Pedro Almodóvar Caballero, credited professionally as Pedro Almodóvar, is a Spanish filmmaker, screenwriter and former actor. He came to prominence as a director and screenwriter during La Movida Madrileña, a cultural renaissance that followed after the end of Francoist Spain, his first few films characterised the sense of political freedom of the period. In 1986, he established his own film production company, El Deseo, with his younger brother Agustín Almodóvar, responsible for producing all of his films since Law of Desire. Almodóvar achieved international recognition for his black comedy-drama film Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown, nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, went on to more success with the dark romantic comedy film Tie Me Up! Tie Me Down!, the melodrama High Heels and the romantic drama thriller Live Flesh. His subsequent two films won an Academy Award each: All About My Mother received the award for Best Foreign Language Film while Talk to Her earned him the award for Best Original Screenplay.
Almodóvar followed this with the drama Volver, the romantic thriller Broken Embraces, the psychological thriller The Skin I Live In and the drama Julieta, all of which were in competition for the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. His films are marked by his employment of certain actors and creative personnel, complex narratives, pop culture, popular songs, irreverent humour, strong colours, glossy décor. Desire, passion and identity are among Almodóvar's most prevalent themes. Acclaimed as one of the most internationally successful Spanish filmmakers, Almodóvar and his films have gained worldwide interest and developed a cult following, he has won two Academy Awards, five British Academy Film Awards, six European Film Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, nine Goya Awards and four prizes at the Cannes Film Festival. In 1997, Almodóvar received the French Legion of Honour, followed by the Gold Medal of Merit in the Fine Arts by the Spanish Ministry of Culture in 1999, he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001 and received an honorary doctoral degree in 2009 from Harvard University in addition to an honorary doctoral degree from the University of Oxford in 2016 for his contribution to the arts.
In 2013, he received an honorary European Film Academy Achievement in World Cinema Award. In January 2017 he was named as President of the Jury for the 2017 Cannes Film Festival. Pedro Almodóvar Caballero was born on 25 September 1949 in Calzada de Calatrava, a small rural town of Ciudad Real, a province of Castile-La Mancha in Spain, he has two older sisters and María Jesús, one brother Agustín. His father, Antonio Almodóvar, was a winemaker, his mother, Francisca Caballero, who died in 1999, was a letter reader and transcriber for illiterate neighbours; when Almodóvar was eight years old, the family sent him to study at a religious boarding school in the city of Cáceres, Extremadura, in western Spain, with the hope that he might someday become a priest. His family joined him in Cáceres, where his father opened a gas station and his mother opened a bodega where she sold her own wine. Unlike Calzada, there was a cinema in Cáceres. "Cinema became my real education, much more than the one I received from the priest", he said in an interview.
Almodóvar was influenced by Luis Buñuel. Against his parents' wishes, Almodóvar moved to Madrid in 1967 to become a filmmaker; when caudillo Francisco Franco closed the National School of Cinema in Madrid, he became self-taught. To support himself, Almodóvar had a number of jobs, including selling used items in the famous Madrid flea market El Rastro and as an administrative assistant with Spanish phone company Telefónica, where he worked for twelve years. Since he worked only until three in the afternoon, he had the rest of the day to pursue his film-making. In the early 1970s, Almodóvar became interested in experimental theatre, he collaborated with the vanguard theatrical group Los Goliardos, in which he played his first professional roles and met actress Carmen Maura. Madrid's flourishing alternative cultural scene became the perfect scenario for Almodóvar's social talents, he was a crucial figure in La Movida Madrileña, a cultural renaissance that followed the death of Francisco Franco. Alongside Fabio McNamara, Almodóvar sang in a glam rock parody duo.
Writing under the pseudonym Patty Diphusa, Almodóvar penned various articles for major newspapers and magazines, such as El País, Diario 16 and La Luna as well as contributing to comic strips and stories in counterculture magazines, such as Star, El Víbora and Vibraciones. He published a novella, Fuego en las entrañas and kept writing stories that were published in a compilation volume entitled El sueño de la razón. Almodóvar bought his first camera, a Super-8, with his first paycheck from Telefónica when he was 22 years old, began to make hand-held short films. Around 1974, he made his first short film, by the end of the 1970s they were shown in Madrid's night circuit and in Barcelona; these shorts had overtly sexual narratives and no soundtrack: Dos putas, o, Historia de amor que termina en boda in 1974. He remembers, "I showed them in bars, at parties… I could not add a soundtrack because it was v
Almería is a city in Andalusia, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, is the capital of the province of the same name. It was Abd-ar-Rahman III who founded the Alcazaba, which gave this city its name: Al-Mari'yah. In the 10th and 11th centuries, it formed part of the Caliphate of Córdoba, grew wealthy on trade and the textile industry silk, it suffered many sieges and fell under Christian domination in 1489. In 1522, Almería was devastated by an earthquake and rebuilding and recovery did not get underway until the 19th century. During the Spanish Civil War, the city was shelled by the German Navy, fell to Franco in 1939, it has since rebuilt its economy around vegetable production, with 100,000 acres of greenhouses, supplying much of Europe. In the first century, Christian documents report that there was a town named Urci near the current site of Almería, in the Hispania of the Roman Empire. However, this is disputed. However, missionary Saint Indaletius is said to have evangelized Urci and become its first bishop, is the patron saint of Almería.
