The Cuban Revolution was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista. The revolution began in July 1953, continued sporadically until the rebels ousted Batista on 31 December 1958, replacing his government with a revolutionary socialist state. 26 July 1959 is celebrated in Cuba as the Day of the Revolution. The 26th of July Movement reformed along communist lines, becoming the Communist Party in October 1965; the Cuban Revolution had powerful international repercussions. In particular, it transformed Cuba's relationship with the United States, although efforts to improve diplomatic relations have gained momentum in recent years. In the immediate aftermath of the revolution, Castro's government began a program of nationalization and political consolidation that transformed Cuba's economy and civil society; the revolution heralded an era of Cuban intervention in foreign military conflicts, including the Angolan Civil War and the Nicaraguan Revolution.
In the decades following United States' invasion of Cuba in 1898, formal independence from the U. S. on May 20, 1902, Cuba experienced a period of significant instability, enduring a number of revolts, coups and a period of U. S. military occupation. Fulgencio Batista, a former soldier who had served as the elected president of Cuba from 1940 to 1944, became president for the second time in 1952, after seizing power in a military coup and canceling the 1952 elections. Although Batista had been progressive during his first term, in the 1950s he proved far more dictatorial and indifferent to popular concerns. While Cuba remained plagued by high unemployment and limited water infrastructure, Batista antagonized the population by forming lucrative links to organized crime and allowing American companies to dominate the Cuban economy sugar-cane plantations and other local resources. Although the US armed and politically supported the Batista dictatorship US presidents recognized its corruption and the justifiability of removing it.
During his first term as President, Batista had not been supported by the Communist Party of Cuba, but during his second term he became anti-communist. Batista developed a rather weak security bridge as an attempt to silence political opponents. In the months following the March 1952 coup, Fidel Castro a young lawyer and activist, petitioned for the overthrow of Batista, whom he accused of corruption and tyranny. However, Castro's constitutional arguments were rejected by the Cuban courts. After deciding that the Cuban regime could not be replaced through legal means, Castro resolved to launch an armed revolution. To this end, he and his brother Raúl founded a paramilitary organization known as "The Movement", stockpiling weapons and recruiting around 1,200 followers from Havana's disgruntled working class by the end of 1952. Batista was known as a corrupt leader as he pampered himself with exotic foods and elegant women. Striking their first blow against the Batista government, Fidel and Raúl Castro gathered 69 Movement fighters and planned a multi-pronged attack on several military installations.
On 26 July 1953, the rebels attacked the Moncada Barracks in Santiago and the barracks in Bayamo, only to be decisively defeated by government soldiers. It was hoped, he had around 150 farm workers. After an hour of fighting the rebel leader fled to the mountains; the exact number of rebels killed in the battle is debatable. Due to the government's large number of men, Hunt revised the number to be around 60 members taking the opportunity to flee to the mountains along with Castro. Among the dead was Abel Santamaría, Castro's second-in-command, imprisoned and executed on the same day as the attack. Numerous key Movement revolutionaries, including the Castro brothers, were captured shortly afterwards. In a political trial, Fidel spoke for nearly four hours in his defense, ending with the words "Condemn me, it does not matter. History will absolve me." Castro's defense was based on nationalism, the representation and beneficial programs for the non-elite Cubans, his patriotism and justice for the Cuban community.
Fidel was sentenced to 15 years in the Presidio Modelo prison, located on Isla de Pinos, while Raúl was sentenced to 13 years. However, in 1955, under broad political pressure, the Batista government freed all political prisoners in Cuba, including the Moncada attackers. Fidel's Jesuit childhood teachers succeeded in persuading Batista to include Fidel and Raúl in the release. Soon, the Castro brothers joined with other exiles in Mexico to prepare for the overthrow of Batista, receiving training from Alberto Bayo, a leader of Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War. In June 1955, Fidel met the Argentine revolutionary Ernesto "Che" Guevara. Raul and Castro's chief advisor Ernesto aided the initiation of Batista's amnesty; the revolutionaries named themselves the "26th of July Movement", in reference to the date of their attack on the Moncada Barracks in 1953. While the Castro brothers and the other July 26 Movement guerrillas were training in Mexico and preparing for their amphibious deployment to Cuba, another revolutionary group followed the example of the Moncada Barracks assault.
