Commuter rail called suburban rail, is a passenger rail transport service that operates between a city centre and middle to outer suburbs beyond 15 km and commuter towns or other locations that draw large numbers of commuters—people who travel on a daily basis. Trains operate following a schedule at speeds varying from 50 to 225 km/h. Distance charges or zone pricing may be used. Non-English names include Treno suburbano in Italian, Cercanías in Spanish, Rodalies in Catalan, Proastiakos in Greek, S-Bahn in German, Train de banlieue in French, Příměstský vlak or Esko in Czech, Elektrichka in Russian, Pociąg podmiejski in Polish and Pendeltåg in Swedish; the development of commuter rail services has become popular, with the increased public awareness of congestion, dependence on fossil fuels, other environmental issues, as well as the rising costs of owning and parking automobiles. Most commuter trains are built to main line rail standards, differing from light rail or rapid transit systems by: being larger providing more seating and less standing room, owing to the longer distances involved having a lower frequency of service having scheduled services serving lower-density suburban areas connecting suburbs to the city center sharing track or right-of-way with intercity or freight trains not grade separated being able to skip certain stations as an express service due to being driver controlled Compared to rapid transit, commuter/suburban rail has lower frequency, following a schedule rather than fixed intervals, fewer stations spaced further apart.
They serve lower density suburban areas, share right-of-way with intercity or freight trains. Some services operate only during peak hours and others uses fewer departures during off peak hours and weekends. Average speeds are high 50 km/h or higher; these higher speeds better serve the longer distances involved. Some services include express services which skip some stations in order to run faster and separate longer distance riders from short-distance ones; the general range of commuter trains' distance varies between 200 km. Sometimes long distances can be explained by. Distances between stations may vary, but are much longer than those of urban rail systems. In city centers the train either has a terminal station or passes through the city centre with notably fewer station stops than those of urban rail systems. Toilets are available on-board trains and in stations, their ability to coexist with freight or intercity services in the same right-of-way can drastically reduce system construction costs.
However they are built with dedicated tracks within that right-of-way to prevent delays where service densities have converged in the inner parts of the network. Most such trains run on the local standard gauge track; some systems may run on a broader gauge. Examples of narrow gauge systems are found in Japan, Malaysia, Switzerland, in the Brisbane and Perth systems in Australia, in some systems in Sweden, on the Genoa-Casella line in Italy; some countries and regions, including Finland, Pakistan, Russia and Sri Lanka, as well as San Francisco in the US and Melbourne and Adelaide in Australia, use broad gauge track. Metro rail or rapid transit covers a smaller inner-urban area ranging outwards to between 12 km to 20 km, has a higher train frequency and runs on separate tracks, whereas commuter rail shares tracks and the legal framework within mainline railway systems. However, the classification as a metro or rapid rail can be difficult as both may cover a metropolitan area run on separate tracks in the centre, feature purpose-built rolling stock.
The fact that the terminology is not standardised across countries further complicates matters. This distinction is most made when there are two systems such as New York's subway and the LIRR and Metro-North Railroad, Paris' Métro and RER along with Transilien, London's tube lines of the Underground and the Overground, Thameslink along with other commuter rail operators, Madrid's Metro and Cercanías, Barcelona's Metro and Rodalies, Tokyo's subway and the JR lines along with various owned and operated commuter rail systems. In Germany the S-Bahn is regarded as a train category of its own, exists in many large cities and in some other areas, but there are differing service and technical standards from city to city. Most S-Bahns behave like commuter rail with most trackage not separated from other trains, long lines with trains running between cities and suburbs rather than within a city; the distances between stations however, are short. In larger systems there is a high frequency metro-like central corridor in the city center where all the lines converge into.