The city was refounded by Calipha Abd-ar-Rahman III of Córdoba in 955 AD. It was to be a principal harbour in his extensive domain to strengthen his Mediterranean defences, its Moorish castle, the Alcazaba of Almería, is the second largest among the Muslim fortresses of Andalusia, after the Alhambra. In this period, the port city of Almería reached its historical peak. After the fragmentation of the Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031, Almería continued to be ruled by powerful local Muslim Taifa emirs like Jairan, the first independent Emir of Almería and Cartagena, Almotacin, the poet emir. Both Jairan and Almotacin were fearless warriors, but sophisticated patrons of the arts. A silk industry, based upon plantings of mulberry trees in the hot, dry landscape of the province, supported Almería in the 11th century and made its strategic harbour an more valuable asset. Contested by the emirs of Granada and Valencia, Almería experienced many sieges, including one fierce siege when Christians, called to the Second Crusade by Pope Eugene III, were encouraged to counter the Muslim forces on a more familiar coast.
On that occasion Alfonso VII, starting on 11 July 1147, at the head of mixed armies of Catalans, Genoese and Franks, led a crusade against the rich city, Almería was captured on 17 October 1147. Within a decade, Almería had passed to the control of the Muslim Almoravid emirs, not until the late 15th century did it became again a Christian city when it accepted the sovereignty the Catholic Monarchs and Isabel, on December 26, 1489; the 16th century was for Almería a century of human catastrophes. The people who had remained Muslim were expelled from Almería after the War of Las Alpujarras in 1568 and scattered across Spain. Landings and attacks by Berber pirates were frequent in the 16th century, continued until the early 18th century. At that time, huge iron mines were discovered and French and British companies set up business in the area, bringing renewed prosperity and returning Almería to a position of relative importance within Spain. During the Spanish Civil War the city was shelled by the German Navy, with news reaching the London and Parisian press about the "criminal bombardment of Almería by German planes".
Almería surrendered in 1939. In the second half of the 20th century, Almería witnessed spectacular economic growth due to tourism and intensive agriculture, with crops grown year-round in massive invernaderos – plastic-covered "greenhouses" – for intensive vegetable production. After Franco's death and popular approval of the new Spanish Constitution, the people of southern Spain were called on to approve an autonomous status for the region in a referendum. While the referendum were approved with 118,186 votes for and 11,092 votes against in Almería province, an absolute majority of all 279,300 registered electors was needed, the result in Almería was just 42%; the Government impugned the result, Almería remained part of the present autonomous region of Andalusia. The Alcazaba, a medieval fortress, begun in the 10th century but destroyed by an earthquake in 1522, it includes a triple line of a majestic keep and large gardens. It commands a city quarter with buildings dressed in pastel colors, of Muslim-age aspect.
Almería air raid shelters, underground galleries for civilian protection during the Spanish Civil War the longest in Europe open for tourists. The Cathedral has a fortress-like appearance due to its towers and protected paths, created to defend it from Mediterranean pirates. Designated as a mosque, it was converted into a Christian church, before being destroyed in the 1522 earthquake. In the 16th century it was rebuilt in the Renaissance style, whilst keeping some of its defensive features. Renaissance church of Santiago, built in 1533, with tower and portal decorated with reliefs. Chanca, a group of houses carved into rocks. Castle of San Cristobal, now in ruins, it is connected to the Alcazaba by a line of walls. Museum of Almería. Includes findings from Prehistoric, Roman, Greek ages and Muslim objects from the Alcazaba. Paseo de Coches, a modern seaside promenade with gardens and palms. Almería has the highest proportion of Muslim population of any Spanish city at 11-20%, depending on source.
