Interstate 40 in California
In the State of California, Interstate 40 begins on the west at its interchange with Interstate 15 in Barstow. Sometimes called the Needles Freeway, it is a major east–west highway of the Interstate Highway System that goes all the way to Wilmington, North Carolina. I-40 goes east from Barstow across the Mojave Desert in San Bernardino County past the Clipper Mountains to Needles, before it crosses over the Colorado River into Arizona east of Needles. All 155 miles of I-40 in California are in San Bernardino County. Interstate 40 goes through the Mojave Desert on its entire journey through California. I-40 starts out at a junction with Interstate 15 in Barstow; the freeway passes through Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow before leaving the city limits. I-40 passes south of the town. After passing south of the Barstow-Daggett Airport, I-40 goes through Newberry Springs and Ludlow before traveling along the south end of Mojave National Preserve. Several miles east of the preserve, I-40 intersects US 95 and the two highways run concurrently into the city of Needles.
In Needles, US 95 continues south while I-40 continues east through Mojave National Preserve and across the Colorado River into Arizona. The maximum speed limit for the entire California segment of Interstate 40 is 70 mph. I-40 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. I-40 is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. Interstate 40 from Interstate 15 to the Arizona State Line is known as the Needles Freeway, as named by Senate Concurrent Resolution 1 in 1968; the segment of I-40 in California was approved as a chargeable Interstate on July 7, 1947. In 1957, the California Department of Highways proposed that the route be renumbered to Interstate 30 instead because of the existing U. S. Route 40 in the state. However, this was rejected, U.
S. 40 was decommissioned in favor of Interstate 80. Today, the Needles Freeway replaced the former Route 66 across the Mojave Desert; as a result, a number of communities along the former route like Amboy have become ghost towns. In the early 1960s, a proposal as part of Project Plowshare would have detonated 22 nuclear explosions to excavate a massive roadcut through the Bristol Mountains to accommodate a better alignment of Interstate 40 and a new rail line; this proposal was definitively abandoned in 1968. A sign in California showing the distance to Wilmington, North Carolina has been stolen several times; the State of California submitted the segment of what is now State Route 58 between Barstow and Bakersfield for chargeable Interstate approval twice, in 1956 and 1968 as an extension of I-40, but it was rejected both times. As a result of these rejections, this segment of SR 58 is being upgraded to freeway standards piece-by-piece as Caltrans has funds available. Between Bakersfield and Barstow, SR 58 exists as a four to six lane freeway with a few exceptions: a 12-mile section from Mojave to California City is four lanes with at-grade intersections, a 16-mile, two-lane section from the Kern–San Bernardino county line, which leads into a 27-mile four-lane section with at-grade crossings.
Caltrans completed an Interstate-grade bypass around Hinkley and is constructing a similar bypass around Kramer Junction. An extension of I-40 in California from its present terminus at Barstow to Bakersfield, as far west as Paso Robles, has been proposed; the proposed I-40 extension would follow SR 58 to Bakersfield, follow SR 46 to Paso Robles. However, there is no current push to apply for Interstate designation. SR 46 is being upgraded to Interstate standards, minus overpasses, from US 101 in Paso Robles to I-5 in Lost Hills; the entire route is in San Bernardino County. Interstate 40 Business is a business loop in Needles, it provides access to downtown Needles as Broadway Street. It follows the former routing of US 66. California Roads portal Interstate 40 @ Interstate-Guide.com Interstate 40 Business @ Interstate-Guide.com Interstate 40 at California @ AARoads.com Interstate 40 highway conditions from Caltrans Interstate 40 at California Highways
The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology; the Pleistocene is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era. In the ICS timescale, the Pleistocene is divided into four stages or ages, the Gelasian, Middle Pleistocene and Upper Pleistocene. In addition to this international subdivision, various regional subdivisions are used. Before a change confirmed in 2009 by the International Union of Geological Sciences, the time boundary between the Pleistocene and the preceding Pliocene was regarded as being at 1.806 million years Before Present, as opposed to the accepted 2.588 million years BP: publications from the preceding years may use either definition of the period. Charles Lyell introduced the term "Pleistocene" in 1839 to describe strata in Sicily that had at least 70% of their molluscan fauna still living today.
