The Cinémathèque Française is a French non-profit film organization founded in 1936 that holds one of the largest archives of film documents and film-related objects in the world. Based in Paris, the archive offers daily screenings of worldwide films; the collection emerged from the efforts of Henri Langlois and Lotte H Eisner in the mid 1930s to collect and screen films. Langlois had acquired one of the largest collections in the world by the beginning of World War II, only to have it nearly wiped out by the German authorities in occupied France, who ordered the destruction of all films made prior to 1937, he and his friends smuggled huge numbers of documents and films out of occupied France to protect them until the end of the war. After the war, the French government provided a small screening room and subsidy for the collection, first relocated to the Avenue de Messine. Significant French filmmakers of the 1940s and 1950s, including Robert Bresson, René Clément, Henri-Georges Clouzot and Jacques Becker frequented screenings at the Cinémathèque.
Directors of the New Wave school — Alain Resnais, Jacques Rivette, François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol, Roger Vadim, Jacques Doniol-Valcroze, Pierre Kast — received much of their film education by attending the collection's screenings. A meeting in 1945 in Basle between Langlois and Freddy Buache led, via Lausanne's first film club, to the founding in 1950 of the Cinémathèque suisse. In June 1963, the Cinémathèque had moved to the Palais de Chaillot with funds provided by André Malraux, Minister of Culture, became subject to the government. In February 1968, under pressure from the Ministry of Finance, Malraux required changes in the management of the Cinémathèque and dismissed Henri Langlois. A defence committee was formed. Foreign filmmakers such as Charles Chaplin and Stanley Kubrick added their support. Protests were organized. Confrontations followed between young people students, what they saw as an authoritarian centre-right government, out of touch with the concerns of the younger generation.
These demonstrations were precursors of and merged into the widespread student revolt that erupted from March 1968 onwards, escalating into nationwide unrest in May. Before the government had backed down over the Cinémathèque, reinstating Langlois as head in April 1968. After numerous incidents — including multiple relocations from one small screening room to another through the 1950s and a fire in its last premises — the Cinémathèque Française moved to 51, rue de Bercy in the 12th arrondissement of Paris and reopened its doors in a postmodern building designed by Frank Gehry, an American architect. A restaurant on the lower level is open to the public; the Bibliothèque du Film, created in 1992 to show the history of cinema, its production and artistic strength, has merged with the Cinémathèque Française. Cinémathèque Française operates the Musée de la Cinémathèque known as Musée du Cinéma – Henri Langlois, in the new building. President: Costa-Gavras, Oscar-nominated director of Z, "State of Siege", Berlin Golden Bear-winning director of Music Box and Cannes Golden Palm-winning director of Missing Director: Serge Toubiana, former editor-in-chief of Les Cahiers du cinéma General Secretary: Jean-Michel Arnold, the spiritual successor of Henri Langlois and re-elected as General Secretary since 1981 Honorary Presidents: Claude Berri Jean-Charles Tacchella Jean Rouch In celebration of the Centennial of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Museum and the City Center of Music and Drama in New York co-sponsored "Cinémathèque at the Metropolitan Museum."
The exhibition showed seventy films dating from the medium's first seventy-five years on thirty-five consecutive evenings from July 29 to September 3, 1970. The films were selected by Henri Langlois for their significance and contributions to the history of filmmaking, including work from official film industries as well as current and early avant garde directors; the program was the most diverse film exhibition held in the United States to date, was the Museum's first major undertaking in film. The Cinémathèque's closing is noted in Truffaut's Stolen Kisses; the Cinémathèque appears in the Paul Auster novel The Book of Illusions and the Harvey Danger song "Private Helicopter." The Cinématèque and the events surrounding the dismissal of Henri Langlois in 1968 features in Gilbert Adair's Novel The Holy Innocents known as The Dreamers and in its film adaptation by Bernardo Bertolucci. Cinematheque The International Federation of Film Archives List of film archives Grenier, Cynthia. Langlois' film world seen with rose colors The Washington Times.
Roud, Richard A Passion for Films: Henri Langlois and the Cinémathèque Française, London: Secker and Warburg. Finding aid for the George Trescher records related to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Centennial, 1949, 1960-1971; the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 8 August 2014. Official site The restaurant site Cinémathèque Française Laterna magica site CineSceneSF Blog - The Pied Piper of the Cinematheque
This article is a collection of numismatic and coin collecting terms with concise explanation for the beginner or professional. Numismatics is its history in all its varied forms. While numismatists are characterized as studying coins, the discipline includes the study of banknotes, stock certificates, medals and tokens. Sub-fields or related fields of numismatics are: Exonumia: is the study of coin-like objects such as token coins and medals, other items used in place of legal currency or for commemoration. Notaphily: is the study of paper money or banknotes. Scripophily: is the collection of stocks and bonds. Adjustment The filing down of a blank to the correct weight before striking, shown by file marks. File marks are still visible on the surface of a coin after being struck. Alliance coinage Coins minted by two or more state governments in conjunction; the Euro coins would be an example of this. Alloy Homogeneous mixture of two or more elements, where the resulting compound has metallic properties.
Common coin alloys include bronze. Altered Date False date put on a coin to defraud collectors to make it appear more valuable; such alterations are easily spotted with the aid of a magnifying glass. Anepigraphic coin Coin without an inscription. Many ancient coins used only a simple picture of an animal to show weight. Annealing Process of heating and cooling metal in order to relieve stresses; this is done with coin blanks to make the metal less brittle before striking. Assay Test to ascertain the weight and purity of a coin. Attribution Identifier of a coin such as date, denomination, or variety. Bag Mark Surface mark, or nick, on a coin from contact with other coins in a mint bag. More seen on large gold or silver coins. Called "contact marks". Banker's Mark A small countermark applied to a coin by a bank or a trader indicating that they consider the coin to be genuine and of legal weight. Most found on ancient and medieval coins, but on silver coins which circulated in China and Japan, where they are referred to as chop-marks.