Famous natives of Almería include Nicolás Salmerón y Alonso, who in 1873 was the third president
Year of Enlightment
Year of Enlightment is a 1986 Spanish film directed by Fernando Trueba, starring Jorge Sanz and Maribel Verdú. The film is a coming of age story of a sixteen-year-old boy finding love and sex in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War; the film was awarded the Silver Bear at the 37th Berlin International Film Festival. In the spring of 1940 in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil war, two sons of a fallen soldier, Manolo, a sixteen-year-old boy, his eight-year-old little brother Jesús are suffering from symptoms of tuberculosis, their much older brother, takes them to a rural sanatorium in Sierra de Gata near the border with Portugal. They stay there to recover their health under the watch of the director. Manolo is the only adolescent, all the others are children. Starting his sexual awakening, he is smitten with Vicenta, the attractive woman in charge of the care of the children; every night when she undresses Manolo spies her. However, Manolo’s flirtations and sexual advances do not find response in either Vicenta or Paquita, a young girl who works at the sanatorium.
Instead is the sexually repressed head nurse Irene, infatuated with the young boy. Forced to assist to classes against his will with the much younger children in the residence, Manolo clashes violently with the conservative authoritarianism of Doña Tránsito, the teacher. After a confrontation with her, Manolo is left to study on his own. Emilio an old free thinker and janitor of the sanatorium guides Manolo in his readings and teaches him about Montaigne and Flaubert. Disappointed with the sudden departure of Vicenta, who has to leave her job, Manolo is soon infatuated with Vicenta’s successor, María Jesús, a young pretty girl from the village and only one year his junior. Manolo’s friend, encourages him in the awakening of his romance with María Jesús; the two teenagers are promptly discovering together their first love and sexual awakening. Irene discovers them, she fires Maria Jesus and sends her with her uncle the local priest, abruptly stopping their romance. Pepe, an Army officer, comes back to take Manolo with the rest of their family and the young lovers are separated forever.
The two teenage leads Jorge Sanz and Maribel Verdú were subsequently cast together in many Spanish films through the 1980s and 1990s most notably in Amantes directed by Vicente Aranda. Jorge Sanz - Manolo Maribel Verdú - María Jesús Verónica Forqué - Irene Manuel Alexandre - Emilio Rafaela Aparicio - Rafaela Santiago Ramos - Pepe Chus Lampreave - Doña Tránsito Lucas Martín - Jesús José Sazatornil - Don Teodulo Violeta Cela - Vicenta Diana Peñalver - Paquita El Año de las Luces, a sensitive rites of passage film was co-authored by Rafael Azcona and the director Fernando Trueba, who worked together on the Oscar-winning Belle Epoque a film similar in tone and period. El Año de las Luces, is based on an episode of the real life of Manule Huete the director’s father in law. A large scale production it was shot with panoramic lenses, in gorgeous color in Ponte de Lima, Quintanar de Sanabria, Zamora and in Madrid, it premiered on December 5, 1986 and was awarded with a Silver Bear for an outstanding single achievement at the 37th Berlin International Film Festival.
El Año de las Luces is available in Region 2 DVD in Spanish with no English subtitles. Schwartz, The Great Spanish Films: 1950 - 1990, Scarecrow Press, London, 1991, ISBN 0-8108-2488-4 El Año de las Luces on IMDb
Volver is a 2006 Spanish drama film written and directed by Pedro Almodóvar. Headed by actress Penélope Cruz, the film features an ensemble cast starring Carmen Maura, Lola Dueñas, Blanca Portillo, Yohana Cobo, Chus Lampreave. Revolving around an eccentric family of women from a wind-swept region south of Madrid, Cruz plays Raimunda, a working-class woman forced to go to great lengths to protect her 14-year-old daughter Paula. To top off the family crisis, her mother Irene comes back from the dead to tie up loose ends; the plot originates in Almodóvar's earlier film The Flower of My Secret, where it features as a novel, rejected for publication but is stolen to form the screenplay of a film named The Freezer. Drawing inspiration from the Italian neorealism of the late 1940s to early 1950s and the work of pioneering directors such as Federico Fellini, Luchino Visconti, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Volver addresses themes like sexual abuse and death, mixing the genres of farce, tragedy and magic realism.
