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The Cinebox was a coin-operated Italian 16mm film projector jukebox type machine invented in 1959 that appeared in Europe to rival the French made Scopitone that appeared in 1960. The Cinebox was manufactured in Rome by Ottico Meccanica Italiana. In 1963 it appeared in the USA and was retitled Colorama in 1965. In 1961 Cinebox machines were placed on ocean liners of the American Export Lines with Cineboxes showing cartoons and short subject comedies in on board nurseries whilst on board lounges showed musical and travelogues; each of the Cineboxes held five 40 minute films. In the United States the Cinebox musical juke box provided three minutes of sound film for 25 cents with 40 titles available at a time on the machine. In Canada, the Cinebox became the first e.commerce website, founded by Loïc Berthout, to sell movies online in 1998. It proposed video games and reached an international scope, it was selling through until 2010. Scopitone Archive Cinebox Films

Standard Swedish

Standard Swedish denotes Swedish as a spoken and written standard language. While Swedish as a written language is uniform and standardized, the spoken standard may vary from region to region. Several prestige dialects have developed around the major urban centers of Stockholm, Helsinki and Malmö-Lund. In Swedish, the terms rikssvenska "Realm Swedish" and högsvenska "High Swedish" are used in Sweden and Finland particularly by non-linguists, both terms are ambiguous; the direct translation of standardsvenska "Standard Swedish" is less common and used in scholarly contexts. In certain contexts, rikssvenska has come to mean all Swedish as spoken in Sweden as opposed to the Finland Swedish spoken in Finland or Estonian Swedish spoken in Estonia. For speakers in Sweden, the term, however perhaps indicates "non-dialectal" Swedish; the term "Sweden Swedish" is sometimes used instead, as a parallel to the term Finland Swedish. There is, however. What appears as rikssvenska to one Swede may appear dialectal to another.

National Swedish television and radio news broadcasts that are produced in Stockholm have preferred commentators who speak what is seen as rikssvenska, but, relaxed. The definition of högsvenska was the same as for rikssvenska, the most prestigious dialect spoken in Sweden. During the 20th century, its meaning changed, it now denotes the prestige dialect of the Swedish speakers in Helsinki; until the late 19th or the early 20th century, Swedish was the primary language of status and education in Finland although it was spoken as a first language by only a small minority. Since the 1970s, both domestic languages have been mandatory subjects for all Finnish pupils in primary and secondary schools, but the requirement to include Swedish in the upper-secondary final examination was dropped in 2004. Swedish linguists reserve the term "dialect" for rural dialects with roots that can be traced back to Old Swedish. However, among Swedish speakers in general, other regional standards are considered to be "dialects".

Although Swedish phonology is theoretically uniform, its phonetic realizations are not. Contrary to the situation in Danish, Finnish or German there is no single standard for spoken Swedish. There are several regional varieties; the major regional variants include those of South Sweden, Western Sweden, Central Sweden and Northern Sweden. There is a separate standard for Swedish in Finland based on Finland Swedish. In national broadcast media Sweden, several occur, but the Central Swedish variant dominates and is perceived as more "standardized" and more neutral than the others. Swedish became Sweden's main official language on July 1, 2009, when a new language law was implemented; the issue of whether Swedish should be declared the official language has been raised in the past, the parliament voted on the matter in 2005 but the proposal narrowly failed. The Swedish language has official status in Finland, but no sanctioned standard exists. However, the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland has the purpose of language planning and dictionary compilation.

In Sweden, the Swedish Language Council is funded by the Swedish government and may be said to have a semiofficial status as a regulatory body being a joint effort that includes the Swedish Academy, Swedish Radio, Swedish Broadcasting Corporation and several other organizations representing journalists, actors and translators. The recommendations of those bodies are not binding but are respected. Standard Swedish evolved from the high prestige dialects of the Mälaren Valley region around Stockholm, the capital of Sweden. In Sweden, the concept of a unified standard language, based on a high prestige dialect spoken in the capital region, was understood in terms of the written language, as exemplified with the Swedification of the Danish and Norwegian provinces that were acquired in the 17th century; the people were taught Swedish hymns and prayers but with a phonology that remained Danish or Norwegian. During the second half of the 19th century, the use of a standardised written language increased with each new method of communication and transportation.