On 29 April 1956 at 12:50 PM during Sunday mass, an independent guerrilla group of around 100 rebels led by Reynol Garcia attacked the Domingo Goicuria army barracks in Matanzas p
Cuban War of Independence
The Cuban War of Independence was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War and the Little War. The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish–American War, with United States forces being deployed in Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippine Islands against Spain. Historians disagree as to the extent that United States officials were motivated to intervene for humanitarian reasons but agree that yellow journalism exaggerated atrocities attributed to Spanish forces against Cuban civilians. During the years 1869–1888 of the so-called “Rewarding Truce”, lasting for 17 years from the end of the Ten Years' War in 1878, there were fundamental social changes in Cuban society. With the abolition of slavery in October 1886, freedmen joined the ranks of farmers and the urban working class; the economy could no longer sustain itself with changes. The number of sugar mills dropped and efficiency increased: only companies, the most powerful plantation owners, remained in business followed by the Central Board of Artisans in 1879, many more across the island.
After his second deportation to Spain in 1878, José Martí moved to the United States in 1881. There he mobilized the support of the Cuban exile community in Ybor City and Key West, Florida, his goal was revolution. Martí lobbied against the U. S. annexation of Cuba, desired by some politicians in both the U. S. and Cuba. After deliberations with patriotic clubs across the United States, the Antilles and Latin America, “El Partido Revolucionario Cubano” was in a state of pendency and was affected by a growing fear that the U. S. government would try to annex Cuba before the revolution could liberate the island from Spain”. A new trend of aggressive U. S. “influence” was expressed by Secretary of State James G. Blaine's suggestion that all of Central and South America would some day fall to the U. S.: “That rich island”, Blaine wrote on 1 December 1881, “the key to the Gulf of Mexico, is, though in the hands of Spain, a part of the American commercial system… If ceasing to be Spanish, Cuba must become American and not fall under any other European domination”.
Blaine’s vision did not allow the existence of an independent Cuba. “Martí noticed with alarm the movement to annex Hawaii, viewing it as establishing a pattern for Cuba…” On December 25, 1894, three ships – the Lagonda, the Almadis and the Baracoa – set sail for Cuba from Fernandina Beach, loaded with soldiers and weapons. Two of the ships were seized by US authorities in early January. Not to be dissuaded, on March 25, Martí presented the Manifesto of Montecristi, which outlined the policy for Cuba’s war of independence: The war was to be waged by blacks and whites alike; the insurrection began on February 1895, with uprisings all across the island. In Oriente, the most important ones took place in Santiago, Guantánamo, Jiguaní, San Luis, El Cobre, El Caney, Alto Songo and Baire; the uprisings in the central part of the island, such as Ibarra, Jagüey Grande, Aguada, suffered from poor coordination and failed. In the province of Havana, the insurrection was discovered before it was underway, authorities detained its leaders.
The insurgents further west in Pinar del Río were ordered by rebel leaders to wait. On April 1 and 11, 1895, the main Mambi leaders landed on two expeditions in Oriente: Major General Antonio Maceo along with 22 members near Baracoa, José Martí, Máximo Gómez and 4 other members in Playitas. Around that time, Spanish forces in Cuba numbered about 80,000, of which 20,000 were regular troops and 60,000 were Spanish and Cuban volunteer militia; the latter were a locally enlisted force that took care of most of the “guard and police” duties on the island. Wealthy landowners would “volunteer” a number of their slaves to serve in this force, under local control as militia and not under official military command. By December, Spain had sent 98,412 regular troops to the island, the colonial government increased the Volunteer Corps to 63,000 men. By the end of 1897, there were 60,000 irregulars on the island; the revolutionaries were far outnumbered. The Mambises were named after the Spanish officer, Juan Ethninius Mamby who joined the Dominican fight for independence in 1844.
