Society of the Cincinnati
The Society of the Cincinnati is a hereditary society with branches in the United States and France, founded in 1783, to preserve the ideals and fellowship of officers of the Continental Army who served in the Revolutionary War. Now in its third century, the Society promotes the public interest in the revolution through its library and museum collections and other activities, it is the oldest hereditary society in the United States. The Society does not allow women to join, though there is a patriarchal consolation society called Daughters of the Cincinnati which permits all female descendants of Continental officers; the Society is named after Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who left his farm to accept a term as Roman Consul and served as Magister Populi. He assumed lawful dictatorial control of Rome to meet a war emergency; when the battle was won, he went back to plowing his fields. The Society's motto reflects that ethic of selfless service: Omnia reliquit servare rempublicam; the Society has had three goals: "To preserve the rights so dearly won.
The concept of the Society of the Cincinnati was that of Major General Henry Knox. The first meeting of the Society was held in May 1783 at a dinner at Mount Gulian in Fishkill, New York, before the British evacuation from New York City; the meeting was chaired by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton, the participants agreed to stay in contact with each other after the war. Membership was limited to officers who had served at least three years in the Continental Army or Navy. Officers in the Continental Line who died during the War were entitled to be recorded as members, membership would devolve to their eldest male heir. Members of the larger fighting forces comprising the Colonial Militias and Minutemen were not entitled to join the Society. Within 12 months of the founding, a constituent Society had been organized in each of the 13 states and in France. Of about 5,500 men eligible for membership, 2,150 had joined within a year. King Louis XVI ordained the French Society of the Cincinnati, organized on July 4, 1784.
Up to that time, the King of France had not allowed his officers to wear any foreign decorations, but he made an exception in favor of the badge of the Cincinnati. In the 18th century, the Society's rules adopted a system of primogeniture wherein membership was passed down to the eldest son after the death of the original member. Present-day hereditary members must be descended from an officer who served in the Continental Army or Navy for at least three years, from an officer who died or was killed in service, or from an officer serving at the close of the Revolution; each officer may be represented by only one descendant at any given time, following the rules of primogeniture. The requirement for primogeniture made the society controversial in its early years, as the new states did away with laws supporting primogeniture as remnants of the English feudal system. George Washington was elected the first President General of the Society, he served from December 1783 until his death in 1799. The second President General was Alexander Hamilton.
Upon Hamilton's death the third President General of the Society was Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. The society's members have included notable military and political leaders, including 23 signers of the United States Constitution. Joseph Cilley, Henry Dearborn, Nicholas Gilman, John Sullivan, James Reed. Stephen Abbot, Jeduthan Baldwin, John Brooks, Henry Burbeck, David Cobb, John Crane, Thomas Humphrey Cushing, William Eustis, Constant Freeman, John Greaton, Africa Hamlin, William Heath, William Hull, Thomas Hunt, Henry Knox, Henry Jackson, Michael Jackson, Simon Larned, Benjamin Lincoln, Samuel Nicholson, William North, Rufus Putnam, William Shepard, William Stacy, Benjamin Tupper, Elisha Horton, Abraham Williams, John Yeomans, Dr. Abijah Richardson. Israel Angell, William Barton, Archibald Crary, Nathanael Greene, Moses Hazen, Daniel Jackson, William Jones, Daniel Lyman, Coggeshall Olney, Jeremiah Olney, Stephen Olney, Henry Sherburne, Silas Talbot, William Tew, Simeon Thayer, James Mitchell Varnum, Abraham Whipple, Joseph Arnold.
