Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill KG OM CH TD PC DL FRS RA was a British statesman who was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill was an officer in the British Army, a historian. He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1953 for his overall, in 1963, he was the first of only eight people to be made an honorary citizen of the United States. Churchill was born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough and his father, Lord Randolph Churchill, was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer, his mother, Jennie Jerome, was an American socialite. As a young officer, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War. He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns, at the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, during the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign caused his departure from government.
He briefly resumed active service on the Western Front as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers. He returned to government under Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, at the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister and he led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. After the Conservative Party suffered a defeat in the 1945 general election. He publicly warned of an Iron Curtain of Soviet influence in Europe, after winning the 1951 election, Churchill again became Prime Minister. His second term was preoccupied by foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, domestically his government laid great emphasis on house-building. Churchill suffered a stroke in 1953 and retired as Prime Minister in 1955. Upon his death aged ninety in 1965, Elizabeth II granted him the honour of a state funeral and his highly complex legacy continues to stimulate intense debate amongst writers and historians.
Born into the family of the Dukes of Marlborough, a branch of the noble Spencer family, Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, like his father. His ancestor George Spencer had changed his surname to Spencer-Churchill in 1817 when he became Duke of Marlborough, to highlight his descent from John Churchill, Churchill was born on 30 November 1874, two months prematurely, in a bedroom in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire. From age two to six, he lived in Dublin, where his grandfather had been appointed Viceroy, Churchills brother, John Strange Spencer-Churchill, was born during this time in Ireland
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark. The collection is built around the collection of Carl Jacobsen. However, the museum is noted for its collection of painting that includes an extensive collection of French impressionists and Post-impressionists as well as Danish Golden Age paintings. The museums collection includes all the sculptures of Degas, including the series of dancers. Numerous works by Norwegian-Danish sculptor Stephan Sinding are featured prominently in various sections of the museum, Carl Jacobsen was a dedicated art collector. He was particularly interested in art, but over the years he acquired a considerable collection of French. When his private villa in 1882 was extended with a winter garden, the same year the collection was opened to the public. In the following years the museum was expanded on a number of occasions to meet the need for space for his steadily growing collections. In spite of the extensions, it was finally clear the existing premises were inadequate.
On 8 March 1888 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection to the Danish State, Jacobsen was displeased with the location which he found to be too far from the city centre and he had reservations about the proximity of Tivoli which he found common. Instead he wanted a building on the new city hall square. It was Carl Jacobsen who chose the name for the museum, with inspiration from Ludwig Is Glyptothek in Munich, the moat around the radan was filled and the new museum opened first on 1 May 1897. At first it only included Jacobsens modern collection with French and Danish works from the 18th century, in January 1899 Carl Jacobsen donated his collection of Antique art to the museum which made an expansion necessary. It was designed by Hack Kampmann while Dahlerup designed a garden which connected the new wing to the old building. In 1996 the museum was again extended, this time with an infill constructed in one of its courtyards to the design of Henning Larsen. In 2006, the building underwent a major renovation programme under the direction of Danish architects Dissing + Weitling. the building is often noted for its elegance in its own right and the synthesis it creates with the works of art.
The Dahlerup Wing, the oldest part of the museum, is a lavish historicist building, the façade is in red brick with polished granite columns in a Venetian renaissance style. It houses the French and Danish collections, the Kampmann Wing is a more simple, neo-classical building, built as a series of galleries around a central auditorium used for lectures, small concerts and poetry readings
Royal Library Garden, Copenhagen
It has a reputation for being one of the most tranquil spots in the city centre. The garden has a water basin with a water feature in the middle, blooming flower beds. It is accessible from the courtyard at Christiansborgs show grounds, the Library Garden is located on top of the former site of Christian IVs old Naval Harbour. The harbour was flanked by a housing the Tøjhus Museum—and a supply depot. Later the Navy was moved to Holmens Kanal and the old harbour was filled in 1867, the garden was designed in 1920 by landscape gardener Jens Peder Andersen and Christiansborgs architect Thorvald Jørgensen. The garden has a pool at its centre. In the middle of it stands an eight-metre-high copper sculpture which spouts out cascades of water on the hour, a 1918 bronze statue of Søren Kierkegaard by sculptor Louis Hasselriis is located in the middle of the gardens. Kierkegaard appears absorbed in his own thoughts with his gaze directed towards a point on the side of the wall where his fiancée. The wide variety of flowers in the change with the seasons.