The Spanish soldiers referred to the insurgents in the Dominican Republic as “the men of Mamby” or “Mambies”. When Cuba’s first war of independence broke out in 1868, some of those same soldiers were assigned to Cuba; the Cubans adopted the name with pride. After the Ten Years' War, the government had forbidden possession of weapons by private individuals. From the beginning of the uprising, the rebels were hampered by the lack of suitable weapons, they compensated by using guerrilla-style fighting, based on quick raids and fades to the environment, the element of surprise, mounting their forces on fast horses, using machetes against regular troops on the march. They acquired most of their weapons and ammunition in raids on the Spaniards. Between June 11, 1895, November 30, 1897, out of sixty attempts to bring weapons and supplies to the rebels from
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Timeline of Havana
The following is a timeline of the history of Havana, Cuba. 1515 – Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founds settlement. 1537 – Town sacked. 1555 – Town sacked by Jacques de Sores. 1577 – Castillo de la Real Fuerza built. 1578 – Church of Santo Domingo built. 1589 – Governor's residence relocated to Havana from Santiago de Cuba. 1591 – Basilica Menor de San Francisco de Asis built. 1592 – City status granted. 1607 – Havana becomes capital of Cuba. 1608 – San Agustin church built. 1630 – San Salvador de la Punta Fortress built. 1640 – Morro Castle built. 1644 – Convent of Santa Clara founded. 1648 – Epidemic. 1668 – Church of San Francisco de Paula construction begins. 1688 – Recollect Dominicans of Santa Cataline de Siena founded. 1693 – San Felipe church built. 1700 Discalced Carmelites of Santa Teresa de Jesus founded. Santa Catalina church built. 1702 – City walls built. 1704 – Jesuit college built. 1728 – Royal and Pontifical University of Saint Jerome established. 1748 – Battle of Havana. 1762 – Battle of Havana.
1763 – 6 July: Spanish in power per Treaty of Paris. 1767 – Castillo de Atarés built. 1768 Hurricane. New city districts established: Campeche and La Punte. 1772 – Paseo del Prado laid out. 1774 – La Cabaña fortress built. 1775 – El Coleseo built on Alameda de Paula. 1777 – Cathedral of Havana built. 1780 – Castle del Príncipe built. 1781 – Hospital de San Lazaro, Havana 1787 – Roman Catholic diocese of San Cristóbal de la Habana established. 1789 – Bishopric established. 1791 – Population: 51,307. 1792 Sociedad Económica de los Amigos del País de la Habana established. Palace built. 1794 Consulado established. La Casa de Beneficencia y Maternidad de La Habana 1799 Bateria de Santa Clara, 1799 1806 - Espada Cemetery| 1810 – Hurricane. 1811 – Population: 94,023. 1813 – El Lucero de la Habana newspaper begins publication. 1817 Botanical Gardens established. La Piña de Plata eatery in business. 1828 – El Templete built in the Plaza de Armas. 1832 – El Noticioso y Lucero de la Habana newspaper begins publication.
1834 – President's Palace built. 1835 Fernando VII aqueduct constructed. Mercado de Cristina built on Plaza Vieja. 1837 – Railway, Mercado de Cristina, city jail constructed. 1838 – Teatro Tacón opens. 1840 – Plaza del Vapor 1844 Liceo Artistico y Literario de la Habana founded. Palacio de Aldama built. 1846 – Great Havana Hurricane. 1847 – Premiere of Bottesini's opera Cristoforo Colombo. 1853 Susini cigarette factory in operation. Revista de la Habana literary magazine begins publication. 1854 – Colegio de Belén founded. Plaza del Vapor, Havana 1856 – Hotel Inglaterra built. 1861 – Royal Academy of Medical and Natural Sciences established. 1863 Fuente de la India installed in Parque Central. City walls dismantled. 1868 El Ansador Comercial begins publication. Colon Cemetery inaugurated. 1871 – 27 November: Students executed. 1876 – Hotel Pasaje built. 1877 Villalba palace built. Payret Theatre opens. 1878 Acueducto de Albear inaugurated. City becomes part of La Habana Province. 1880 – Colegio de Abogados de La Habana founded.
1881 – Jane Theater-Circus built. 1882 – School of arts and trades opens. 1884 – La Lucha newspaper begins publication. 1888 – La Discusion newspaper begins publication. 1889 – Population: 200,000. 1890 – Alhambra Theatre opens. 1894 – Manzana de Gómez built. 1898 – 15 February: United States Navy Ship Maine explosion. 1899 – U. S. military occupation begins. 1901 Biblioteca Nacional José Martí established. Malecón construction begins. 1902 20 May: U. S. occupation of Cuba ends. El Mundo and Tierra newspapers begin publication. 1905 – Petroleum refinery in operation. 1907 Palace of the Association of Store Clerks built. Population: 297,159. Sociedad de Ingenieros y Arquitectos de Cuba headquartered in city. 1908 Partido Independiente de Color founded in Havana. Bohemia magazine begins publication. Hotel Sevilla built. 1909 – Lonja del Comercio building and Hotel Plaza constructed. 1910 – Pimp Alberto Yarini is killed in the San Isidro barrio of Old Havana. 1913 National Museum of Fine Arts of Havana founded. El Heraldo de Cuba newspaper begins publication.