This distinguished it from the older Pliocene epoch, which Lyell had thought to be the youngest fossil rock layer. He constructed the name "Pleistocene" from the Greek πλεῖστος, pleīstos, "most", καινός, kainós, "new"; the Pleistocene has been dated from 2.588 million to 11,700 years BP with the end date expressed in radiocarbon years as 10,000 carbon-14 years BP. It covers most of the latest period of repeated glaciation, up to and including the Younger Dryas cold spell; the end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9640 BC. The end of the Younger Dryas is the official start of the current Holocene Epoch. Although it is considered an epoch, the Holocene is not different from previous interglacial intervals within the Pleistocene, it was not until after the development of radiocarbon dating, that Pleistocene archaeological excavations shifted to stratified caves and rock-shelters as opposed to open-air river-terrace sites. In 2009 the International Union of Geological Sciences confirmed a change in time period for the Pleistocene, changing the start date from 1.806 to 2.588 million years BP, accepted the base of the Gelasian as the base of the Pleistocene, namely the base of the Monte San Nicola GSSP.
The IUGS has yet to approve a type section, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, for the upper Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The proposed section is the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core 75° 06' N 42° 18' W; the lower boundary of the Pleistocene Series is formally defined magnetostratigraphically as the base of the Matuyama chronozone, isotopic stage 103. Above this point there are notable extinctions of the calcareous nanofossils: Discoaster pentaradiatus and Discoaster surculus; the Pleistocene covers the recent period of repeated glaciations. The name Plio-Pleistocene has, in the past, been used to mean the last ice age; the revised definition of the Quaternary, by pushing back the start date of the Pleistocene to 2.58 Ma, results in the inclusion of all the recent repeated glaciations within the Pleistocene. The modern continents were at their present positions during the Pleistocene, the plates upon which they sit having moved no more than 100 km relative to each other since the beginning of the period.
According to Mark Lynas, the Pleistocene's overall climate could be characterized as a continuous El Niño with trade winds in the south Pacific weakening or heading east, warm air rising near Peru, warm water spreading from the west Pacific and the Indian Ocean to the east Pacific, other El Niño markers. Pleistocene climate was marked by repeated glacial cycles in which continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places, it is estimated. In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched southward from the edge of the glacial sheet, a few hundred kilometres in North America, several hundred in Eurasia; the mean annual temperature at the edge of the ice was −6 °C. Each glacial advance tied up huge volumes of water in continental ice sheets 1,500 to 3,000 metres thick, resulting in temporary sea-level drops of 100 metres or more over the entire surface of the Earth. During interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions.
The effects of glaciation were global. Antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene as well as the preceding Pliocene; the Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap. There were glaciers in New Tasmania; the current decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, the Ruwenzori Range in east and central Africa were larger. Glaciers existed to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one; the Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest. The Fenno-Scandian ice sheet rested including much of Great Britain. Scattered domes stretched across Siberi
A dome is a feature in structural geology consisting of symmetrical anticlines that intersect each other at their respective apices. Intact, domes are distinct, spherical-to-ellipsoidal-shaped protrusions on the Earth's surface. However, a transect parallel to Earth's surface of a dome features concentric rings of strata. If the top of a dome has been eroded flat, the resulting structure in plan view appears as a bullseye, with the youngest rock layers at the outside, each ring growing progressively older moving inwards; these strata would have been horizontal at the time of deposition later deformed by the uplift associated with dome formation. There are many possible mechanisms responsible for the formation of domes, the foremost of which are post-impact uplift and diapirism. A complex crater, caused by collision of a hypervelocity body with another larger than itself, is typified by the presence of a dome at the centre of the site of impact; these domes are large-scale and thought to be the result of post-impact weakening of the overlying strata and basement.