Visitors can enjoy the view from rows of benches in the shade of the trees or from out in the sun along the wall between the gardens and the yard to the Danish National Archives. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Rosenborg Castle Gardens
Rosenborg Castle Gardens is the oldest and most visited park in central Copenhagen, Denmark. The park plays host to art exhibitions and other events such as concerts throughout the summer. A drawing by Otto Heider from 1649, the oldest dated garden plan from Denmark, the garden contained a pavilion, statues, a fountain and various other features. Its plants included mulberries, apples, pears, in the century, as fashions changed, the garden was redesigned. A garden plan from 1669 show a garden maze, a feature of the Baroque garden. It had a system of paths which led to a central space with an octagonal summerhouse in its centre. The 12-hectare park is bounded by the streets Gothersgade, Øster Voldgade, Sølvgade and Kronprinsessegade, Rosenborg Castle is located in the north-western section of the park and is surrounded by a moat on three sides. The two main entrance are the Kings Gate at the corner of Gothersgade and Kronprinsessegade, and the Queens Gate at the corner of Øster Voldgade and Sølvgade, there are four other entrances to the park.
The tree-lined avenues were planted as part of Kriegers Baroque garden, special sections include the PerennialsGarden in front of the wall along Sølvgade and the Rose Garden. Rosenborg Barracks is located on the corner of Gothersgade and Øster Voldgade and was originally a pavilion, in 1709 they were built together to form one large orangery complex and in 1743 it was redesigned into the Baroque style by Johan Cornelius Krieger. From 1885 to 1886 it was converted for use by the Royal Life Guard by Engineer Officer Ernst Peymann, in 1985 they moved to new premises at Høvelte between Allerød and Birkerød and since Rosenborg Barracks has only housed guards on duty at Copenhagen. The Commandants House is located just left of the entrance to Rosenborg Castle. It was built from 1760 to 1763 to designs by Jacob Fortling, today the building plays host to special exhibitions. The building is used as an exhibition space. It was built in 1688 and extended with a story in 1777. The gateway affords access to the park, the Gartners House is attached to Slotsforvalterboligen.
It was built around the same time The Hercules Pavilion stands at the end of Kavalergangen and it is flanked by two smaller niches with statues of Orpheus and Eurydice. The three statues were made by the Italian sculptor Giovanni Baratta and acquired by Frederik IV during his visit to Italy, along Kronprinsessegade and parts of Gothersgade, the park is enclosed by a wrought-iron grill incorporating 16 small pavilions, which opens to the street side
Christianshavns Vold is a former rampart which was part of the bastioned fortification ring which used to surround Copenhagen, Denmark. Running along the full perimeter of Christianshavn and Holmen, it used to form a protective barrier towards the island of Amager. It consists of earthworks with 12 bastions and in front of it ran a moat, Stadsgraven, on the other side of Stadsgraven. On Amager, was a system of outworks called Christianshavns Enveloppe of which only the northern half survives. Along with Kastellet on the side of the harbour, it is the only intact part of the fortification system. Today Christianshavns Vold serves as an important greenspace for Christianshavns inhabitants, the southern half of the rampart is a municipal park whereas the northern portion is part of Freetown Christiania, a self-built, semi-autonomous community which has existed since the early 1970s. Part of Christiania is located on the far side of Stadsgraven, the town was laid out with low earthworks facing Amager.
The rampart was constructed with four and a half bastions and a city gate, known as Amagerport, through which all traffic to, in the 1670s, when Vestervold was extended to reach the sea, Christiansvold was moved and extended to match the new course of Vestervold. Only the two northernmost bastions, today known as Løvens Bastion and Elefantens Bastion, remained on their original location, the new Christianshavns Vold had 5 very large bastions. Around the entire complex was a moat with a protecting counterscarp, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was again extended this time in northwards, to guard the entrance to the harbour and protect the new base for the Royal Fleet at what was to become known as Nyholm. The extension included 7 new bastions, named for members of the Royal family, the last extension of Christianshavns Vold was constructed as late as 1878-82, when a rampart was constructed along the eastside of the newly reclaimed Refshaleø. Kalvebod Bastion takes its name after Kalveboderne, the waters which were located to the south of Copenhagen in what is now its Southern Docklands.
