Musée de l’air et de l’espace
The Musée de l'air et de l'espace, is a French aerospace museum, located at the south-eastern edge of Le Bourget Airport, north of Paris, in the commune of Le Bourget. It was inaugurated in 1919 after a proposal by the celebrated aeronautics engineer Albert Caquot. Occupying over 150,000 square metres of land and hangars, it is one of the oldest aviation museums in the world; the museum's collection contains more than 19,595 items, including 150 aircraft, material from as far back as the 16th Century. Displayed are more modern air and spacecraft, including the prototype for Concorde, Swiss and Soviet rockets; the museum has the only known remaining piece — the jettisoned main landing gear — of the L'Oiseau Blanc, the 1927 aircraft which attempted to make the first Transatlantic crossing from Paris to New York. On May 8, 1927, Charles Nungesser and François Coli aboard L'Oiseau blanc, a 450-hp Lorraine-powered Levasseur biplane took off from Le Bourget; the aircraft jettisoned its main landing gear, which it was designed to do as part of its trans-Atlantic flight profile, but disappeared over the Atlantic, only two weeks before Lindbergh's monoplane completed its successful non-stop trans-Atlantic flight to Le Bourget from the United States.
Other items of interest range include: gilded bronze medallion of the Montgolfier brothers, created in 1783 by Jean-Antoine Houdon the Biot-Massia glider an 1884 electric motor by Arthur Constantin Krebs the rear gondola of the 1915 Zeppelin LZ 113, equipped with 3 Maybach type HS engines a 1916 SPAD VII aircraft by Blériot-SPAD and flown by French flying ace Georges Guynemer in World War I a 1917 Airco DH.9 aircraft by Geoffrey de Havilland a 1918 Junkers D. I aircraft by Hugo Junkers a 1961 Dassault Mirage IIIC by Marcel Dassault an SSBS S3 surface-to-surface ballistic missile commissioned in 1981 a 2002 Dassault-Breguet Super Étendard model. Antoinette VII Blériot XI Voisin-Farman No 1 Santos-Dumont Demoiselle Farman Goliath Oiseau Blanc Bücker Bü 181Dewoitine D.520 Douglas C-47 Skytrain Douglas DC-3 cockpit Focke-Wulf Fw 190 North American P-51 Mustang Republic P-47 Thunderbolt Supermarine Spitfire Mk XVI V-1 flying bomb Douglas A-1 Skyraider Dassault Ouragan Dassault Mirage III Dassault Mystère IV North American F-86D Sabre North American F-100 Super Sabre Republic F-84 Thunderjet Dassault Balzac V Leduc 0.10 Nord 1500 Griffon SNCASO Trident Sud-Ouest SO.6000 Triton Concorde Concorde 001 is featured in its 1973 Solar Eclipse mission livery, with the special rooftop portholes visible.
Dassault Mirage IV Dassault Mirage 4000 Eurocopter X3 Boeing 747 Ariane 1 Ariane 5 Airbus A380 Douglas DC-8 Canadair CL-215 Lockheed P-2 Neptune Breguet Atlantic Dassault Mercure Transall C-160 Dassault Super Etendard SEPECAT Jaguar Super Mirage 4000 Dassault Rafale A List of aerospace museums List of museums in Paris Official website Official website in English not translated
Helsinki is the capital and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, has a population of 650,058; the city's urban area has a population of 1,268,296, making it by far the most populous urban area in Finland as well as the country's most important center for politics, finance and research. Helsinki is located 80 kilometres north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km east of Stockholm, 390 km west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, it has close historical ties with these three cities. Together with the cities of Espoo and Kauniainen, surrounding commuter towns, Helsinki forms the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which has a population of nearly 1.5 million. Considered to be Finland's only metropolis, it is the world's northernmost metro area with over one million people as well as the northernmost capital of an EU member state. After Stockholm and Oslo, Helsinki is the third largest municipality in the Nordic countries.