Abraham Baldwin, Joel Barlow, Zebulon Butler, Henry Champion, John Chester, Jonathan Hart, David Humphreys, Ebenezer Huntington, Jedediah Huntington, Jacob Kingsbury, John Mansfield, Joseph Spencer, Benjamin Tallmadge, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. John Wyllys, Palgrave Wyllys, Amos Walbridge Aaron Burr, George Clinton, James Clinton, John Doughty, Nicholas Fish, Peter Gansevoort, Alexander Hamilton, Rufus King, Joseph Hardy, John Keese,John Lamb, Morgan Lewis, Henry Beekman Livingston, Alexander McDougall, Charles McKnight, David Olyphant, Philip Schuyler, John Morin Scott, William Stephens Smith, John Stagg Jr, Ebenezer Stevens, Silas Talbot, Benjamin Tallmadge, Philip Van Cortlandt, Henry Vanderburgh, Cornelius Van Dyck, John Van Dyck, Richard Varick, William Scudder, Dr. Caleb Sweet, Maj. Gen. Baron von Steuben, Lt. Col. Bernardus Swartwout, Cornelius Swartwout, BG Philip Van Cortlandt, Frederick Von Weisenfels. James Anderson, Abraham Appleton, James Francis Armstrong, Daniel Baldwin, Jeremiah Ballard, William Barton
Invitation to a Beheading
Invitation to a Beheading is a novel by Russian American author Vladimir Nabokov. It was published in Russian from 1935 to 1936 as a serial in Contemporary Notes, a Russian émigré magazine. In 1938, the work was published in Paris, with an English translation following in 1959; the novel was translated into English by Nabokov's son, Dmitri Nabokov, under the author's supervision. The novel is described as Kafkaesque, but Nabokov claimed that at the time he wrote the book, he was unfamiliar with German and "completely ignorant" of Franz Kafka's work. Nabokov interrupted his work on The Gift in order to write Invitation to a Beheading, describing the creation of the first draft as "one fortnight of wonderful excitement and sustained inspiration." Some scholars have argued that the central plot of Invitation to a Beheading has its roots in Chernyshevski, a character from The Gift. Another view is. While Nabokov stated in an interview that of all his novels, he held the greatest affection for Lolita, it was Invitation to a Beheading that he held the greatest esteem.
The novel takes place in a prison and relates the final twenty days of Cincinnatus C. a citizen of a fictitious country, imprisoned and sentenced to death for "gnostical turpitude." Unable to blend in and become part of the world around him, Cincinnatus is described as having a "certain peculiarity" that makes him "impervious to the rays of others, therefore produced when off his guard a bizarre impression, as of a lone dark obstacle in this world of souls transparent to one another." Although he tries to hide his condition and "feign translucence," people are uncomfortable with his existence, feel there is something wrong with him. In this way, Cincinnatus fails to become part of his society. While confined, Cincinnatus is not told; this troubles him, as he wants to express himself through writing "in defiance of all the world's muteness," but feels unable to do so without knowledge of how long he has to complete this task. Indifferent to the absurdity and vulgarity around him, Cincinnatus strives to find his true self in his writing, where he creates an ideal world.
Taken to be executed, he refuses to believe in either death or his executioners, as the axe falls the false existence dissolves around him as he joins the spirits of his fellow visionaries in "reality." Narrated omnisciently, the novel opens with Cincinnatus C. a thirty-year-old teacher and the protagonist, being sentenced to death by beheading for the crime "gnostical turpitude" in twenty days' time. After being taken back to a "fortress" by the cheerful jailer Rodion, Cincinnatus talks to his lawyer and dances with Rodion, before inscribing his thoughts on paper, as a spider dangles from the ceiling. Throughout the plot, Cincinnatus inquires of various characters about the date of his execution, but to no avail. Cincinnatus is displeased to learn from the prison director, that he will be getting a cellmate. Cincinnatus soon meets Emmie, Rodrig's young daughter, reads the foolish prisoner's rules etched into the wall, flips through a book catalogue, is brought by Rodrig down the hall to observe his incoming cellmate through a peephole.