1917 Manzana de Gómez shopping arcade built. Club Atenas organized. 1919 Florida West Indies Airways begins flights to/from Key West, USA. Population: 363,506 city. 1920 Palace of the Provincial Government built. Biblioteca Municipal and Ruston Academy established. 1923 – Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus built. 1925 Colegio de Belen, designed by Leonardo Morales y Pedroso is built. 1927 – Regina Theatre and Centro Asturiano open. 1928 January–February: Pan-American Conference held in Havana. Parque de la Fraternidad Americana and Teatro Auditorium inaugurated. 1929 – National Capitol Building constructed. 1930 Hotel Nacional de Cuba opens. Rancho Boyeros Airport begins operating. Bacardi Building constructed. 1934 – Orquesta de Cámara de La Habana formed. 1938 – Office of the Historian of Havana created. 1939 Tropicana Club in business. Cuban Baseball Hall of Fame inaugurated. Lyceum and Lawn Tennis Club formed. 1945 – International Air Transport Association founded in Havana. 1946 Havana Conference held.
Manuel Fernandez Supervielle becomes mayor. 1947 Radiocentro CMQ Building 1948 – Cuban National Ballet founded. 1953 – Iglesia de Jesús de Miramar and Embassy of the United States built. 1956 – FOCSA Building. 1957 13 March: Presidential Palace Attack. Supreme Court building constructed on Plaza Cívica. Coli
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging. Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history. Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. In West Eurasia, agriculture lead to widespread genetic changes when older hunter-gatherer populations were replaced by Middle Eastern farmers during the Neolithic who in turn were overrun by Indo-Europeans during the Bronze Age. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, many supplement their foraging activity with horticulture or pastoralism. During the 1970s, Lewis Binford suggested that early humans were obtaining food via scavenging, not hunting. Early humans in the Lower Paleolithic lived in forests and woodlands, which allowed them to collect seafood, eggs and fruits besides scavenging.
Rather than killing large animals for meat, according to this view, they used carcasses of such animals that had either been killed by predators or that had died of natural causes. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover. According to the endurance running hypothesis, long-distance running as in persistence hunting, a method still practiced by some hunter-gatherer groups in modern times, was the driving evolutionary force leading to the evolution of certain human characteristics; this hypothesis does not contradict the scavenging hypothesis: both subsistence strategies could have been in use – sequentially, alternating or simultaneously. Hunting and gathering was the subsistence strategy employed by human societies beginning some 1.8 million years ago, by Homo erectus, from its appearance some 0.2 million years ago by Homo sapiens.
Prehistoric hunter-gatherers lived in groups that consisted of several families resulting in a size of a few dozen people. It remained the only mode of subsistence until the end of the Mesolithic period some 10,000 years ago, after this was replaced only with the spread of the Neolithic Revolution. Starting at the transition between the Middle to Upper Paleolithic period, some 80,000 to 70,000 years ago, some hunter-gatherers bands began to specialize, concentrating on hunting a smaller selection of game and gathering a smaller selection of food; this specialization of work involved creating specialized tools such as fishing nets and bone harpoons. The transition into the subsequent Neolithic period is chiefly defined by the unprecedented development of nascent agricultural practices. Agriculture originated as early as 12,000 years ago in the Middle East, independently originated in many other areas including Southeast Asia, parts of Africa and the Andes. Forest gardening was being used as a food production system in various parts of the world over this period.
Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions. In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved, whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Superior introduced species were selected and incorporated into the gardens. Many groups continued their hunter-gatherer ways of life, although their numbers have continually declined as a result of pressure from growing agricultural and pastoral communities. Many of them reside in arid regions or tropical forests. Areas that were available to hunter-gatherers were—and continue to be—encroached upon by the settlements of agriculturalists. In the resulting competition for land use, hunter-gatherer societies either adopted these practices or moved to other areas. In addition, Jared Diamond has blamed a decline in the availability of wild foods animal resources. In North and South America, for example, most large mammal species had gone extinct by the end of the Pleistocene—according to Diamond, because of overexploitation by humans, one of several explanations offered for the Quaternary extinction event there.