The city is served by the international Helsinki Airport, located in the neighboring city of Vantaa, with frequent service to many destinations in Europe and Asia. Helsinki was the World Design Capital for 2012, the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the host of the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest. Helsinki has one of the highest urban standards of living in the world. In 2011, the British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world's most liveable city in its liveable cities index. In the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2016 liveability survey, Helsinki was ranked ninth among 140 cities. According to a theory presented in the 1630s, settlers from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived to what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå, which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s; this theory is questionable, because dialect research suggests that the settlers arrived from Uppland and nearby areas. Others have proposed the name as having been derived from the Swedish word helsing, an archaic form of the word hals, referring to the narrowest part of a river, the rapids.
Other Scandinavian cities at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, e.g. Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden; when a town was founded in Forsby village in 1548, it was named Helsinge fors, "Helsinge rapids". The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river; the town was known as Helsinge or Helsing, from which the contemporary Finnish name arose. Official Finnish Government documents and Finnish language newspapers have used the name Helsinki since 1819, when the Senate of Finland moved itself into the city from Turku; the decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is; as part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire, Helsinki was known as Gelsingfors in Russian. In Helsinki slang, the city is called Stadi. Hesa, is not used by natives of the city. Helsset is the Northern Sami name of Helsinki. In the Iron Age the area occupied by present day Helsinki was inhabited by Tavastians, they used the area for fishing and hunting, but due to a lack of archeological finds it is difficult to say how extensive their settlements were.
Pollen analysis has shown that there were cultivating settlements in the area in the 10th century and surviving historical records from the 14th century describe Tavastian settlements in the area. Swedes colonized the coastline of the Helsinki region in the late 13th century after the successful Second Crusade to Finland, which led to the defeat of the Tavastians. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval. In order to populate his newly founded town, the King issued an order to resettle the bourgeoisie of Porvoo, Ekenäs, Rauma and Ulvila into the town. Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a tiny town plagued by poverty and diseases; the plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a substantial city.
Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress during the war, about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an 1808 fire. Russian Emperor Alexander I of Russia moved the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki in 1812 to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, to bring the capital closer to Saint Petersburg. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, the Royal Academy of Turku, which at the time was the country's only university, was relocated to Helsinki and became the modern University of Helsinki; the move helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is apparent in the downtown core, rebuilt in the neoclassical style to resemble Saint Petersburg to a plan by the German-born architect C. L. Engel; as elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth. Despite the tumultuous nature of Finnish history during the first half of the 20th century, Helsinki continued its steady development. A landmark e
Schneider Grunau Baby
The Schneider Grunau Baby was a single-seat sailplane first built in Germany in 1931, with some 6,000 examples constructed in some 20 countries. It was easy to build from plans, it flew well, the aircraft was strong enough to handle mild aerobatics and the occasional hard landing; when the Baby first appeared, it was accepted wisdom that the pilot should feel as much unimpeded airflow as possible, to better sense rising and falling currents of air and temperature changes etc. It was designed by Edmund Schneider with the assistance of Wolf Hirth and Hugo Kromer as a smaller version of Schneider's ESG 31 of the previous year, incorporating an elliptical wing design based on work done by Akaflieg Darmstadt, it was named after Grunau, the town where Schneider's factory was located, now Jeżów Sudecki in Poland. The first 14 inner ribs were of the Göttingen 535 shape with the outer ribs changing up to the last 22nd rib, having a bi-convex and symmetrical shape with a slight reduction in the angle of incidence.
The tips and leading edges of the wings up to the main spar were covered with plywood. The tail unit was built of plywood; the intention was to create an aircraft suitable both for cross-country soaring. Typical for its day, it was a high-wing braced monoplane with a fuselage of hexagonal cross-section and an open cockpit; the Baby was an instant success, was enthusiastically promoted by gliding champion Wolf Hirth. An extensive redesign was undertaken in 1932 following the fatal crash of an unrelated Schneider design, which resulted in the Baby II; this version and the definitive Baby IIb that followed were adopted as standard sailplane trainers for the German Air Sports Association. During 1941, 30 GB gliders were built by Laminação Nacional de Metais Companhia Aeronáutica Paulista in Brazil, under the name "Alcatraz". Following World War II, series production restarted in Germany in 1956; the Baby was built in France and the United Kingdom. Edmund Schneider emigrated to Australia, where he developed the Baby design into his Baby 3 and Baby 4, which had enclosed cockpits.