A week after the trial, Cincinnatus excitedly expects his unfaithful wife, but she postpones her visit. There is some confusion surrounding the director's transformation into Rodion, the jailer, who expels Cincinnatus from the cell so he can clean it, allowing Cincinnatus to wander, dreaming of freedom and running away. Cincinnatus sees Emmie again, bouncing a ball in front of a picture of a garden he mistakes for a window; the next morning, Cincinnatus meets his new cellmate, the charismatic Monsieur Pierre, who the director fawns over adoringly, but Cincinnatus shows his disapproval. On the eighth day of his imprisonment alone, Cincinnatus resumes his writing, fearfully confessing his painful emotions, he longs for a world, away from superficiality, for people like him, who have a deeper understanding of their existence. In the morning, Marthe arrives with her whole family, including another lover, but Cincinnatus cannot cross the cell, cluttered with temporary furniture for the guests, in time to speak with his wife before everyone is ushered out.
Next, Pierre revisits and chides Cincinnatus, as the once director did, for his lack of gratitude at everyone's pleasantness in the prison. A few days Cecilia C. Cincinnatus's estranged mother, enters the cell against Cincinnatus's wishes, she explains the strange circumstances surrounding his birth and his father especially; that night Cincinnatus hears odd noises, the wall caves in, revealing that Pierre has been digging a tunnel between their cells. Pierre invites him to see his cell, but Cincinnatus emerges from another hole, where Emmie guides him into a dining room in which Rodrig and his wife are eating dinner with Pierre. Cincinnatus is invited to eat too, Rodrig hands him a photohoroscope album chronicling Emmie's future life. Back in Cincinnatus's cell, Pierre is revealed to be the executioner and the date of Cincinnatus' execution is disclosed: the day after tomorrow; the city officials soon convene at the city manager's house to meet with Cincinnatus. Afterwards, again racked with fear, writes about it, wishing he could not feel it.
Rodion enters the cell with a moth as a meal for the spider. Marthe next visits alone, they converse about Cincinnatus's letter, she begs him to repent of his "wrongdoings", to which Cincinnatus dismisses her for
Cincinnatus, New York
Cincinnatus is a town in Cortland County, New York, United States. The population was 1,056 at the 2010 census; the town is named after the Roman general Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus. It is east of the city of Cortland; the region was part of the Central New York Military Tract used to pay soldiers of the American Revolution. One of the townships was named Cincinnatus. Members of the Oneida tribe persisted in the town during its early history; the town was first settled around 1795. It was one of the original six towns of Cortland County; the town was formed from the town of Solon in 1804. In 1818, Cincinnatus was split so that part of its territory was used to create the towns of Freetown and Marathon. Charles G. Crosse and legislator Adelaide Hawley Cumming, vaudeville performer and living trademark for General Mills Jeremiah W. Dwight, former US congressman Amos E. Germer and legislator Elmer Ambrose Sperry, inventor Spiegle Willcox, jazz trombonist The Cincinnatus Historic District, consisting of 14 properties, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.
Town of Cincinnatus Historical Sites According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 25.5 square miles, of which 25.4 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 0.51%, is water. The east town line is the border of Chenango County; the Otselic River valley is central to the town. New York State Route 26 is a north-south highway in Cincinnatus, which conjoins New York State Route 41 near the town center. New York State Route 23 intersects NY-26 south of Cincinnatus village; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,051 people, 418 households, 282 families residing in the town. The population density was 41.3 people per square mile. There were 453 housing units at an average density of 17.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.00% White, 0.19% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.29% from other races, 1.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.09% of the population. There were 418 households out of which 29.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.2% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families.
26.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.98. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 26.8% from 45 to 64, 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $37,014, the median income for a family was $44,375. Males had a median income of $27,222 versus $21,304 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,345. About 4.5% of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.3% of those under age 18 and 7.8% of those age 65 or over. Cincinnatus – The hamlet of Cincinnatus is in the northeast part of the town on NY-26 along the Otselic River. Gee Brook – A hamlet in the south part of the town on NY Route 26.
Lower Cincinnatus – A hamlet south of Cincinnatus village on NY-23. Taylor – A hamlet by the town line in the northeast part of the town on NY-26. Town of Cincinnatus official website Town of Cincinnatus at Cortland County website Early history of Cincinnatus, New York