Weakening is integral for the vertical uplift required to create a dome to take place, as it allows vertical displacement to happen unconstrained by the original rigidity properties of the undeformed rock. This displacement is the result of the parcel of rock at the centre of the site of impact, composed of the strata and basement, re-equilibrating relative to gravity. Earlier theories attributed the dome-forming uplift to rebound. Elastic deformation is not being that an impact is accompanied by extensive fracturing and partial melting of the rock that would change the mechanical properties of the rock. Structural domes can be formed by horizontal stresses in a process known as refolding, which involves the superposition, or overprinting, of two- or more fold fabrics. Upright folds formed by a horizontal primary stress in one direction can be altered by another horizontal stress oriented at 90 degrees to the original stress; this results in overprinting of the twofold fabrics, similar to wave interference patterns, that results in a system of basins and domes.
Where the synclines of both fabrics are superimposed, a basin is formed. Diapirism involves the vertical displacement of a parcel of material through overlying strata in order to reach equilibrium within a system that has an established density gradient. To reach equilibrium, parcels from a stratum composed of less-dense material will rise towards Earth's surface, creating formations that are most expressed in cross-section as “tear drop”-shaped, where the rounded end is that closest to the surface of the overlying strata. If overlying strata are weak enough to deform as the parcel rises, a dome can form. Potential materials comprised by these less-dense strata include salt and melted migmatite. Upheaval Dome, Utah, USA Vredefort Dome, South Africa Observed in the Karatau fault system, Kazakhstan North Pole Dome, western Australia Mabja Dome, southern Tibet Leo Pargil Dome, Himachal Pradesh/Tibetan border Richat Structure, central Mauritania
National Natural Landmark
The National Natural Landmarks Program recognizes and encourages the conservation of outstanding examples of the natural history of the United States. It is the only national natural areas program that identifies and recognizes the best examples of biological and geological features in both public and private ownership; the program was established on May 18, 1962, by United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall. The program aims to encourage and support voluntary preservation of sites that illustrate the geological and ecological history of the United States, it hopes to strengthen the public's appreciation of the country's natural heritage. As of November 2016, 599 sites have been added to the National Registry of National Landmarks; the registry includes nationally significant geological and ecological features in 48 states, American Samoa, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands; the National Park Service administers the NNL Program and if requested, assists NNL owners and managers with the conservation of these important sites.
Land acquisition by the federal government is not a goal of this program. National Natural Landmarks are nationally significant sites owned by a variety of land stewards, their participation in this federal program is voluntary; the legislative authority for the National Natural Landmarks Program stems from the Historic Sites Act of August 21, 1935. The NNL Program does not have the protection features of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. Thus, designation of a National Natural Landmark presently constitutes only an agreement with the owner to preserve, insofar as possible, the significant natural values of the site or area. Administration and preservation of National Natural Landmarks is the owner's responsibility. Either party may terminate the agreement; the NNL designation is made by the Secretary of the Interior after in-depth scientific study of a potential site. All new designations must have owner concurrence; the selection process is rigorous: to be considered for NNL status, a site must be one of the best examples of a natural region's characteristic biotic or geologic features.
Since establishment of the NNL program, a multi-step process has been used to designate a site for NNL status. Since 1970, the following steps have constituted the process. A natural area inventory of a natural region is completed to identify the most promising sites. After landowners are notified that the site is being considered for NNL status, a detailed onsite evaluation is conducted by scientists other than those who conducted the inventory; the evaluation report is peer reviewed by other experts to assure its soundness. The report is reviewed further by National Park Service staff; the site is reviewed by the Secretary of the Interior's National Park Advisory Board to determine that the site qualifies as an NNL. The findings are provided to the Secretary of the Interior who declines. Landowners are notified a third time informing them that the site has been designated an NNL. Prospective sites for NNL designation are aquatic ecosystems; each major natural history "theme" can be further subdivided into various sub-themes.