ESG 31 The precursor to the Baby with larger less sophisticated wings Baby The initial version - an ESG31 with an improved wing based on work done by Akaflieg Darmstadt Baby II Baby IIa Baby IIb Baby III Alcatraz Thirty aircraft licence-built in Brazil by Laminação Nacional de Metais called CAP Companhia Aeronáutica Paulista Nord 1300 License production in France by Nord Aviation Elliotts Baby EoN License production in England by Elliotts of Newbury Slingsby T5 License production in England by Slingsby Sailplanes Baby 3 Postwar redesign, with an enclosed cockpit, by Edmund Schneider after he emigrated to Australia Baby 4 Further improvements made for production in Australia Baby V A two-seat version using Baby III wings with a new tandem seat fabric covered steel tube fuselage AB Flygplan Se-102 License production in Sweden for the Royal Swedish Air Force Hawkridge Grunau Baby licence-built Grunau Babys TG-27 Grunau Baby Grunau Babys impressed into the USAAC in 1942 IFIL-Reghin RG-1 Grunau Babys built in Romania under licence Data from The World's Sailplanes:Die Segelflugzeuge der Welt:Les Planeurs du MondeGeneral characteristics Crew: one Length: 6.09 m Wingspan: 13.57 m Wing area: 14.2 m2 Aspect ratio: 13 Airfoil: Göttingen 535 Empty weight: 170 kg Max takeoff weight: 250 kg Performance Never exceed speed: 150 km/h Aerotow speed: 90 km/h Winch launch speed: 80 km/h Maximum glide ratio: 17 at 60 km/h Rate of sink: 0.85 m/s at 55 km/h Wing loading: 17.68 kg/m2 Aircraft of comparable role and era Hütter Hü 17 Related lists List of gliders Hardy, Michael.
Gliders and Sailplanes of the World. Shepperton: Ian Allan. Pp. 50–51. Coates, Andrew. Jane's World Sailplanes and Motor Gliders. London: MacDonald and Jane's. P. 97. Grunau Baby II B-2 at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum - An extensive writeup of the history of the type
De Havilland DH.60 Moth
The de Havilland DH.60 Moth is a 1920s British two-seat touring and training aircraft, developed into a series of aircraft by the de Havilland Aircraft Company. The DH.60 was developed from the larger DH.51 biplane. The first flight of the Cirrus powered prototype DH.60 Moth was carried out by Geoffrey de Havilland at the works airfield at Stag Lane on 22 February 1925. The Moth was a two-seat biplane of wooden construction, it had a plywood covered fuselage and fabric covered surfaces, a standard tailplane with a single tailplane and fin. A useful feature of the design was its folding wings which allowed owners to hangar the aircraft in much smaller spaces; the Secretary of State for Air Sir Samuel Hoare became interested in the aircraft and the Air Ministry subsidised five flying clubs and equipped them with Moths. The prototype was modified with a horn-balanced rudder, as used on the production aircraft, was entered into the 1925 King's Cup Race flown by Alan Cobham. Deliveries commenced to flying schools in England.
One of the early aircraft was fitted with an all-metal twin-float landing gear to become the first Moth seaplane. The original production Moths were known as Cirrus I Moths. Three aircraft were modified for the 1927 King's Cup Race with internal modifications and a Cirrus II engine on a lowered engine mounting; the original designation of DH.60X was soon changed to Cirrus II Moth. The production run for the DH.60X Moth was short as it was replaced by variants, but it was still available to special order. Although the Cirrus engine was reliable, its manufacture was not, it depended on components salvaged from World War I–era 8-cylinder Renault engines and therefore its numbers were limited by the stockpiles of surplus Renaults. Therefore, de Havilland decided to replace the Cirrus with a new engine built by his own factory. In 1928 when the new de Havilland Gipsy I engine was available a company DH.60 Moth G-EBQH was re-engined as the prototype of the DH.60G Gipsy Moth. Next to the increase in power, the main advantage of this update was that the Gipsy was a new engine available in as great a number as the manufacture of Moths necessitated.