Typical examples of large city S-Bahns include Frankfurt. S-Bahns do exist in some mid-size cities like Rostock and Magdeburg but behave more like typical commuter rail with lower frequencies and little exclusive trackage. In Berlin, the S-Bahn systems arguably fulfill all considerations of a true metro system (despite the existence of U-Ba
The Northeast Corridor is an electrified railroad line in the Northeast megalopolis of the United States. Owned by Amtrak, it runs from Boston through Providence, New Haven, New York City, Philadelphia through Wilmington, Baltimore to Washington, D. C; the NEC parallels Interstate 95 for most of its length, is the busiest passenger rail line in the United States by ridership and service frequency as of 2013. The NEC carries more than 2,200 trains daily. Branches to Harrisburg, Springfield and various points in Virginia are not considered part of the Northeast Corridor, despite frequent service from routes that run on the corridor; the corridor is used by many Amtrak trains, including the high-speed Acela Express, intercity trains, several long-distance trains. Most of the corridor has frequent commuter rail service, operated by the MBTA, Shore Line East, Metro-North Railroad, New Jersey Transit, SEPTA, MARC. Several companies run freight trains over sections of the NEC. Much of the line is built for speeds higher than the 79 mph maximum allowed on many U.
S. tracks. Amtrak operates intercity Northeast Regional and Keystone Service trains at up to 125 mph, as well as North America's only high-speed train, the Acela Express, which runs up to 150 mph on a few sections in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Acela covers the 225 miles between New York and Washington, D. C. in under 3 hours, the 229 miles between New York and Boston in under 3.5 hours. Under Amtrak's $151 billion Northeast Corridor plan, which hopes to halve travel times by 2040, trips between New York and Washington via Philadelphia would take 94 minutes; the Northeast Corridor was built by several railroads between the 1830s and 1917. The route was consolidated under two railroads: the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad between Boston and New York, the Pennsylvania Railroad between New York and Washington. Boston–Providence: Boston and Providence Railroad opened 1835 realigned in 1847 and in 1899. Became part of the Old Colony Railroad in 1888. Providence–Stonington: New York and Boston Railroad opened 1837.
Stonington–New Haven: New Haven, New London and Stonington Railroad opened 1852–1889, realigned in New Haven, 1894. New Haven–New Rochelle: New York and New Haven Railroad opened 1849. New Rochelle–Port Morris: Harlem River and Port Chester Railroad opened 1873. Port Morris–Sunnyside Yard: New York Connecting Railroad: opened 1917. Sunnyside Yard–Manhattan Transfer: Pennsylvania Tunnel and Terminal Railroad opened 1910. Manhattan Transfer–Trenton: United New Jersey Railroad and Canal Company opened 1834–1839, 1841. Trenton–Frankford Junction: Philadelphia and Trenton Railroad opened 1834. Frankford Junction–Zoo Tower: Connecting Railway opened 1867. Zoo Tower–Grays Ferry Bridge: Junction Railroad opened 1863–1866. Grays Ferry–Bayview: Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad opened 1837–1838, 1866, 1906. Bayview Yard–Baltimore Union Station: Union Railroad opened 1873. Baltimore Union Station–Landover: Baltimore and Potomac Rail Road opened 1872. Landover–Washington, D. C.: Magruder Branch opened 1907 The New York Central Railroad began planning electrification between Grand Central Terminal and the split at Mott Haven after the opening of the first electrified urban rail terminal in 1900, the Gare d'Orsay in Paris, France.
Electricity was in use on some branch lines of the NYNH&H for interurban streetcars via third rail or trolley wire. An accident in the Park Avenue Tunnel near the present Grand Central Terminal that killed 17 people on January 8, 1902 was blamed on smoke from steam locomotives; the NH announced in 1905 that it would electrify its main line from New York to Stamford, Connecticut. Along with the construction of the new Grand Central Terminal, opened in 1912, the NYC electrified its lines, beginning on December 11, 1906 with suburban multiple unit service to High Bridge on the Hudson Line. Electric locomotives began serving Grand Central on February 13, 1907, all NYC passenger service into Grand Central was electrified on July 1. NH electrification began on July 24 to New Rochelle, August 5 to Port Chester and October 6, 1907 the rest of the way to Stamford. Steam trains last operated into Grand Central on June 30, 1908, after which all NH passenger trains into Manhattan were electrified. In June 1914, the NH electrification was extended to New Haven, the terminus of electrified service for over 80 years.