Base metal Non-precious metal or alloy containing no gold or silver. Common base metals used in coinage include copper. Beading Raised dot border along the rim of a coin. Billon Low-grade alloy of gold or silver with a high percentage of another metal copper. Billon is the result of a sudden debasing of circulating silver coinage due to hyperinflation. Bi-metallic A coin with one type of metal in the center with an outer ring of a different metal. Examples are the Canadian "toonie" two-dollar coin. Blank Prepared disk of metal on which the coin design will be stamped. Called a'planchet' or'flan'. In practice,'Blank' is referred to the un-struck or flat side of a uniface coin or medal. Brass Copper based alloy with zinc. Brockage Originally referring to metal wasted in coin production, now means coins struck when the previous coin remains stuck to a die, creating an incuse impression in the next struck coin. Bronze Copper based alloy with tin. Bullion Precious metals in the form of bars, ingots or plate, or where quantity is considered as a valuation.
Bullion coin Precious metals in the form of coins whose market value is determined by metallic content rather than scarcity. Bullion Value Current market value of the raw precious metal content of a coin. For example, the bullion value for Canadian silver coins, 1920 to 1966, is 12 times the face value when silver is $20.00 per troy ounce. Business Strike A coin intended for everyday use in commerce. Cameo Strong distinction in the surface appearance of foreground devices relative to the field. Proof coins exhibit this feature. Carat Unit measurement of the weight of precious stones. Marked'c' or'car'. 1 carat = 200 milligrams. Not to be confused with'Karat' used with gold. Cast coins Coins produced by pouring metal into a mold. Used for the first Ancient Roman bronze "As" coins and Chinese "cash" coins, but used today. Modern counterfeit coins are cast. Centum One one-hundredth of the basic monetary unit from Latin; the English cent, Romance languages centavos, centesimos or centimes are one hundredth of a base unit like dollar, peso etc.
Certified Coin Coin, graded and authenticated by one of numerous independent grading services. See Encapsulated coin. Chop-mark See Banker's Mark. Church Tokens Also known as Communion Tokens, they were issued by Scottish parishes and in USA and Canada. Circulated Term used to indicate a coin. Clad Coinage Issues of coins that contain a center core and outer layer of differing metals or alloys bonded together; the current U. S. Quarter and half dollar are made of cupronickel clad copper. Coin alignment A method of striking in which the obverse and reverse dies are aligned 180 degrees from each other. All American coins are struck this way. Collar Outer ring of the die chamber that holds the blank in place while the obverse and reverse are being stamped. Contact Marks Minor abrasions on uncirculated coinage created by contact with other coins. Called "bag marks". Countermark or Counterstamp Partial or complete over-stamping of a coin or token in order to change its value or issuing authority, or to display an advertisement, political slogan or symbol, etc.
Stamping may consist of a number, symbol (authority
The U. S. District Court for the District of Maine is the U. S. district court for the state of Maine. The District of Maine was one of the original thirteen district courts established by the Judiciary Act of 1789 though Maine was not a separate state from Massachusetts until 1820; the court is headquartered at the Edward T. Gignoux United States Courthouse in Portland and has a second courthouse in Bangor, Maine; the U. S. Attorney for the District of Maine represents the United States in criminal and civil litigation before the court. Halsey Frank was confirmed as the U. S. Attorney for the District of Maine on October 3, 2017. Appeals from the District of Maine are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit; the District of Maine was one of the thirteen original districts created on September 24, 1789, by the Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73. At the time, Maine was part of the state of Massachusetts; as with other jurisdictions of the time, the District of Maine was assigned a single judgeship.
Not being assigned to a judicial circuit, it was granted the same jurisdiction as the United States circuit court, except in appeals and writs of error, which were the jurisdiction of the U. S. Circuit Court for the District of Massachusetts; the circuit court jurisdiction of the District of Maine was repealed on February 1801 by 2 Stat. 89, restored on March 8, 1802 by 2 Stat. 132. On March 30, 1820, shortly after Maine entered the Union, the District of Maine was assigned to the First Circuit and its internal circuit court jurisdiction was again repealed by 3 Stat. 554. A second judgeship was authorized on October 1978, by, 92 Stat. 1629, a third was authorized on December 1, 1990, by 104 Stat. 5089. As of January 1, 2019: Chief judges have administrative responsibilities with respect to their district court. Unlike the Supreme Court, where one justice is nominated to be chief, the office of chief judge rotates among the district court judges. To be chief, a judge must have been in active service on the court for at least one year, be under the age of 65, have not served as chief judge.
A vacancy is filled by the judge highest in seniority among the group of qualified judges. The chief judge serves until age 70, whichever occurs first; the age restrictions are waived if no members of the court would otherwise be qualified for the position. When the office was created in 1948, the chief judge was the longest-serving judge who had not elected to retire on what has since 1958 been known as senior status or declined to serve as chief judge. After August 6, 1959, judges could not remain chief after turning 70 years old; the current rules have been in operation since October 1, 1982. Courts of Maine List of current United States District Judges List of United States federal courthouses in Maine Maine Supreme Judicial Court United States District Court for the District of Maine