The new Gipsy engines could be built in-house on a production-line side by side with the production-line for Moth airframes. This enabled de Havilland to control the complete process of building a Moth airframe and all, streamline productivity and in the end lower manufacturing costs. While the original DH.60 was offered for a modest £650, by 1930 the price of a new Gipsy-powered Moth was still £650, this in spite of its state-of-the-art engine. A metal-fuselage version of the Gipsy Moth was designated the DH.60M Moth and was developed for overseas customers Canada. The DH.60M was licence-built in Australia, the United States and Norway. In 1931 a variant of the DH.60M was marketed for military training as the DH.60T Moth Trainer. In 1931 with the upgrade of the Gipsy engine as the Gipsy II, de Havilland inverted the engine and re-designated it the Gipsy III; the engine was fitted into a Moth aircraft, re-designated the DH.60G-III Moth Major. The sub-type was intended for the military trainer market and some of the first aircraft were supplied to the Swedish Air Force.
The DH.60 T was re-designated the DH.60 T Tiger Moth. The DH.60T Tiger Moth was modified with swept back mainplanes. The changes were considered great enough that the aircraft was re-designated the de Havilland DH.82 Tiger Moth. Apart from the engine, the new Gipsy Moth was still a standard DH.60. Except for changes to accommodate the engine the fuselage remained the same as before, the exhaust still ran alongside the left side of the cockpits and the logo on the right side still read'De Havilland Moth'; the fuel tank was still housed in the bulging airfoil that formed the centre section of the upper wing. The wings could still be folded alongside the fuselage and still had de Havilland's patented differential ailerons on the bottom mainplanes and no ailerons on the top ones. Colour options still remained as simple as before: wings and tail in "Moth silver", fuselage in the colour the buyer chose; as there was no real comparison between the original DH.60 and the new DH.60G, the Gipsy Moth became the mainstay of British flying clubs as the only real recreational aircraft in the UK.
By 1929 it was estimated that of every 100 aeroplanes in Britain, 85 were Moths of one type or another, most of them Gipsy Moths. This in spite of the fact that with de Havilland switching from the Cirrus to its own Gipsy engine, surplus Cirrus engines were now pouring into the'free' market and a trove of Cirrus powered aircraft like the Avro Avian, the Klemm Swallow or the Miles Hawk started fighting for their share of the flying club and private market. Although replaced in production by the DH.60G-III Moth Major and by the DH.82 Tiger Moth, the Gipsy Moth remained the mainstay of the British flying scene up to the start of WWII. The war however marked the end of the Gipsy Moth and post-war it was replaced by ex-RAF Tiger Moths pouring into the civilian market. In retrospect one can say. Next to the Moth's maiden flight, 1925 marked the birth of the first five Royal Aero Club flying schools and because of its simplicity and reliable powerplant, the Moth was the aircraft of choice to equip the clubs.
Vice versa, the clubs gave de Havilland a secure supply of orders. De Havilland could use this aspect
KLM Royal Dutch Airlines Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N. V. is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands. KLM is headquartered with its hub at nearby Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, it is part of the Air France–KLM group, a member of the SkyTeam airline alliance. Founded in 1919, KLM is the oldest airline in the world still operating under its original name and had 35,488 employees and a fleet of 119 as of 2015. KLM operates scheduled cargo services to 145 destinations. In 1919, a young aviator lieutenant named Albert Plesman sponsored the ELTA aviation exhibition in Amsterdam; the exhibition was a great success. In September 1919, Queen Wilhelmina awarded the yet-to-be-founded KLM its "Royal" predicate. On 7 October 1919, eight Dutch businessmen, including Frits Fentener van Vlissingen, founded KLM as one of the first commercial airline companies. Plesman became its first director; the first KLM flight took place on 17 May 1920. KLM's first pilot, Jerry Shaw, flew from London, to Amsterdam; the flight was flown using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel De Haviland DH-16, registration G-EALU, carrying two British journalists and some newspapers.