At the same time, the PRR was building its Pennsylvania Station and electrified approaches, which were served by the PRR's lines in New Jersey and the Long Island Rail Road. LIRR electric service began in 1905 on the Atlantic Branch from downtown Brooklyn past Jamaica, in June 1910 on the branch to Long Island City, part of the main line to Penn Station. Penn Station opened September 8, 1910 for LIRR trains and November 27 for the PRR. PRR trains changed engines at Manhattan Transfer. On July 29, 1911, NH began electric service on its Harlem River Branch, a suburban branch that would become a main line with the completion of the New York Connecting Railroad and its Hell Gate Bridge; the bridge opened on April 1, 1917, but was operated by steam with an engine change at Sunnyside Yard east of Penn Station until 1918. Electrification of the portion north of New Haven to Providence and Boston had been planned by the N
Wilmington station (Delaware)
Joseph R. Biden Jr. Railroad Station known as Wilmington, is a passenger rail station in Wilmington, Delaware. One of Amtrak's busiest stops, it is part of the Northeast Corridor, it serves SEPTA Regional Rail commuter trains on the Wilmington/Newark Line as well as DART First State local buses and Greyhound Lines intercity buses. Built in 1907 as Pennsylvania Station, the station was renamed in 2011 for then-Vice President and former U. S. Senator Joseph R. Biden, Jr. an advocate for passenger rail who took the train from Wilmington to Washington, D. C. On June 9, 1987 Senator Biden formally announced his unsuccessful bid for the 1988 Democratic Presidential Nomination at the station. Located on Front Street between French and Walnut Streets in downtown Wilmington, the station has one inside level with stores, a cafe, ticket offices for Amtrak and SEPTA/DART First State, a car rental office, a post office. Passengers board their trains on the second-story train platforms; the station replaced an earlier station erected by the Philadelphia and Baltimore Railroad.
It was built in 1907 for $300,000 by the Pennsylvania Railroad. It was designed by renowned architect Frank Furness, who designed the adjacent Pennsylvania Railroad Building and the nearby Baltimore & Ohio Railroad's Water Street Station. Admired for his use of new and innovative materials and his forceful architectural statements, Furness chose to have the trains move right through the second floor of the station, with room for a ticketing and retail concourse at ground level underneath the tracks; this unconventional arrangement celebrated the power of the locomotive and America's industrial strength. The north end of the station has a four-faced rectangular clock tower that rises an extra story above the main roof, it is decorated with stone and terra cotta work, repeated in plainer form throughout the station. Wilmington Station has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since 1976. A renovation project was conducted in 1984; the National Register added the adjacent railroad viaduct in 1999.
SEPTA has been running to Wilmington since 1989. In 2009, the station began a two-year restoration. During construction, customer operations, including platform access, were moved to a temporary station next door; the station reopened on December 6, 2010, final work was completed in March 2011. On March 19, 2011, the station's name was changed from Wilmington Station to Joseph R. Biden, Jr. Railroad Station; the ceremony honored U. S. Vice President Joe Biden, who took over 7,000 round trips from the station to Washington, D. C. during his U. S. Senate career and was noted as an advocate for Amtrak and passenger rail more generally. On January 20, 2017, within an hour after completing his tenure as Vice President, Biden boarded an Amtrak Acela train in Washington, D. C. bound for his namesake station. The station is served by Amtrak Northeast Regional and Acela Express trains along the Northeast Corridor going south to Baltimore and Washington, D. C. and going north to Philadelphia, New York, Boston.
It is served by several long distance trains including the Cardinal to Chicago, the Carolinian to Charlotte, the Crescent to New Orleans, the Palmetto to Savannah, the Silver Star and the Silver Meteor to Florida, the Vermonter to Vermont. Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach service is provided through the station to Dover and Salisbury, Maryland via Greyhound Lines. Despite being just 25 miles south of Philadelphia's 30th Street Station, the third-busiest Amtrak station in the country, Biden Station is a major Amtrak station in its own right, it is the seventh-busiest Amtrak station in the 13th-busiest nationwide. It is served by SEPTA Regional Rail's Wilmington/Newark Line with service to Center City Philadelphia and Newark, Delaware. Like all stations in Delaware, SEPTA service is provided under contract and funded through DART First State, which provides extensive local bus service as they have since 1994. Greyhound Lines intercity buses stop at the Wilmington Bus Station adjacent to the Wilmington station at 101 North French Street.