For example, sub-themes suggested in 1972 for the overall theme "Lakes and ponds" included large deep lakes, large shallow lakes, lakes of complex shape, crater lakes, kettle lake and potholes, oxbow lakes, dune lakes, sphagnum-bog lakes, lakes fed by thermal streams, tundra lakes and ponds and marshy areas, sinkhole lakes, unusually productive lakes, lakes of high productivity and high clarity. The NNL program does not require designated properties to be owned by public entities. Lands under all forms of ownership or administration have been designated—federal, local and private. Federal lands with NNLs include those administered by the National Park Service, National Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Bureau of Reclamation and Wildlife Service, Air Force, Marine Corps, Army Corps of Engineers and others; some NNL have been designated on lands held by Native tribes. NNLs have been designated on state lands that cover a variety of types and management, as forest, game refuge, recreation area, preserve.
Private lands with NNLs include those owned by universities, scientific societies, conservation organizations, land trusts, commercial interests, private individuals. 52% of NNLs are administered by public agencies, more than 30% are privately owned, the remaining 18% are owned or administered by a mixture of public agencies and private owners. Participation in the NNL Program carries no requirements regarding public access; the NNL registry includes many sites of national significance that are open for public tours, but others are not. Since many NNLs are located on federal and state property, permission to visit is unnecessary; some private property may be open to public visitation or just require permission from the site manager. On the other hand, some NNL private landowners desire no visitors whatever and might prosecute trespassers; the reasons for this viewpoint vary: potential property damage or liability, fragile or dangerous resources, desire for solitude or no publicity. NNL designation is an agreement between the federal government.
NNL designation does not change ownership of the property nor induce any encumbrances on the property. NNL status does not transfer with changes in ownership. Participation in the NNL Program involve
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent. It includes all phenomena resulting from and causing magma within the crust or mantle of the body, to rise through the crust and form volcanic rocks on the surface. Magma from the mantle or lower crust rises through its crust towards the surface. If magma reaches the surface, its behavior depends on the viscosity of the molten constituent rock. Viscous magma produces volcanoes characterised by explosive eruptions, while non-viscous magma produce volcanoes characterised by effusive eruptions pouring large amounts of lava onto the surface. In some cases, rising magma can solidify without reaching the surface. Instead, the cooled and solidified igneous mass crystallises within the crust to form an igneous intrusion; as magma cools the chemicals in the crystals formed are removed from the main mix of the magma, so the chemical content of the remaining magma evolves as it solidifies slowly.
Fresh unevolved magma injections can remobilise more evolved magmas, allowing eruptions from more viscous magmas. Movement of molten rock in the mantle, caused by thermal convection currents, coupled with gravitational effects of changes on the earth's surface drive plate tectonic motion and volcanism. Volcanoes are places; the type of volcano depends on the consistency of the magma. These are formed where magma pushes between existing rock, intrusions can be in the form of batholiths, dikes and layered intrusions. Earthquakes are associated with plate tectonic activity, but some earthquakes are generated as a result of volcanic activity; these are formed. These include geysers, fumaroles and mudpots, they are used as a source of geothermal energy; the amount of gas and ash emitted by volcanic eruptions has a significant effect on the Earth's climate. Large eruptions correlate well with some significant climate change events; when magma cools it forms rocks. The type of rock formed depends on the chemical composition of the magma and how it cools.
Magma that reaches the surface to become lava cools resulting in rocks with small crystals such as basalt. Some of this magma may cool rapidly and will form volcanic glass such as obsidian. Magma trapped below ground in thin intrusions cools more than exposed magma and produces rocks with medium-sized crystals. Magma that remains trapped in large quantities below ground cools most resulting in rocks with larger crystals, such as granite and gabbro. Existing rocks that come into contact with magma may be assimilated into the magma. Other rocks adjacent to the magma may be altered by contact metamorphism or metasomatism as they are affected by the heat and escaping or externally-circulating hydrothermal fluids. Volcanism is not confined only to Earth, but is thought to be found on any body having a solid crust and fluid mantle. Evidence of volcanism should still be found on any body that has had volcanism at some point in its history. Volcanoes have indeed been observed on other bodies in the Solar System – on some, such as Mars, in the shape of mountains that are unmistakably old volcanoes, but on Io actual ongoing eruptions have been observed.