In 1920, KLM carried 22 tons of freight. In April 1921, after a winter hiatus, KLM resumed its services using its own pilots, Fokker F. II and Fokker F. III aircraft. In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. KLM's first intercontinental flight took off on 1 October 1924; the final destination was Java, in the Dutch East Indies. VII with registration was piloted by Van der Hoop. In September 1929, regular scheduled services between Amsterdam and Batavia commenced; until the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939, this was the world's longest-distance scheduled service by airplane. By 1926, it was offering flights to Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Bremen and Malmö, using Fokker F. II and Fokker F. III aircraft. In 1930, KLM carried 15,143 passengers; the Douglas DC-2 was introduced on the Batavia service in 1934. The first experimental transatlantic KLM flight was between Amsterdam and Curaçao in December 1934 using the Fokker F. XVIII "Snip"; the first of the airline's Douglas DC-3 aircraft were delivered in 1936.
KLM was the first airline to serve Manchester's new Ringway airport, starting June 1938. KLM was the only civilian airline to receive the Douglas DC-5; when Germany invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940, a number of KLM aircraft—mostly DC-3s and a few DC-2s—were en route to or from the Far East, or were operating services in Europe. Five DC-3s and one DC-2 were taken to England. During the war, these aircraft and crew members flew scheduled passenger flights between Bristol and Lisbon under BOAC registration; the Douglas DC-3 PH-ALI "Ibis" registered as G-AGBB, was attacked by the Luftwaffe on 15 November 1942, 19 April 1943, on 1 June 1943 as BOAC Flight 777, killing all passengers and crew. Some KLM aircraft and their crews ended up in the Australia-Dutch East Indies region, where they helped transport refugees from Japanese aggression in that area. After the end of the Second World War in August 1945, KLM started to rebuild its network. Since the Dutch East Indies were in a state of revolt, Plesman's first priority was to re-establish KLM's route to Batavia.
This service was reinstated by the end of 1945. Domestic and European flights resumed in September 1945 with a fleet of Douglas DC-3s and Douglas DC-4s. On 21 May 1946, KLM was the first continental European airline to start scheduled transatlantic flights between Amsterdam and New York City using Douglas DC-4 aircraft. By 1948, KLM had reconstructed its network and services to Africa and South America, the Caribbean resumed. Long-range, pressurized Lockheed Constellations and Douglas DC-6s joined KLM's fleet in the late 1940s. During the immediate post-war period, the Dutch government expressed interest in gaining a majority stake in KLM, thus nationalizing it. Plesman wanted KLM to remain a private company under private control. In 1950, KLM carried 356,069 passengers; the expansion of the network continued in the 1950s with the addition of several destinations in western North America. KLM's fleet expanded with the addition of new versions of the Lockheed Constellation and Lockheed Electra, of which KLM was the first European airline to fly.
On 31 December 1953, the founder and president of KLM, Albert Plesman, died at the age of 64. He was succeeded as president by Fons Aler. After Plesman's death, the company and other airlines entered a difficult economic period; the conversion to jet aircraft placed a further financial burden on KLM. The Netherlands government increased its ownership of the company to two-thirds, thus nationalizing it; the board of directors remained under the control of private shareholders. On 25 July 1957, the airline introduced its flight simulator for the Douglas DC-7C – the last KLM aircraft with piston engines – which opened the transpolar route from Amsterdam via Anchorage to Tokyo on 1 November 1958; each crew flying the transpolar route over the Arctic was eq
Kaunas is the second-largest city in Lithuania and the historical centre of Lithuanian economic and cultural life. Kaunas was the biggest city and the centre of a county in Trakai Municipality of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania since 1413. In the Russian Empire, it was the capital of the Kaunas Governorate from 1843 to 1915. During the interwar period, it served as the temporary capital of Lithuania, when Vilnius was seized by Poland between 1920 and 1939. During that period Kaunas was celebrated for its rich cultural and academic life, construction of countless Art Deco and Lithuanian National Romanticism architectural-style buildings as well as popular furniture, the interior design of the time, a widespread café culture; the city interwar architecture is regarded as among the finest examples of European Art Deco and has received the European Heritage Label. It contributed to Kaunas being named as the first city in Central and Eastern Europe to be designated as a UNESCO City of Design. Kaunas has been selected as the European Capital of Culture for 2022, together with Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.