The bus terminal is attached to the station's parking garage. Greyhound Lines provides direct, one seat ride service from the bus terminal to various cities including Baltimore, New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. DART First State bus routes serving Wilmington station include 2, 6, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 28, 31, 33, 35, 40, 45, 48, 52, 54, 55, 59, 301, 305. Buses stop along Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard at French Street; the Wilmington Transit Center is being built as a DART First State bus hub adjacent to Wilmington station. A groundbreaking ceremony for the transit center was held on November 19, 2018, with Governor John Carney, U. S. Senator Tom Carper, Wilmington Mayor Mike Purzycki, DelDOT Secretary Jennifer Cohan, DART First State CEO John Sisson in attendance; the Wilmington Transit Center will serve most DART First State bus routes in Wilmington and will include a covered waiting area with seats, real-time bus displays, a ticket sales office, vending machines, bicycle racks, parking.
Construction of the transit center will cost $19 million and is planned to be completed in December 2019. Delaware portal Wilmington and Western Railroad List of Dela
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority is a regional public transportation authority that operates bus, rapid transit, commuter rail, light rail, electric trolleybus services for nearly 4 million people in five counties in and around Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It manages projects that maintain and expand its infrastructure and vehicles. SEPTA is the major transit provider for Philadelphia and the counties of Delaware, Montgomery and Chester, it is a state-created authority, with the majority of its board appointed by the five Pennsylvania counties it serves. While several SEPTA commuter rail lines terminate in the nearby states of Delaware and New Jersey, additional service to Philadelphia from those states is provided by other agencies: the PATCO Speedline from Camden County, New Jersey is run by the Delaware River Port Authority, a bi-state agency. SEPTA has the 6th-largest U. S. rapid transit system by ridership, the 5th largest overall transit system, with about 306.9 million annual unlinked trips.
It controls 290 active stations, over 450 miles of track, 2,295 revenue vehicles, 196 routes. It oversees shared-ride services in Philadelphia and ADA services across the region, which are operated by third-party contractors. SEPTA is one of only two U. S. transit authorities that operates all of the five major types of terrestrial transit vehicles: regional rail trains, "heavy" rapid transit trains, light rail vehicles and motorbuses. SEPTA's headquarters are at 1234 Market Street in Philadelphia. SEPTA was created by the Pennsylvania legislature on August 17, 1963, to coordinate government subsidies to various transit and railroad companies in southeastern Pennsylvania, it commenced on February 18, 1964. On November 1, 1965, SEPTA absorbed two predecessor agencies: The Passenger Service Improvement Corporation, created January 20, 1960 to work with the Reading Company and Pennsylvania Railroad to improve commuter rail service and help the railroads maintain otherwise unprofitable passenger rail service.
The Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Compact, created September 8, 1961 by the City of Philadelphia and the Counties of Montgomery and Chester to coordinate regional transport issues. By 1966, the Reading Company and Pennsylvania Railroad commuter railroad lines were operated under contract to SEPTA. On February 1, 1968, the Pennsylvania Railroad merged with the New York Central railroad to become Penn Central, only to file for bankruptcy on June 21, 1970. Penn Central continued to operate in bankruptcy until 1976, when Conrail took over its assets along with those of several other bankrupt railroads, including the Reading Company. Conrail operated commuter services under contract to SEPTA until January 1, 1983, when SEPTA took over operations and acquired track, rolling stock, other assets to form the Railroad Division. Like New York's Second Avenue Subway, the original proposal for the Roosevelt Boulevard Subway dates to 1913, but construction has remained elusive. Instead, after completing the Frankford Elevated, transit service in and around the city stagnated until the early 2000s.
On September 30, 1968, SEPTA acquired the Philadelphia Transportation Company, which operated a citywide system of bus and trackless trolley routes, the Market–Frankford Line, the Broad Street Line and the Delaware River Bridge Line which became SEPTA's City Transit Division. The PTC had been created in 1940 with the merger of the Philadelphia Rapid Transit Company and a group of smaller independent transit companies operating within the city and its environs. On January 30, 1970, SEPTA acquired the Philadelphia Suburban Transportation Company known as the Red Arrow Lines, which included the Philadelphia and Western Railroad route now called the Norristown High Speed Line, the Media and Sharon Hill Lines and several suburban bus routes in Delaware County. Today, this is the Victory Division. On March 1, 1976, SEPTA acquired the transit operations of Schuylkill Valley Lines, today the Frontier Division. Meanwhile, SEPTA began to take over the Pennsylvania Railroad and Reading Company commuter trains.
