A cigarette, or cigaret, is a small cylinder of finely cut tobacco leaves rolled in thin paper for smoking. Most modern manufactured cigarettes are filtered, and also include reconstituted tobacco, the term cigarette, as commonly used, refers to a tobacco cigarette, but can apply to similar devices other substances, such as cannabis. A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its size, use of processed leaf, and paper wrapping. Cigars are typically composed entirely of whole-leaf tobacco, rates of cigarette smoking vary widely throughout the world and have changed considerably since cigarettes were first widely used in the mid-19th century. While rates of smoking have over time leveled off or declined in the developed world, Cigarettes carry serious health risks, which are more prevalent than with other tobacco products. Nicotine, the psychoactive chemical in tobacco and therefore cigarettes, is very addictive. About half of cigarette smokers die of tobacco-related disease and lose on average 14 years of life, cigarette use by pregnant women has also been shown to cause birth defects, including low birth weight, fetal abnormalities, and premature birth. Second-hand smoke from cigarettes has been shown to be injurious to bystanders, Cigarettes produce an aerosol containing over 4,000 chemical compounds, including nicotine, carbon monoxide, acrolein, and other harmful substances. Over 50 of these are carcinogenic, the earliest forms of cigarettes were similar to their predecessor, the cigar. Cigarettes appear to have had antecedents in Mexico and Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds, the Maya, and later the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and other psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette and the cigar were the most common methods of smoking in the Caribbean, Mexico, and Central and South America until recent times. The North American, Central American, and South American cigarette used various plant wrappers, when it was back to Spain, maize wrappers were introduced. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented in Goyas paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, by 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France, where it received the name cigarette, and in 1845, the French state tobacco monopoly began manufacturing them. The first patented cigarette machine was by Juan Nepomuceno Adorno of Mexico in 1847 and this was helped by the development of tobaccos suitable for cigarette use, and by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry. Cigarettes may have initially used in a manner similar to pipes, cigars. As cigarette tobacco became milder and more acidic, inhaling may have perceived as more agreeable. However, Moltke noticed in the 1830s that Ottomans inhaled the Turkish tobacco, the widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is largely a 20th-century phenomenon. At the start of the 20th century, the per capita consumption in the USA was 54 cigarettes
An unlit, filtered cigarette.
A reproduction of a carving from the temple at Palenque, Mexico, depicting a Mayan priest smoking from a smoking tube
Francisco Goya's La Cometa, depicting a (foreground left) man smoking an early quasicigarette
Tabak-Trafik in Vienna: Since 1 January 2007, all cigarette machines in Austria must attempt to verify a customer's age by requiring the insertion of a debit card or mobile phone verification.