towers One plant group building Five earth-covered magazines for non-nuclear weapon storage Four earth-covered magazines for "pit" storage The design and layout of the Goose Air Base weapons storage area was identical, with only slight modifications for weather and terrain, to the three Strategic Air Command weapons storage areas in Morocco located at Sidi Slimane Air Base, Ben Guerir Air Base, Nouasseur Air Base, which were constructed between 1951 and 1952 as overseas operational storage sites.
The last nuclear bomb components that were being stored at the Goose Air Base weapons storage area were removed in June 1971. 1958 – Construction of the Air Defence Command ammunition storage areaConstruction of the Air Defence Command ammunition storage area at Goose Air Base was completed in 1958. This extension to the Strategic Air Command weapons storage area was built directly beside the constructed area, with a separate entrance; the buildings built within the area were: Three storage buildings One guardhouse One missile assembly building. The storage wa
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
Wabush is a small town in the western tip of Labrador, known for transportation and iron ore operations. Wabush is the twin community of Labrador City. At its peak population in the late 1970s, the region had a population of just over 22,000. A reduction in iron mining operations in the late 20th century caused a major decline in jobs and population; as of 2011, Wabush's population was 1,861. Most residents continue to work in the nearby mine: Iron Ore Company of Canada, now a unit of Rio Tinto Mines. Companies in and around Wabush include: Tacora Resources While remote, the town contains modern amenities. A shopping centre includes a post office, bank, a restaurant, a bar, a snowmobile store. There is a recreational centre, which includes a bowling alley, swimming pool, a teen centre, a weight lifting room. Nearby Labrador City has a modern indoor shopping centre, which includes a Walmart, Mark's Work Wearhouse and Canadian Tire. In 2017, MHA Graham Letto and Labrador City Mayor Wayne Button stated that the municipal governments of Labrador City and Wabush are looking into the idea of amalgamation.
Air transportation needs for the twin communities are served by Wabush Airport and seasonally by Wabush Water Aerodrome. It used to receive more frequent service by Air Gaspé, acquired by Quebecair in 1973; the latter ended as an independent business in 1986, acquired in turn by CP Air in 1986 and Canadian Airlines in 1987. The area is serviced by Air Canada, Provincial Airlines, Pascan Air and Air Inuit. Like most of Labrador, Wabush has a subarctic climate with precipitation much higher than usual for this type of climate due to the persistent Icelandic Low, which give the region some of the rainiest and snowiest weather in all of Canada. In summer, cloudiness is high due to the lakes nearby and the unstable northerly airstreams that prevail, but because the town is far from the open sea, sunshine is higher than in St. John's due to the absence of fog from the Labrador Current. Snow melts off in May. Mike Adam, Canadian curler Shawn Doyle, actor Michael Crummey and writer Reg Sherren, CBC reporter Wabush appears in the John Wyndham post-catastrophe novel The Chrysalids under the name of Waknuk.
Labrador West Wabush - Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, vol.5, p. 494-495
Churchill Falls, Newfoundland and Labrador
Churchill Falls is a town in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. It is a company town. John McLean is believed to have been the first European to see the falls in 1839. In 1967, work on the generating station had commenced inaugurated by Premier Joey Smallwood, while residential facilities began that year; the town was built around a town complex, the Donald Gordon Centre, with amenities such as a school, grocery store, restaurant, curling club and swimming pool. Permanent housing facilities were constructed in 1969; the town remains a company town to this date. Churchill Falls lies on the Churchill River near the Churchill Falls, one of the largest waterfalls in Canada, it is about 245 kilometres east of Labrador City. Under the Köppen climate classification, Churchill Falls has a subarctic climate with long, cold winters and short, mild summers. Churchill Falls is a part of the Division No. 10, Subdivision D. As of the 2016 census, it had a population of 705. There were a total of 369 private dwellings.
The population was spread out with 160 being from age 0 to 14, 530 from age 15 to 64, 10 being age 65 or older. The average age was 32.4. English was the mother tongue of 695 residents, while French was the mother tongue of the remaining 10. A total of 40 residents claimed to be of First Nations heritage, while 60 were Métis and 15 were Inuit. Churchill Falls is connected by the Trans-Labrador Highway with Labrador City and Baie-Comeau in Quebec; the Churchill Falls Airport serves the community. There were scheduled flights to Goose Wabush in the 1970s; the Terry Smith Memorial Arena, named after a longtime resident, is one of the most popular facilities in town. The Churchill Falls Gymnasium serves the needs of the Eric G. Lambert School as well as badminton and hockey teams; the curling club is based at the Donald Gordon Center. There are soccer fields and a swimming pool in the community. List of cities and towns in Newfoundland and Labrador Churchill Falls travel guide from Wikivoyage
PAL Airlines is a regional airline with headquarters at St. John's International Airport in St John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. PAL operates scheduled passenger, air ambulance and charter services. PAL is the commercial airline arm of the PAL Group of Companies. In addition to its head office, it has offices in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Happy Valley-Goose Bay. PAL is the second largest regional airline operator in Eastern Canada next to Air Canada Express; the airline was established in August 1974 as a flight charter operator. Scheduled airline operations began in 1980. In the 1980s, the company developed its airborne maritime surveillance division, which operated until 1989 as Atlantic Airways. In 1988, it acquired Eastern Flying Service. In 1995, it created an Interprovincial Airlines division to operate scheduled airline operations and entered into a commercial agreement with Air Nova, it is a partner, with the Innu Development Limited partnership, in Innu Mikun Airlines, which serves the Labrador coast.