As the number and size of agricultural societies increased, they expanded into lands traditionally used by hunter-gatherers. This process of agriculture-driven expansion led to the development of the first forms of government in agricultural centers, such as the Fertile Crescent, Ancient India, Ancient China, Sub-Saharan Africa and Norte Chico; as a result of the now near-universal human reliance upon agriculture, the few contemporary hunter-gatherer cultures live in areas unsuitable for agricultural use. Archaeologists can use evidence such as stone tool use to track hunter-gatherer activities, including mobility. Most hunter-gatherers are semi-nomadic and live in temporary settlements. Mobile communities construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available; some hunter-gatherer cultures, such as the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the Yakuts, lived in rich environments that allowed them to be sedentary or semi-sedentary.
Hunter-gatherers tend to have an egalitarian social ethos, although settled hunter-gatherers are an exception to this rule. Nearly
Hispaniola is an island in the Caribbean island group known as the Greater Antilles. It is the second largest island in the Caribbean after Cuba, the most populous island in the Caribbean; the 76,192-square-kilometre island is divided between two separate, sovereign nations: the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic to the east, French / French Creole-speaking Haiti to the west. The only other shared island in the Caribbean is Saint Martin, shared between France and the Netherlands. Hispaniola is the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in 1492 and 1493; the island was called by various names by the Taíno Amerindians. No known Taíno texts exist, historical evidence for those names comes to us through three European historians: the Italian Pietro Martyr d‘Anghiera, the Spaniards Bartolomé de las Casas and Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo. Fernández de Oviedo and de las Casas both recorded that the island was called Quizqueia by the Taíno.
D'Anghiera added another name, but research shows that the word does not seem to derive from the original Arawak Taíno language. Although the Taínos' use of Quizqueia is verified, the name was used by all three historians, evidence suggests that it was the Taíno name of the whole island, for a region in the northeastern section of the present-day Dominican Republic; when Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana in Latin and La Isla Española in Spanish, with both meaning "the Spanish island". De las Casas shortened the name to "Española", when d‘Anghiera detailed his account of the island in Latin, he rendered its name as Hispaniola. In the oldest documented map of the island, created by Andrés de Morales, Los Haitises is labeled Montes de Haití, de las Casas named the whole island Haiti on the basis of that particular region, as d'Anghiera states that the name of one part was given to the whole island. Due to Taíno, Spanish and French influences on the island the whole island was referred to as Haiti, Santo Domingo, St. Domingue, or San Domingo.
The colonial terms Saint-Domingue and Santo Domingo are sometimes still applied to the whole island, though these names refer to the colonies that became Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Since Anghiera's literary work was translated into English and French soon after being written, the name Hispaniola became the most used term in English-speaking countries for the island in scientific and cartographic works. In 1918, the United States occupation government, led by Harry Shepard Knapp, obliged the use of the name Hispaniola on the island, recommended the use of that name to the National Geographic Society; the name Haïti was adopted by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1804, as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. It was adopted as the official name of independent Santo Domingo, as the Republic of Spanish Haiti, a state that existed from November 1821 until its annexation by Haiti in February 1822; the primary indigenous group on the island of Hispaniola was the Arawak/Taíno people.
The Arawak tribe originated in the Orinoco Delta. They travelled to Hispaniola around 1200 CE; each society on the island was a small independent kingdom with a lead known as a cacique. In 1492, considered the peak of the Taíno, there were five different kingdoms on the island, the Xaragua, Magua and Marien. Many distinct Taíno languages existed in this time period. There is still heated debate over the population of Taíno people on the island of Hispaniola in 1492, but estimates range upwards of 750,000. An Arawak/Taíno home consisted of a circular building with woven palm leaves as covering. Most individuals slept in fashioned hammocks, but grass beds were used; the cacique lived in a different structure with a porch. The Taíno village had a flat court used for ball games and festivals. Religiously, the Arawak/Taíno people were polytheists, their gods were called zemí. Religious worship and dancing were common, medicine men or priests consulted the zemí for advise in public ceremonies. For food, the Arawak/Taíno relied on fish as a primary source for protein.