The city is the capital of Kaunas County, the seat of the Kaunas city municipality and the Kaunas District Municipality. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kaunas. Kaunas is located at the confluence of the two largest Lithuanian rivers, the Nemunas and the Neris, is near the Kaunas Reservoir, the largest body of water in the whole of Lithuania; the city's name is of Lithuanian origin and most derives from a personal name. Before Lithuania regained independence, the city was known in English as Kovno, the traditional Slavicized form of its name. An earlier Russian name was Ковно Kovno, although Каунас Kaunas has been used since 1940; the Yiddish name is קאָװנע Kovne, the names in German include Kaunas and Kauen. The city and its elderates have names in other languages. An old legend claims; these Romans were led by a patrician named Palemon, who had three sons: Barcus and Sperus. Palemon fled from Rome. Palemon, his sons and other relatives travelled to Lithuania. After Palemon's death, his sons divided his land.
Kunas got the land. He built a fortress near the confluence of the Nemunas and Neris rivers, the city that grew up there was named after him. A suburban region in the vicinity is named "Palemonas". On 30 June 1993, the historical coat of arms of Kaunas city was re-established by a special presidential decree; the coat of arms features a white aurochs with a golden cross between its horns, set against a deep red background. The aurochs was the original heraldic symbol of the city, established in 1400; the heraldic seal of Kaunas, introduced in the early 15th century during the reign of Grand Duke Vytautas, is the oldest city heraldic seal known in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The current emblem was the result of much study and discussion on the part of the Lithuanian Heraldry Commission, realized by the artist Raimondas Miknevičius. An auroch has replaced a wisent, depicted in the Soviet-era emblem, used since 1969. Blazon: Gules, an aurochs passant guardant argent ensigned with a cross Or between his horns.
Kaunas has a greater coat of arms, used for purposes of Kaunas city representation. The sailor, three golden balls, Latin text "Diligite justitiam qui judicatis terram" in the greater coat of arms refers to Saint Nicholas, patron saint of merchants and seafarers, regarded as a heavenly guardian of Kaunas by Queen Bona Sforza. According to the archeological excavations, the richest collections of ceramics and other artifacts found at the confluence of the Nemunas and the Neris rivers are from the second and first millennium BC. During that time, people settled in some territories of the present Kaunas: the confluence of the two longest rivers of Lithuania area, Lampėdžiai, Kaniūkai, Marvelė, Romainiai, Petrašiūnai, Sargėnai, Veršvai sites. A settlement had been established on the site of the current Kaunas old town, at the confluence of two large rivers, at least by the 10th century AD. Kaunas is first mentioned in written sources in 1361. In 1362, the castle was destroyed by the Teutonic Order.
Commander Vaidotas of the Kaunas castle garrison, with 36 men, tried to break through, but was taken prisoner. It was one of the largest and important military victories of the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century against Lithuania; the Kaunas castle was rebuilt at the beginning of the 15th century. In 1408, the town was granted Magdeburg rights by Vytautas the Great and became a centre of Kaunas Powiat in Trakai Voivodeship in 1413. Vytautas ceded Kaunas the right to own the scales used for weighing the goods brought to the city or packed on site, wax processing, woolen cloth-trimming facilities; the power of the self-governing Kaunas was shared by three interrelated major institutions: vaitas, the Magistrate, the so-called Benchers' Court. Kaunas began to gain prominence, since it was at an intersection of a river port. In 1441 Kaunas joined the Hanseatic League, Hansa merchant office Kontor was opened—the only one in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. By the 16th century, Kaunas had a public school and a hospital and was one of the best-formed towns in
Duxford Aerodrome is located 8 nautical miles south of Cambridge, within the Parish of Duxford, Cambridgeshire and nearly 1-mile west of the village. The airfield is owned by the Imperial War Museum and is the site of the Imperial War Museum Duxford and the American Air Museum. Duxford Aerodrome has a Civil Aviation Authority Ordinary Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction as authorised by the licensee; the aerodrome is not licensed for night use. Duxford airfield dates to 1918 when many of the buildings were constructed by German prisoner-of-war labour; the airfield housed 8 Squadron in 1919–1920, equipped with Bristol Fighters. The airfield was used by No. 2 Flying Training School RAF until April 1923, when 19 Squadron was formed at Duxford with Sopwith Snipes. By 1925 Duxford's three fighter squadrons had expanded to include the Gloster Grebes and Armstrong Whitworth Siskins. No.19 Squadron was re-equipped with Bristol Bulldogs in 1931, in 1935, was the first squadron to fly the RAF's fastest new fighter, the Gloster Gauntlet, capable of 230 mph.