Traditionally, the company operated light aircraft such as Piper Navajo's and the Britten-Norman Islander around Atlantic Canada. The airline began operating DHC-6 Twin Otters and Fairchild Metroliners and, at one point, had a Convair 580 in its fleet. In 2001, PAL took the delivery of its first Saab 340 aircraft; this meant that PAL Airlines had become a 705 carrier, as per Transport Canada Canadian Aviation Regulations, which meant that the first class of flight attendants were trained at this time. The airline added to its 705 fleet three years when the company was awarded the VALE Inc. contract for the Voisey's Bay Mine in Labrador. This contract required the use of de-Havilland Dash 8's which began to arrive in 2004. Provincial added more Dash 8's as part of the airline's scheduled air service. On 12 March 2009, one of Provincial Aerospace's Maritime Patrol Aircraft was first on the scene of Cougar Helicopters Flight 91's ditching, flying "top cover" until other help could arrive, leading to the rescue of the sole survivor.
Between 2011 and 2012, the company was divided into two companies. Remaining under the same ownership, two separate companies were formed: Provincial Aerospace and Provincial Airlines. Provincial Aerospace has always been the parent company and, up until consisted of the Maritime Surveillance divisions in Canada, Curaçao and the United Arab Emirates. During the split, both of Provincial's Cessna Citation jets, the charter and MEDIVAC King Airs in Halifax were moved over to the aerospace division. Anything considered. Provincial Airlines was left with its fleet of 704 and 705 aircraft which now consists of Twin Otters, a Metroliner, Dash-8's at 4 bases in St. John's, Goose Bay and Montreal. Provincial undertook an internal shift of management. On February 19, 2014 it was announced that Provincial Airlines was awarded a 4-year contract to be the air service provider for Nalcor Energy on the Lower Churchill Project. In November 2014, the company was purchased by Exchange Income Corporation, a Toronto Stock Exchange -listed stock that owns regional airlines and several manufacturing companies, for a combination of cash and stock worth about $246 million.
St. John's International Airport: PAL operates the Dash 8 and Metroliner as well as aircraft from the aerospace side of the company out of St. John's. PAL Airlines operates two hangars in shares one. Hangar 2 houses the Metroliner. Hangar 3 holds Dash 8 maintenance as well as the commissary department. Hangar 4 houses a number of departments including human resources, training, building maintenance, chief pilot and Fisheries and Oceans Canada of PAL Airlines, flight attendant management, crew room, crew scheduling and System Operational Control Centre, PAL Cargo are attached to Hangar 4. Hangar 4 can be rented to store aircraft. One of the PAL owned Shell fixed-base operator located at the St. John's International Airport is located in Hangar 4. Halifax Stanfield International Airport: PAL operates one hangar in Halifax, which houses a Dash 8; this hangar is shared with its aircraft as well. PAL operates an Esso Avitat FBO at this hangar; the hangar has management offices and a crew room. Goose Bay Airport: Goose Bay is home to PAL Airlines Twin Otter operation under the name of Air Borealis.
PAL owns two hangars in Goose Bay. Hangar 14 houses the aircraft groomers, aircraft maintenance for Twin Otters, crew room and dispatch. Hangar 18 in Goose Bay houses the Voisey's Bay check-in desk for the daily charter the Dash 8 provides to Voisey's Bay Aerodrome at the Voisey's Bay mine in Voisey's Bay, northern Labrador. PAL Cargo, Air Borealis charters and management offices are in Hangar 18. Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport: PAL Airlines operates from the Starlink Aviation hangar at Montreal's Pierre Elliot Trudeau airport; the hangar houses Dash 8s for charter service throughout Quebec. St. John's International Airport: Hangars 1 and 6 in St. John's are owned by Provincial Aerospace. Hangar 2 houses the Cessna Citation II MEDIVAC, 4 Maritime Surveillance King Air 200's, it is shared with the airline division's Dash 8s and Metroliner. Hangar 2 has the offices of the chief pilot of the AMSD Division, other managers and part of the IT department. Hangar 1 houses the Cessna Citation X and the office of the chie