It can be surmised that volcanism exists on planets and moons of this type in other planetary systems as well. In 2014, scientists found 70 lava flows. Bimodal volcanism Continental drift Hotspot Volcanic arc "Glossary of Volcanic Terms". G. J. Hudak, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, 2001. Retrieved 2010-05-07. Crumpler, L. S. and Lucas, S. G.. "Volcanoes of New Mexico: An Abbreviated Guide For Non-Specialists". Volcanology in New Mexico. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 18: 5–15. Archived from the original on 2007-03-21. Retrieved 2010-04-28. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter
The Kelso Depot and Employees Hotel or Kelso Depot, now the Mojave National Preserve Visitors Center, is located in the Mojave Desert within the National Park Service Mojave National Preserve, on Kelso Cima Road at the junction of Kelbaker Road in Kelso, between Baker and Interstate 15 to the north and Interstate 40 to the south. It was placed on the National Register of Historic Places, along with the adjacent ghost town of Kelso, was declared a United States Historic District in 2000; the district was increased by a boundary increase approved by the National Park Service in 2019, with reference number 100003401. The first depot, by the Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad, opened in 1905. In early 1923 the railroad began construction of the new "Kelso Clubhouse & Restaurant" which opened the next year; the Kelso Depot was built to provide services to passengers and railroad employees, a water stop for the steam locomotives. It is an example of a surviving mid-1920s era Mission Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival architecture Styled railroad depot with a hotel and gardens in Southern California.
It was designed by the firm of Donald Parkinson. The facility served interstate passenger and shipping traffic and the transport of ore from local mines the Vulcan Mine, it was an essential element of the 1920s modernization of the Union Pacific Railroad stations to compete with the Santa Fe Railway and its Harvey Houses such as "Casa del Desierto". The oasis-like landscape design and overall style and character of this remote station made it a popular gathering place for Union Pacific employees and local residents; the original gardens with shade from Fremont cottonwoods, Chinese elms, manicured geometric lawns lingered, but did not survive the desert conditions between depot closure and the park's Visitor Center restoration. Only date palms survived; the Kelso Depot served as a significant element in the Union Pacific's contributions to the American war effort during World War II. The end of World War II marked the beginning of a long decline in the depot's utility; the sharp decline in the volume of freight traffic and diesel engines replacing steam caused a reduction in services and the need for fewer employees.
The Vulcan Mine closed early in 1947, further reducing passenger traffic. A surge of activity occurred with the outbreak of the Korean War in the early 1950s, resulting in a renewal of high traffic levels on the Union Pacific line for several years. In 1953 and 1957, attempts were made to market the low-grade iron ore stockpiled at the Vulcan Mine. However, higher horse power, second generation diesel-electric locomotives of the 1960s resulted in the further decline in Union Pacific personnel needed at Kelso; this technological change eliminated the need for helper locomotives in 1959. Coupled with the closing of the station agency and cessation of passenger train service to Kelso on August 14, 1964, this development spelled the end of the depot's principal function with the exception of the Lunch Room which remained serving until 1985; the Union Pacific proposed the demolition of the unused depot in 1985. Efforts to preserve the building culminated in its 1992 transfer to the Bureau of Land Management and its East Mojave National Scenic Area.
In 1994 the Mojave National Preserve was established, the depot was transferred to the National Park Service. A historical restoration and adaptive reuse project followed in 2002; the Kelso Depot now serves, as the main Visitor Center of the Mojave National Preserve. Cima Dome & Volcanic Field National Natural Landmark El Garces Hotel – Needles, California Harvey House Railroad Depot – Barstow, California Western America Railroad Museum Kelso Dunes Kelso Mountains Lavic Lake volcanic field Pisgah Crater NPS—Mojave National Preserve: Kelso Depot—history and photos Kelso Depot floor plan and virtual model Official Mojave National Preserve website — homepage