Magasinbygningen, the larger of the two, is a two-storey, L-shaped storage building from 1800, the other one is a small forge from 1757. Both are today owned by Karberghus, a privately owned property which mainly invests in historic properties, the bastion contains a gunpowder magazine from c.1675 which was formerly used as a storage space by Copenhagen Municipalitys park authority. It now serves as club house for Qajaq København, a kayak cluv, the bastion has for centuries housed various industrial enterprises. A large defunct chimney is left at the site, panterens Bastion contains a former military training facility for shooting with hand guns. The buildings, a complex of red brick buildings, has now converted into apartments. Am unnamed footbridge connects the bastion to Amager Boulevard on the side of Stadsgraven
Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Copenhagen is a green city well endowed with open spaces. It has an extensive and well-distributed system of parks that act as venues for an array of events. As a supplement to the parks, there are a number of congenial public gardens. It is official policy in Copenhagen that all citizens by 2015 must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes. Kings Garden, the garden of Rosenborg Castle, is the oldest and most visited park in Copenhagen and its landscaping was commenced by Christian IV in 1606. Every year it more than 2.5 million visitors. It serves as a garden with a permanent display of sculptures as well as temporary exhibits during summer. Just north of Kings Garden a series of make up a green strand running right through the centre of the city. Fælledparken in the part of the city is, at 58 hectares. Another popular park is the Frederiksberg Gardens, which is a 32-hectare romantic landscape park and it houses a large colony of very tame grey herons along with other waterfowl.
The park offers views of the elephants and the elephant house, designed by the world-famous British architect Norman Foster, some of Copenhagens newer parks draw from their position by the water. Amager Beach Park was founded in 1934, but in 2005 a 2. 4-kilometre-long artificial island was added, separated from the beach by a lagoon crossed by three bridges. It is official policy in Copenhagen that all citizens by 2015 must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes. In line with policy, several new parks are under development in areas poor in green spaces. One of those recently completed is Superkilen, a park for the ethnic inhabitants of the Nørrebro district of Copenhagen. Besides the regular parks, a number of open to the general public serve as important green spaces in central Copenhagen. Now open to the public during daytime, characteristic of Copenhagen is that a number of cemeteries double as parks, though only for the more quiet activities such as sunbathing and meditation.
Assistens Cemetery, the place of Hans Christian Andersen among others, is an important green space for the district of Inner Nørrebro
Havneparken is a public park located directly on the waterfront in the district of Islands Brygge in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is one of the most lively and popular places along the Copenhagen harbourfront, the park is the location of the Islands Brygge Cultural Centre and the Islands Brygge Harbour Bath. The first plans to transform the area into a park was conceived by local grassroots in 1978, in 1983-84, an area of 1 hectare, located just south of Langebro, was put at the disposal of Islands Brygge Local Council. In 1995, the park was extended with an additional 2,8 hectares of waterfront, in 2002 a temporary harbour bath was constructed and the following year, it was replaced by a larger and permanent harbour bath. Islands Brygge Cultural Centre is a community centre, located in the middle of the Harbour Park. It was built in 2000 as a replacement for a cultural centre that was demolished as part of the redevelopment of the northernmost part of the Islands Brygge neighbourhood. The centre has a restaurant and arranges a multitude of cultural activities, islandsbrygge Harbour Bath is a public swimming facility, located in the water off the northern part of the park.
Built to the design of architects Julien de Smedt and Bjarke Ingels in 2003, it has a total of 5 pools, there are two pools dedicated to children, two 50 metre pools for swimming and a diving pool with three and five metre springboards. Pinen is a bandstand, constructed by resting a hull turned upside-down on two columns, the ship is a former Limfjord ferry, built in 1954. It operated between the island Mors and the Salling Peninsula until 1978, when the Sallingsund Bridge was constructed, Pinen was torn down 2011 after 15 years of neglected repair. In the redevelopment of the area, a number of existing industrial structures was preserved and incorporated into the design of the park. This was done to commemorate the history of the site and to create a sense of place, havneparken is one of the most popular places in Copenhagen to enjoy good weather and the quayside serves as an esplanade popular with strollers. Apart from swimming at the bath, the park contains facilities for a number of other sports.
These include facilities for skateboarding and streetbasket as well as beach volleyball, the park has a playground. The park is home to many open-air concerts, either performed at the bandstand or a variety of other locations. Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
St. Alban's Church, Copenhagen
St. Albans Church, locally often referred to simply as the English Church, is an Anglican church in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was built from 1885 to 1887 for the growing English congregation in the city, the church is part of Church of Englands Diocese in Europe. It is dedicated to Saint Alban, the first martyr of Great Britain, the first sizable British community in Denmark settled in Elsinore in the early 16th century. The town was an important logistical hub for the collection of Sound Dues, first to arrive was a community of Scots which had a Scottish altar dedicated to Saint Jacob, Saint Andrew and the Scottish Saint Ninian in the local Saint Olafs Church. The altar has now moved to the National Museum of Denmark. Much of the traffic was British and over the course of time many English shipping agencies were established in Elsinore. There even was a British consul there while Copenhagen only had a vice-consul, under the Kings Law from 1665, which had instituted absolutism in Denmark, Lutheranism was the only faith allowed to hold religious services in Denmark.