The Taíno relied on agriculture as a primary food source. The indigenous people of Hispaniola raised crops in a conuco, a large mound packed with leaves and fixed crops to prevent erosion; some common agricultural goods were cassava, squash, peppers, peanuts and tobacco, used as an aspect of social life and religious ceremonies. The Arawak/Taíno people travelled and used hollowed canoes with paddles when on the water for fishing or for migration purposes, upwards of 100 people could fit into a single canoe; the Taíno came in contact with another indigenous tribe, often. The caribs lived in modern day Puerto Rico and northeast Hispaniola and were known to be hostile towards other tribes; the Arawak/Taíno people had to defend themselves using bow and arrows with poisoned tips and s
Spanish colonization of the Americas
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors. The Americas were incorporated into the Spanish Empire, with the exception of Brazil, the eastern United States and several other small countries in South America and The Caribbean; the crown created religious structures to administer the region. The motivations for colonial expansion were trade and the spread of the Catholic faith through indigenous conversions. Beginning with the 1492 arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean and continuing control of vast territory for over three centuries, the Spanish Empire would expand across the Caribbean Islands, half of South America, most of Central America and much of North America, it is estimated that during the colonial period, a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era. In contrast, the indigenous population plummeted by an estimated 80% in the first century and a half following Columbus's voyages through the spread of Afro-Eurasian diseases.
This has been argued to be the first large-scale act of genocide in the modern era, although this claim is disputed due to the unintended nature of the disease introduction, considered a byproduct of Columbian exchange. Racial mixing was a central process in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, led to the Latin American identity, which combines Hispanic and native American ethnicities. Spain enjoyed a cultural golden age in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries when silver and gold from American mines financed a long series of European and North African wars. In the early 19th century, the Spanish American wars of independence resulted in the secession and subsequent balkanization of most Spanish colonies in the Americas, except for Cuba and Puerto Rico, which were given up in 1898, following the Spanish–American War, together with Guam and the Philippines in the Pacific. Spain's loss of these last territories politically ended the Spanish rule in the Americas; the Catholic Monarchs Isabella of Castile, Queen of Castile and her husband King Ferdinand, King of Aragon, pursued a policy of joint rule of their kingdoms and created a single Spanish monarchy.
Though Castile and Aragon were ruled jointly by their respective monarchs, they remained separate kingdoms. The Catholic Monarchs gave official approval for the plans of Genoese mariner Christopher Columbus for a voyage to reach India by sailing West; the funding came from the queen of Castile, so the profits from Spanish expedition flowed to Castile. In the extension of Spanish sovereignty to its overseas territories, authority for expeditions of discovery and settlement resided in the monarchy. Columbus made four voyages to the West Indies as the monarchs granted Columbus the governorship of the new territories, financed more of his trans-Atlantic journeys, he founded La Navidad on the island named Hispaniola, in what is the present-day Haiti on his first voyage. After its destruction by the indigenous Taino people, the town of Isabella was begun in 1493, on his second voyage. In 1496 his brother, founded Santo Domingo. By 1500, despite a high death rate, there were between 300 and 1000 Spanish settled in the area.
The local Taíno people continued to resist, refusing to plant crops and abandoning their Spanish-occupied villages. The first mainland explorations were followed by a phase of inland expeditions and conquest. In 1500 the city of Nueva Cádiz was founded on the island of Cubagua, followed by the founding of Santa Cruz by Alonso de Ojeda in present-day Guajira peninsula. Cumaná in Venezuela was the first permanent settlement founded by Europeans in the mainland Americas, in 1501 by Franciscan friars, but due to successful attacks by the indigenous people, it had to be refounded several times, until Diego Hernández de Serpa's foundation in 1569; the Spanish abandoned it within the year. There is indirect evidence that the first permanent Spanish mainland settlement established in the Americas was Santa María la Antigua del Darién; the Spanish conquest of Mexico is understood to be the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, the base for conquests of other regions. Conquests were protracted campaigns with less spectacular results than the conquest of the Aztecs.
The Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Spanish conquest of Guatemala, the war of Mexico's west, the Chichimeca War in northern Mexico expanded Spanish control over territory and indigenous populations. But not until the Spanish conquest of Peru was the conquest of the Aztecs matched in scope by the victory over the Inca empire in 1532; the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire was led by Hernán Cortés. The victory over the Aztecs was quick, from 1519 to 1521, aided by his Tlaxcala and other allies from indigenous city-states or altepetl; these polities allied against the Aztec empire, to which they paid tribute following conquest or threat of conquest, leaving the city-states' political hierarchy and social structure in place. The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was a much longer campaign, from 1551 to 1697, against the Maya peoples in the Yucatán Peninsula of present-day Mexico and northern Central America. Hernán Cortés' landing ashore at present day Veracruz and founding the Spanish city there on April 22, 1519