Set in the La Mancha region, Almodovar's place of birth, the filmmaker cited his upbringing as a major influence on many aspects of the plot and the characters. Volver premiered at the 2006 Cannes Film Festival, it received critical acclaim and won two awards at the festival, for Best Actress and Best Screenplay. The film's Spanish premiere was held on 10 March 2006 in Puertollano, where the filming had taken place. Cruz was nominated for the 2006 Academy Award for Best Actress, making her the first Spanish woman to be nominated in that category. Raimunda and Sole are sisters who grew up in Alcanfor de las Infantas, a small village in La Mancha, but now both live in Madrid, their parents had died in a fire three years before. Sole returns for the funeral of her dementia-stricken Aunt Paula. Aunt Paula's neighbour Agustina confesses to Sole that she has heard Paula talking to the ghost of their mother Irene. Sole encounters the ghost herself, when she returns to Madrid, she discovers that the ghost has stowed away in the trunk of her car.
Sole agrees to let Irene stay with her: Sole operates a hair salon in her apartment, Irene will assist her. Irene says that she wants to know why Raimunda hates her, why she herself is afraid to reveal herself to Raimunda. Meanwhile and her daughter Paula have a different death to cope with. Paula's father Paco attempts to rape her, claiming that he is not her father, Paula stabs him in self-defense. Raimunda hides the corpse in the deep-freezer of a nearby restaurant with Emilio; when members of a film crew happen upon the restaurant, Raimunda strikes a deal to cater for them, finds herself back in the restaurant business. Raimunda reveals to Paula that Paco was not her biological father, promises to tell her the whole story later. Agustina goes to Madrid for treatment. Raimunda visits her in the hospital. Agustina asks Raimunda. Agustina hopes that the ghost will be able to tell her about her own mother, who disappeared three years before. Raimunda leaves Paula with Sole, rents a van and transports the freezer to a convenient spot by the river Júcar.
While staying in Sole's apartment, Paula grows close to her. The next night, Agustina comes to the restaurant, Raimunda reveals two startling secrets: her father and Agustina's mother were having an affair, Agustina's mother disappeared on the same day that Raimunda's parents died. Sole tells Raimunda that she has seen their mother's ghost, in the next room with Paula. Irene admits that she did not, in fact, die in the fire, reveals the whole truth; the reason for Raimunda and Irene's estrangement is that Raimunda's father sexually abused her, resulting in the birth of Paula. Irene tells Raimunda that she did not know about the abuse until Aunt Paula told her about it, never forgave herself for failing to stop it. Irene explains that she found her husband in bed with another woman and started the fire that killed them both; the ashes, presumed to be Irene's were, in fact, the ashes of Agustina's mother, the woman with whom Irene's husband was having an affair. After the fire, Irene wandered for several days in the countryside, until she decided that she wanted to turn herself in.
But first, she wanted to say goodbye to Paula, who had lost the ability to look after herself and with whom Irene had been living prior to setting the fire. Paula welcomed Irene home as if nothing had happened, Irene stayed, caring for her sister and expecting that the police would come soon to arrest her. Due to the superstitious and closed nature of the community, the police never came and the residents, accustomed to tales of the dead returning, explained the rare sightings of Irene as "un fantasma", a ghost; the family reunites at Aunt Paula's house. Irene reveals her presence to Agustina. Irene pledges to stay in the village and care for Agustina as her cancer worsens, saying to Raimunda that it was the least that she could do after killing Agustina's mother. Raimunda visits her mother at Agustina's house, the two embrace and promise to repair their relationship. Penélope Cruz as Raimunda, a mother living in Madrid's suburbs Carmen Maura as Irene, the mother of Raimunda and Sole Yohana Cobo as Paula Blanca Portillo as Agustina Lola Dueñas as Soledad Chus Lampreave as Aunt Paula Antonio de la
José Luis Cuerda
José Luis Cuerda Martínez is a Spanish film director and producer. He has produced three films of Alejandro Amenábar. 1982 - Pares y nones 1983 - Total 1985 - Mala racha 1987 - El bosque animado 1989 - Amanece, que no es poco 1991 - La viuda del Capitán Estrada 1993 - Tocando fondo 1995 - Así en el cielo como en la tierra 1999 - Butterfly's Tongue 2000 - Primer amor 2004 - Hay motivo 2006 - The Education of Fairies 2008 - The Blind Sunflowers José Luis Cuerda on IMDb
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
El Pisito is a 1959 Spanish comedy film directed by Marco Ferreri. The Spanish Ministry of Culture forced the producers to sign the film as co-directed by Spaniard Isidoro M. Ferry, it was co-written by famous Spanish screenwriter Rafael Azcona, who collaborated with Ferreri throughout his career. The film was a huge flop; the film had troubles with Spanish censorship. In the film, Marco Ferreri and Carlos Saura appear in cameos. El Pisito on IMDb