During the second half of the 18th century more and more foreign denominations were granted exemptions to this prohibition. Up through the 19th century the English community in Copenhagen grew as the significance as a centre of commerce increased. An English congregation held services in rented rooms in Store Kongensgade near Kongens Nytorv from 1834. The congregation had ambitions to build their own church and a Church Building Committee was established in 1854, in 1864, it made an appeal to the Prince of Wales, and his consort, the Danish-born Princess Alexandra, took it upon her to assist. The foundation stone of St. Albans Church was laid on 19 September 1885, the church was designed by Arthur Blomfield. It was consecrated two years on 17 September 1887, like Princess Alexandra, both George I and Maria Feodorovna were born Danish, issue of the Danish King and Queen Consort. Also present were the entire Diplomatic Corps, representatives of the Army and Navy, church officials and it is built in the Gothic Revival style inspired by the Early English Style, known as Lancet Gothic.
The church is built in limestone from the Faxe south of Copenhagen, knapped flint from Stevns, the tiles on the roof are from Broseley in Shropshire. The tower contains fifteen tubular bells and it was not deemed strong enough to support regular bells, and a set of eight was presented by the Prince of Wales when the church was built. These can be played manually on an Ellacombe Frame, on which the player pulls a rope for the relevant bell. In 2013 the Prince of Wales contributed to a new fund, which enabled a further seven bells to be installed, every quarter-hour the 80 louvres open while the bells sound a quarter chime, and after striking the hour play a hymn tune
An esplanade or promenade is a long, level area, usually next to a river or large body of water, where people may walk. The original meaning of esplanade was a large, level area outside fortress or city walls to provide fields of fire for the fortress guns. In modern usage the space allows people to walk for recreational purposes, esplanades are often on sea fronts, esplanades became popular in Victorian times when it was fashionable to visit seaside resorts. A promenade, often abbreviated to Prom, was an area where people - couples and families especially - would go to walk for a while in order to be seen, in North America, esplanade has another meaning, being a median dividing a roadway or boulevard. Sometimes they are just strips of grass, or some may have gardens, some roadway esplanades may be used as parks with a walking/jogging trail and benches. Esplanade and promenade are used interchangeably. The derivation of promenade indicates a place intended for walking, though many modern promenades and esplanades allow bicycles.
Some esplanades include large boulevards or avenues where cars are permitted, a similar term with the same meaning in the eastern coastal region of Spain is rambla, but more widely referred to as paseo marítimo, paseo or explanada in the Hispanic world. C
Langelinie is a pier and park in central Copenhagen and home of the statue of The Little Mermaid. The area has for centuries been a destination for excursions. Most cruise ships arriving in Copenhagen berth at Langelinie Pier, for a long time, the stretch was a military area where civilians were not granted unrestricted access. Under a general order from 1819, soldiers were required to throw water in the head and on the breast, eventually a beach promenade and a park for the Bourgeoisie were made but with access only on the payment of a toll to keep the more common people out. Not until an uprising in 1848 did the area become open to everybody. The expansion of the city and the increasing industrialization soon made it clear that the harbour was becoming too small. In a plan from 1862 it was decided to dig out the area to access for the largest ocean-going vessels. A suggestion to make all of Amager into a zone was abolished. The beginning of the work was prompted by Germanys construction of the Kiel Canal that was begun in 1887, in 1894 the work was completed and Copenhagen had got an entirely new harbourfront.
Langelinie became now a pier on the side of that harbour basin. The Langelinie Park stretches from Esplanaden in the south to Langelinie Marina, formally, it includes Kastellet although this site is generally referred to under its own name. The park contains numerous monuments, buildings, a marina, among these are the Gefion Fountain, the Ivar Huitfeldt Column and The Little Mermaid. Langelinie Marina was established in the 1890s in connection with the foundation of the Free Port, Copenhagen rowing clubs have for many years had their base at the marina. Today only B&Ws and DFDS are left after ØKs passed their premises to Langelinie Marinas Boat Huild, the Langelinie Pier has a water depth allowing big ocean-going vessels to tie up. The area has a number of statues and memorials and these include a cast bronze sculpture polar bear with cubs and memorials for MS Jutlandia, Ludvig Mylius-Erichsen. The polar bear has some bullet holes at the head and they were made by a German soldier under the Occupation of Denmark