SEPTA sought to consolidate the formerly-competing services, leading to severe cutbacks in the mid-1980s. Subsequent proposals have been made to restore service to Allentown, West Chester and Newtown, with support from commuters, local officials and pro-train advocates. SEPTA's planning department focused on the Schuylkill Valley Metro, a "cross-county metro" that would re-establish service to Phoenixville and Reading without requiring the rider to go into Philadelphia. However, ridership projections were dubious, the FRA refused to fund the project. Many derelict lines under SEPTA ownership have been converted to rail trails, postponing any restoration proposals for the foreseeable future. Proposals have been made for increased service on existing lines, including evenings and Sundays to Wilmington and Newark in Delaware. Maryland's MARC commuter rail system is considering extending its service as far as Newark, which would allow passengers to connect directly between SEPTA and MARC. Other recent proposals have focused on extending and enhancing SEPTA's other tra
Dover Transit Center
The Dover Transit Center is a park and ride lot and bus terminal located in the city of Dover in Kent County, Delaware. The transit center serves DART First State buses, with service provided by eight local bus routes serving Dover and Kent County and four inter-county bus routes that provide service to Wilmington, Newark and Lewes; the Dover Transit Center opened in 2010 to replace the Water Street Transfer Center as the main bus terminal for DART First State in Dover. The Dover Transit Center is located south of the downtown area of the city of Dover in Kent County, Delaware; the transit center is located along the south side of West Water Street between South West Street and South Queen Street. The Dover Transit Center features two bus loops that buses pull into to pick up and drop off passengers. One bus loop heads east from South West Street and serves the north side of the passenger waiting area before turning north to West Water Street while the other bus loop heads west from South Queen Street to South West Street to serve the south side of the passenger waiting area.
The passenger waiting area is located between the bus loops and features a canopy to protect passengers from the elements, bus schedules and trash cans. A park and ride lot is located north of the bus stop, with access to the lot from West Water Street. Before the Dover Transit Center was built, the main bus terminal for DART First State buses in Dover was the Water Street Transfer Center, a small bus terminal located along West Water Street between South Governors Avenue and South State Street; the Delaware Department of Transportation made plans to replace the Water Street Transfer Center by constructing the Dover Transit Center, a larger bus terminal that could accommodate more buses and lead to the expansion of bus service in the Dover area. The location of the new transit center near a railroad line makes it possible to serve as a train station should a project bring passenger rail service to Dover in the future; the transit center was proposed to be built on a site belonging to George & Lynch.
The first phase of the Dover Transit Center, which included the bus loops and park and ride lot, received $5.7 million in funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. A construction contract of $4.46 million to build the first phase of the transit center was awarded to Richard E. Pierson Construction Co. on November 20, 2009. Construction on the Dover Transit Center began on the week of May 31, 2010. DART First State began bus service to the Dover Transit Center on December 13, 2010, relocating from the Water Street Transfer Center; the transit center site allows for construction of a 30,000-square-foot office building in the future. There are eight local bus routes that connect the Dover Transit Center to points in Dover and Kent County; the Route 101 bus runs from the transit center via Walker Road to the Greentree Village Shopping Center in West Dover. The Route 102 bus operates from the bus terminal to the Gateway West Shopping Center in West Dover; the Route 104 bus runs from the Dover Transit Center south to Rodney Village and Camden, where it ends at the Walmart in Camden.
The Route 105 bus runs from the transit center via South State Street to the Moores Lake Shopping Center and Gateway South Shopping Center south of Dover. The Route 107 bus operates from the bus terminal to the State Capitol Complex, the Blue Hen Corporate Center, Luther Village; the Route 108 bus runs from the Dover Transit Center to the Dover Mall. The Route 109 bus runs from the Sam's Club in North Dover; the Route 112 bus operates from the bus terminal via West Dover to Delaware Technical Community College and the Scarborough Road Park & Ride. There are four inter-county bus routes that run from the Dover Transit Center to other parts of Delaware; the Route 301 bus runs from the Dover Transit Center north to Wilmington. The Route 302 bus operates from the transit center north to Newark via Middletown; the Route 303 bus runs from the bus terminal south to Georgetown via Milton. The Route 307 operates from the Dover Transit Center to Lewes via Milford. Media related to Dover Transit Center at Wikimedia Commons
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform