The Bosporan Kingdom known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus, was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch. It was the first truly'Hellenistic' state in the sense that a mixed population adopted the Greek language and civilization; the Bosporan Kingdom became the longest surviving Roman client kingdom. The 1st and 2nd centuries BC saw a period of renewed golden age of the Bosporan state, it was a Roman province from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero. At the end of the 2nd century AD, King Sauromates II inflicted a critical defeat on the Scythians and included all the territories of the Crimea in the structure of his state; the prosperity of the Bosporan Kingdom was based on the export of wheat and slaves. The profit of the trade supported a class whose conspicuous wealth is still visible from newly discovered archaeological finds, excavated illegally, from numerous burial barrows known as kurgans.
The once-thriving cities of the Bosporus left extensive architectural and sculptural remains, while the kurgans continue to yield spectacular Greco-Sarmatian objects, the best examples of which are now preserved in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg; these include gold work, vases imported from Athens, coarse terracottas, textile fragments and specimens of carpentry and marquetry. The whole area was dotted with Greek cities: in the west, Panticapaeum —the most significant city in the region and Myrmekion; these Greek colonies were settled by Milesians in the 7th and 6th centuries BC. Phanagoria was a colony of Teos, the foundation of Nymphaeum may have had a connection with Athens; the Bosporan Kingdom was centred around the Kerch Strait between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, known in antiquity as the Cimmerian Bosporus from where the kingdom's name derived. See Also: List of kings of Cimmerian Bosporus According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus the region was governed between 480 and 438 BC by a line of kings called the Archaeanactidae a ruling family, usurped by a tyrant called Spartocus, a Thracian.
Spartocus founded a dynasty. The Spartocids left many inscriptions, indicating that the earliest members of the house ruled under the titles of archons of the Greek cities and kings of various minor native tribes, notably the Sindi and other branches of the Maeotae. Surviving material do not supply enough information to reconstruct a complete chronology of kings of the region. Satyrus, successor to Spartocus, established his rule over the whole region, adding Nymphaeum to his kingdom and besieging Theodosia, wealthy because, unlike other cities in the region, it had a port, free of ice throughout the year, allowing it to trade grain with the rest of the Greek world in winter. Satyrus' son Leucon took the city, he was succeeded jointly by his two sons, Spartocus II, Paerisades. After Paerisades' death, a civil war between his sons Satyrus and Eumelus was fought. Satyrus defeated his younger brother Eumelus at the Battle of the River Thatis in 310 BC but was killed in battle, giving Eumelus the throne.
Eumelus' successor was Spartocus III and after him Paerisades II. Succeeding princes repeated the family names, so it is impossible to assign them a definite order; the last of them, Paerisades V, unable to make headway against violent attacks from nomadic tribes in the area, called in the help of Diophantus, general of King Mithridates VI of Pontus, leaving him his kingdom. Paerisades was killed by a Scythian named Saumacus; the house of Spartocus was well known as a line of enlightened and wise princes. They maintained close relations with Athens, their best customer for the Bosporan grain exports: Leucon I of Bosporus created privileges for Athenian ships at Bosporan ports; the Attic orators make numerous references to this. In return the Athenians granted Leucon Athenian citizenship and made decrees in honour of him and his sons. After his defeat by Roman General Pompey in 63 BC, King Mithridates VI of Pontus fled with a small army from Colchis over the Caucasus Mountains to Crimea and made plans to raise yet another army to take on the Romans.
His eldest living son, regent of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father, so Mithridates had Machares killed, acquiring the throne for himself. Mithridates ordered the conscriptions and preparations for war. In 63 BC, the youngest son of Mithridates, led a rebellion against his father, joined by Roman exiles in the core of Mithridates's Pontic army. Mithridates VI withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum. Pompey buried Mithridates VI in a rock-cut tomb in either Sinope or Amasia, the capital of the Kingdom of Pontus. After the death of Mithridates VI, Pharnaces II supplicated to Pompey, tried to regain his dominion during Julius Caesar's Civil War, but was defeated by Caesar at Zela and was killed by his former governor
If on a winter's night a traveler
If on a winter's night a traveler is a 1979 novel by the Italian writer Italo Calvino. The postmodernist narrative, in the form of a frame story, is about the reader trying to read a book called If on a winter's night a traveler; each chapter is divided into two sections. The first section of each chapter is in second person, describes the process the reader goes through to attempt to read the next chapter of the book he or she is reading; the second half is the first part of a new book. The second half is always about something different from the previous ones and the ending is never explained; the book was published in an English translation by William Weaver in 1981. The book begins with a chapter on the art and nature of reading, is subsequently divided into twenty-two passages; the odd-numbered passages and the final passage are narrated in the second person. That is; these chapters concern the reader's adventures in reading Italo Calvino's novel, If on a winter's night a traveler. The reader meets a woman named Ludmilla, addressed in her own chapter, in the second person.
Alternating between second-person narrative chapters of this story are the remaining passages, each of, a first chapter in ten different novels, of varying style and subject-matter. All are broken off, for various reasons explained in the interspersed passages, most of them at some moment of plot climax; the second-person narrative passages develop into a cohesive novel that puts its two protagonists on the track of an international book-fraud conspiracy, a mischievous translator, a reclusive novelist, a collapsing publishing house, several repressive governments. The chapters which are the first chapters of different books all push the narrative chapters along. Themes which are introduced in each of the first chapters will exist in succeeding narrative chapters, such as after reading the first chapter of a detective novel the narrative story takes on a few common detective-style themes. There are phrases and descriptions which will be eerily similar between the narrative and the new stories.
The ending exposes a hidden element to the entire book, where the actual first-chapter titles make up a single coherent sentence, which would make a rather interesting start for a book. The theme of a writer's objectivity appears in Calvino's novel Mr. Palomar, which explores if absolute objectivity is possible, or agreeable. Other themes include the subjectivity of meaning, the relationship between fiction and life, what makes an ideal reader and author, authorial originality. Cimmeria is a fictional country in the novel; the country is described as having existed as an independent state between World War I and World War II. The capital is Örkko, its principal resources are peat and by-products, bituminous compounds. Cimmeria seems to have been located somewhere on the Gulf of Bothnia, a body of water between Sweden to the west and Finland to the east; the country has since been absorbed, its people and language, of the'Bothno-Ugaric' group, have both disappeared. As Calvino concludes the alleged, fictional encyclopedia entry concerning Cimmeria: "In successive territorial divisions between her powerful neighbors the young nation was soon erased from the map.
The pair of chapters following the two on Cimmeria and its literature are followed by one describing another fictional country called the Cimbrian People's Republic, a communist nation which occupied part of Cimmeria during the latter's decline. Languages named Cimbrian have both existed; the Cimmerians were an ancient tribal group, contemporary with the Scythians, who lived in southern Ukraine. The Cimbrian language still exists today, is spoken by about 2230 people in northern Italy, not too remote from Calvino's home in Turin. However, these real-world items have no clear relationship to their fictional namesakes; the main character in the first part of each chapter is the reader. The narrative starts out when you begin reading a book but all of the pages are out of order. You go to a bookstore to get a new copy of the book; when at the bookstore, you meet a girl, who becomes an important character in the book. You think Ludmilla is beautiful, you both share a love of books. Throughout the rest of the narrative and Ludmilla develop a relationship while on the quest for the rest of the book you had started reading.
There are a number of minor characters that appear at various points in the story including Lotaria, Ermes Marana, Silas Flannery. In a 1985 interview with Gregory Lucente, Calvino stated If on a winter's night a traveler was "clearly" influenced by the writings of Vladimir Nabokov; the book was influenced by the author's membership in the literary group Oulipo. The structure of the text is said to be an adaptation of the structural semiology of A. J. Greimas. In a letter written to critic Lucio Lombardo Radice dated November 13, 1979, Calvino mentions Bulgakov, Tanizaki, Arguedas and Chesterton as having influenced, in various ways, the narrative style of the ten stories that comprise the book; the Telegraph incl
Terra Cimmeria is a large Martian region, centered at 34.7°S 145°E / -34.7. It covers latitudes 15 N to 75 S and longitudes 170 to 260 W, it lies in the Eridania quadrangle. Terra Cimmeria is one part of the cratered, southern highland region of the planet; the Spirit rover landed near the area. The word Cimmerium comes from an ancient Thracian seafaring people; the land was always covered in clouds and mist. A high altitude visual phenomena a condensation cloud, was seen above this region in late March 2012. NASA tried to observe it with some of its Mars orbiters, including the THEMIS instrument on the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft and MARCI on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Terra Cimmeria is the location of gullies. Gullies occur on steep slopes on the walls of craters. Gullies are believed to be young because they have few, if any craters. Moreover, they lie on top of sand dunes; each gully has an alcove and apron. Some studies have found that gullies occur on slopes that face all directions, others have found that the greater number of gullies are found on poleward facing slopes from 30-44 S.
Although many ideas have been put forward to explain them, the most popular involve liquid water coming from an aquifer, from melting at the base of old glaciers, or from the melting of ice in the ground when the climate was warmer. Because of the good possibility that liquid water was involved with their formation and that they could be young, scientists are excited. Maybe the gullies are. There is evidence for all three theories. Most of the gully alcove heads occur at the same level. Various measurements and calculations show that liquid water could exist in aquifers at the usual depths where gullies begin. One variation of this model is that rising hot magma could have melted ice in the ground and caused water to flow in aquifers. Aquifers are layer, they may consist of porous sandstone. The aquifer layer would be perched on top of another layer; because water in an aquifer is prevented from going down, the only direction the trapped water can flow is horizontally. Water could flow out onto the surface when the aquifer reaches a break—like a crater wall.
The resulting flow of water could erode the wall to create gullies. Aquifers are quite common on Earth. A good example is "Weeping Rock" in Zion National Park Utah; as for the next theory, much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle, thought to be a mixture of ice and dust. This ice-rich mantle, a few yards thick, smoothes the land, but in places it has a bumpy texture, resembling the surface of a basketball; the mantle may be like a glacier and under certain conditions the ice, mixed in the mantle could melt and flow down the slopes and make gullies. Because there are few craters on this mantle, the mantle is young. An excellent view of this mantle is shown below in the picture of the Ptolemaeus Crater Rim, as seen by HiRISE; the ice-rich mantle may be the result of climate changes. Changes in Mars's orbit and tilt cause significant changes in the distribution of water ice from polar regions down to latitudes equivalent to Texas. During certain climate periods water vapor enters the atmosphere.
The water comes back to ground at lower latitudes as deposits of frost or snow mixed generously with dust. The atmosphere of Mars contains a great deal of fine dust particles. Water vapor will condense on the particles fall down to the ground due to the additional weight of the water coating; when Mars is at its greatest tilt or obliquity, up to 2 cm of ice could be removed from the summer ice cap and deposited at midlatitudes. This movement of water could last for several thousand years and create a snow layer of up to around 10 m thick; when ice at the top of the mantling layer goes back into the atmosphere, it leaves behind dust, which insulating the remaining ice. Measurements of altitudes and slopes of gullies support the idea that snowpacks or glaciers are associated with gullies. Steeper slopes have more shade. Higher elevations have far fewer gullies because ice would tend to sublimate more in the thin air of the higher altitude; the third theory might be possible since climate changes may be enough to allow ice in the ground to melt and thus form the gullies.
During a warmer climate, the first few meters of ground could thaw and produce a "debris flow" similar to those on the dry and cold Greenland east coast. Since the gullies occur on steep slopes only a small decrease of the shear strength of the soil particles is needed to begin the flow. Small amounts of liquid water from melted ground ice could be enough. Calculations show that a third of a mm of runoff can be produced each day for 50 days of each Martian year under current conditions; the Mars Global Surveyor discovered magnetic stripes in the crust of Mars in the Phaethontis and Eridania quadrangles. The magnetometer on MGS discovered 100 km wide stripes of magnetized crust running parallel for up to 2,000 kilometres; these stripes alternate in polarity with the north magnetic pole of one pointing up from the surface and the north magnetic pole of the next pointing down. When similar stripes were discovered on Earth in the 1960s, they were taken as evidence of plate tectonics. Researchers believe these magnetic stripes on Mars are evidence for a short, e
Stargate SG-1 (season 1)
The first season of the military science fiction television series Stargate SG-1 commenced airing on the Showtime channel in the United States on July 27, 1997, concluded on the Sci Fi channel on March 6, 1998, contained 22 episodes. The show itself is a spin-off from the 1994 hit movie Stargate written by Dean Devlin and Roland Emmerich. Stargate SG-1 re-introduced supporting characters from the film universe, such as Jonathan "Jack" O'Neill and Daniel Jackson and included new characters such as Teal'c, George Hammond and Samantha "Sam" Carter; the first season was about a military-science expedition team discovering how to use the ancient device, named the Stargate, to explore the galaxy. However, they encountered a powerful enemy in the film named the Goa'uld, who are bent on destroying Earth and all who oppose them; the 100-minute premiere "Children of the Gods", which aired on July 27, 1997 at 8 p.m, received Showtime's highest-ever ratings for a series premiere and ranked as the highest-rated original movie to premiere on Showtime at the time.
The show got a 10.5 rating in Showtime's 12 million U. S. households, which equaled 1.5 million homes in total. Season one regular cast members included Richard Dean Anderson, Amanda Tapping, Michael Shanks, Christopher Judge and Don S. Davis; the series was a ratings success for Showtime. Although it received little critical response from major media publishers, Stargate SG-1 was honored with numerous awards and award nominations in its first-season run. What was planned to be a two season long series lasted for ten seasons and became the second longest-running science fiction series of all time after the original series of Doctor Who. Brad Wright and Jonathan Glassner had worked together on the Metro–Goldwyn–Mayer television series The Outer Limits since 1995. Wright saw a wide range of possible science fiction storylines in the original Stargate film that could take place in the present day. Meanwhile, Glassner was interested in the feature film's theme that Ancient Egypt had been or built by aliens.
Upon hearing of MGM's plan to create a television spin-off series of the film and Glassner independently and unbeknownst to each other approached MGM and proposed their concept for the television series. MGM president John Symes greenlit the project on the condition that Wright and Glassner worked together as executive producers of the new show; the show was given the name Stargate SG-1 after Wright flightily agreed to Symes's pitch question if the team should be called "SG-1". MGM released posters titled Stargate SG-1 within the next week without the knowledge of Wright and Glassner. John Symes approached Richard Dean Anderson of MacGyver fame. Although Anderson was never a real fan of the science fiction genre, he believed the original concept of a "Stargate" was a good vehicle for a series. Anderson agreed to become involved with the project if his character Jack O'Neill was allowed more comedic leeway than Kurt Russell's character in the feature film, he requested Stargate SG-1 to be more of an ensemble show, so that he would not be carrying the plot alone as on MacGyver.
The American subscription channel Showtime made a two-season commitment for 44 episodes in 1996. Principal photography began in Vancouver in February 1997."The First Commandment" was the first Stargate SG-1 episode written by Robert C. Cooper, who would become an executive producer and co-creator of the spin-off series Stargate Atlantis. Paul McGillion, who played young Ernest Littlefield in "Torment of Tantalus", would go on to play the recurring and main character Dr. Carson Beckett in Stargate Atlantis; the outside scenes of "Solitudes" were filmed at Pemberton Icefield. The rest of the episode was filmed in the studio, filled with fake snow and ice and kept at a low temperature. Lead production designer Richard Hudolin flew to Los Angeles, 1996 to gather material from Stargate for reference and found the original film prop stored outside in the Californian desert. Although the prop had disintegrated, he could take a detailed mould for Stargate SG-1 production to build its own prop; the new Stargate was engineered to turn, lock the chevrons, be computer-controlled to dial specific gate addresses.
A portable Stargate prop was built for on-location shoots and required six workers and one full day to set up. Since visual effects are sometimes faster and cheaper, a computer-generated Stargate was used in on-location shoots in seasons; the design of the Stargate Command base was supposed to match the real Cheyenne Mountain complex as much as possible. The set had to be twice as high for shooting as the 22 feet tall Stargate prop, but one of Hudolin's original plans of a three-level SGC set was rejected in favor of a two-level set; the gateroom could be redesigned for other scenes. Two multi-purpose rooms were redecorated into the infirmary, Daniel's lab, the cafeteria or the gym; the SGC set and all other sets from the pilot episode were constructed within six weeks in January and February 1997, incorporating some original set pieces from the feature film. The initial season had five main characters getting star billing. Richard Dean Anderson portrayed suicidal United States Air Force Colonel Jonathan "Jack" O'Neill.
Michael Shanks played the American Egyptologist Daniel Jackson. Both O'Neill and Jackson appeared in the 1994 film Stargate. Amanda Tapping played United States Air Force officer Samantha "Sam" Carter. Christopher Judge portrayed a Jaffa from Chulak and former First Prime of Apophis. Don S. Davis played George Hammond, the new leader of the Stargate program, taking over after Gener
Crimea is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe, completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast. It is located south of the Ukrainian region of Kherson, to which it is connected by the Isthmus of Perekop, west of the Russian region of Kuban, from which it is separated by the Strait of Kerch though linked by the Crimean Bridge; the Arabat Spit is located to the northeast, a narrow strip of land that separates a system of lagoons named Sivash from the Sea of Azov. Across the Black Sea to its west is Romania and to its south Turkey. Crimea has been at the boundary between the classical world and the Pontic–Caspian steppe, its southern fringe was colonised by the Greeks, the Persians, the Romans, the Byzantine Empire, the Crimean Goths, the Genoese and the Ottoman Empire, while at the same time its interior was occupied by a changing cast of invading steppe nomads and empires, such as the Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Alans, Huns, Kipchaks and the Golden Horde.
Crimea and adjacent territories were united in the Crimean Khanate during the 15th to 18th century. In 1783, Crimea became a part of the Russian Empire as the result of the Russo-Turkish War. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Crimea became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast after its entire indigenous population, the Crimean Tatars, were deported to Central Asia, an act recognized as a genocide. In 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine was formed as an independent state in 1991 and most of the peninsula was reorganized as the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, while the city of Sevastopol retained its special status within Ukraine; the 1997 Partition Treaty on the Status and Conditions of the Black Sea Fleet partitioned the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet and allowed Russia to continue basing its fleet in Crimea: both the Ukrainian Naval Forces and Russian's Black Sea Fleet were to be headquartered in Sevastopol.
Ukraine extended Russia's lease of the naval facilities under the 2010 Kharkiv Pact in exchange for further discounted natural gas. In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces took over the territory. A controversial Crimea-wide referendum, unconstitutional under the Ukrainian and Crimean constitutions, was held on the issue of reunification with Russia which official results indicated was supported by a large majority of Crimeans. Russia formally annexed Crimea on 18 March 2014, incorporating the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol as the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia; the classical name Tauris or Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική, after the peninsula's Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. Strabo and Ptolemy refer variously to the Strait of Kerch as the Κιμμερικὸς Βόσπορος, its easternmost part as the Κιμμέριον Ἄκρον (Kimmerion Akron, Roman name: Promontorium Cimmerium, as well as to the city of Cimmerium and whence the name of the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus.
The earliest recorded use of the toponym “Crimea” for the peninsula occurred between 1315-1329 AD by the Arab writer Abū al-Fidā where he recounts a political fight in 1300-1301 AD resulting in a rival's decapitation and having “sent his head to the Crimea”. The Crimean Tatar name of the peninsula is Qırım and so for the city of Krym, now called Stary Krym which served as a capital of the Crimean province of the Golden Horde; some sources hold that the name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during Ottoman suzerainty. The origin of the word Qırım is uncertain. Suggestions argued in various sources: a corruption of Cimmerium. A derivation from the Turkic term qirum, from qori-. Other suggestions either unsupported or contradicted by sources based on similarity in sound, include: a derivation from the Greek Cremnoi. However, Herodotus identifies the port not in Crimea, but as being on the west coast of the Sea of Azov. No evidence has been identified that this name was in use for the peninsula.
The Turkic term is related to the Mongolian appellation kerm "wall", but sources indicate that the Mongolian appellation of the Crimean peninsula of Qaram is phonetically incompatible with kerm/kerem and therefore deriving from another original term. The name "Crimea" is the Italian form, i.e. la Crimea, since at least the 17th century and the "Crimean peninsula" becomes current during the 18th century replacing the classical name of Tauric Peninsula in the course of the 19th century. In English usage since the early modern period the Crimean Khanate is referred to as Crim Tartary; the omission of the definite article in English became common during the 20th century. The classical name was used in 1802 in the name of the Russian