The station was enlarged between 1928 and 1932. In 1935, Duxford was the venue for the Silver Jubilee Review before King George V and Queen Mary, the resident squadron still being No. 19. This squadron gave a special demonstration over Duxford for the King. In 1936 Flight Lieutenant Frank Whittle, studying at Cambridge University, flew from Duxford as a member of the Cambridge University Air Squadron. Whittle went on to develop the jet turbine as a means of powering an aircraft. In 1938 No. 19 Squadron was the first RAF squadron to receive the new Supermarine Spitfire. The third production Spitfire was presented to the squadron at Duxford on 4 August 1938 by Jeffrey Quill, Supermarine's chief test pilot. On 3 September 1939 Britain declared war on Duxford was ready to play a vital role. By June 1940 Belgium, the Netherlands and France were under German control and the invasion of Britain was their next objective. Duxford was placed in a high state of readiness, to create space for additional units at Duxford, 19 Squadron moved to nearby RAF Fowlmere.
The dominance of the skies over Britain would be crucial to keeping German forces out of the country, this became known as The Battle of Britain. Hurricanes first arrived at Duxford in July with the formation of 310 Squadron, which consisted of Czechoslovakian pilots who had escaped from France. At the end of August Air Vice-Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory, the commander of No. 12 Group, ordered the Hurricanes of 242 Squadron commanded by Douglas Bader to come down from RAF Coltishall to join 19 and 310 Squadrons which were on daily standby at Duxford. These units, led by Bader, became known as the "Duxford Wing", the first of 12 Group's "Big Wing" formations. On 9 September the Duxford squadrons intercepted and turned back a large force of German bombers before they reached their target; this proved Duxford's importance, so two more squadrons were added, No. 302 Squadron RAF with Hurricanes, the Spitfires of No. 611 Auxiliary Squadron which had mobilised at Duxford a year before. On average sixty Spitfires and Hurricanes were dispersed around RAF Fowlmere every day.
On 15 September 1940 they twice took to the air to repulse Luftwaffe aircraft intent on bombing London. RAF Fighter Command was victorious, the threat of invasion passed and Duxford's squadrons had played a critical role; this became known as'Battle of Britain Day'. In recognition of the efforts and sacrifices made by the squadrons and airmen during the Battle of Britain, the "gate guard" aircraft on display at the entrance gate to IWM Duxford is a Hawker Hurricane II, squadron code WX-E of No.302 Squadron, Serial No. P2954, flown by Flight Lieutenant Tadeusz Pawel Chlopik, RAF. Duxford became the home of several specialist units, including the Air Fighting Development Unit, which moved to the station at the end of 1940; the AFDU's equipment included captured German aircraft, which were restored to flying condition for evaluation. Duxford was important in developing the Hawker Typhoon into a formidable low-level and ground attack fighter, the suggestion of re-engining the Mk1 North American P-51 Mustang with the Merlin.
In 1942 the first Typhoon Wing was formed. Its first operation took place on 20 June 1942. Other RAF Fighter Command units which operated from Duxford were: 19, 56, 66, 133, 181, 195, 222, 242, 264, 266, 310, 312, 601, 609, 611 Squadrons and the AFDU. Duxford airfield was assigned to the United States Army Air Forces in 1943 and became known by the USAAF as "Station 357", it was allocated to the Eighth Air Force fighter command. USAAF Station Units assigned to RAF Duxford were: 79th Service Group84th and 378th Service Squadrons; the unit was re designated the'66th Fighter Wing' and was transferred to Sawston Hall near Cambridge on 20 August 1943. Combat flying units assigned were: 350th Fighter GroupThe 350th Fighter Group was activated at Duxford on 1 October 1942 by special authority granted to the Eighth Air Force with a nucleus of Bell P-39 Ai