It was, only in the 1960s that the major demographic situation of Sweden had changed from a quite rural and agrarian society to today's highly-urbanized society, when the spoken varieties converged towards unified dialects whose vocabulary and grammatical rules adhered to that of the written Standard Swedish. The different phonologies the different realizations of the tonal word accents, have remained more varied. With respect to other aspects of the spoken language, there are developments towards a unification, not always the effect of standardisation or convergence. For instance, the fricatives in Central Standard Swedish have undergone a change in recent decades toward those of Southern Swedish, than those of Northern Sweden and Finland; the creation of the autonomous Russian Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 drastically decreased communication between Sweden and Finland, but Swedish remained the langua

Fervent Records

2008 Philadelphia Phillies season

The Philadelphia Phillies' 2008 season was the 126th in the history of the franchise. The team finished with a regular season record of 92–70, first in the National League East. In the post-season, the Phillies won the World Series. During the season, they were managed by Charlie Manuel; the Phillies opened the season by posting their first winning April since 2003. They scored 60 runs over 5 games in late May in a sweep over the Colorado Rockies and accrued a 14–4 record over 18 games entering the month of June; the Phillies' performance declined in late June, but they improved after the All-Star break, going 9–6 following the midseason hiatus. Closer Brad Lidge earned eight saves in those games, did not blow a save throughout the season and the postseason. Philadelphia traded sweeps with the Los Angeles Dodgers in August and went 13–3 in their last 16 games, taking advantage of a late swoon by the New York Mets for the second year in a row to capture the division crown; the team won its position in the playoffs after its second consecutive East Division title.

The Phillies posted the best road record in the National League, at 44–37. Philadelphia defeated the Milwaukee Brewers in the National League Division Series, 3–1, the Dodgers in the National League Championship Series, 4–1, to win the National League Pennant and advance to the World Series. In the World Series, the Phillies defeated the Tampa Bay Rays, 4–1, to win their first championship in 28 years, ending the Curse of Billy Penn. Phillies starting pitcher Cole Hamels was named the most valuable player of the NLCS and the World Series. Statistical leaders in batting for the 2008 team included center fielder Shane Victorino, first baseman Ryan Howard, second baseman Chase Utley. For their accomplishments, Howard won the Josh Gibson Award for the National League, Utley won his third consecutive Silver Slugger Award. Pitching leaders included left-handed starting pitcher Hamels, left-hander starter Jamie Moyer, right-handed relief pitcher Lidge. Lidge won the DHL Delivery Man of the Year and the Major League Baseball Comeback Player of the Year awards for his performance during the season.

Victorino and shortstop Jimmy Rollins won Gold Glove awards for their play in the field. On October 29, 2007, Charlie Manuel signed an extension to manage the Phillies for two more years. All of the coaches from the 2007 division championship season were retained. However, Davey Lopes underwent treatment for cancer and had to be replaced on an interim basis in the early part of the season; the Phillies re-signed left-handed relief pitcher J. C. Romero to a new two-year contract after a dominating 2007, in which he struck out 42 batters in ​56 1⁄3 innings pitched while posting a 1.92 earned run average. Outfielder Michael Bourn and right-handed pitcher Geoff Geary were traded to Houston for closer Brad Lidge and infielder Eric Bruntlett on November 7, 2007. Outfielder Chris Roberson was traded to Baltimore for cash in January 2008, while third baseman Pedro Feliz, outfielder Geoff Jenkins, outfielder So Taguchi arrived as free agents. In the broadcast booth, Tom McCarthy returned to the team after two years as a radio announcer for the New York Mets.

On November 29, 2007, the team announced that in honor of the franchise's 125th anniversary of playing in Philadelphia, the Phillies would wear an alternate home uniform based on their 1948 uniforms for all day home games during the season. The cap used for interleague play, a red-crowned cap with a blue bill and a star within the "P" logo, was retired. On February 16, 2008, Mets center fielder Carlos Beltrán made a statement regarding the upcoming season, he stated that" Santana, we felt, as a team. With him now, I have no doubt. I have no doubt in that. We've got. To Jimmy Rollins: We are the team to beat." Beltran's statement echoed Rollins' 2007 assertion that the Phillies were "the team to beat in the NL East—finally". Inasmuch as Beltran had imitated Rollins' 2007 preseason prediction, Rollins arrived in camp for Spring training and responded: "There isn't a team in the National League that's better than us; the pressure's back on them. They were on paper the best team in the division last year and they were supposed to win, they didn't.

One, there are four other teams in our division who are going to make sure that doesn't happen, two, has anyone heard of plagiarism? That was pretty good coming from him. He's a quiet guy, so it was shocking when he said it. Not shocking in a bad way, like'Wow, I can't believe he said that.' More like,'Wow, he said something because he's a leader on that team and you need to be a vocal leader.'" The Phillies opened the season against the Washington Nationals at home on March 31. They failed to win any of their first three series, losing two of three against the Nationals and New York Mets, with a four-game split against the Cincinnati Reds between those series; the Phillies won their next two series against the Houston Astros. After dropping a second series to the Mets, the Phillies finished the month with 15 wins and 12 losses, they did not achieve a three-game sweep against any team in the opening month, nor were they swept. By winning at least one game in each series, the Phillies were able to achieve their first winning April in several seasons, only their four

Tunnel Railway

The Tunnel Railway was a 2 ft narrow-gauge underground railway in Ramsgate, England. Following the restructuring of railway lines in Ramsgate in 1926, the section of line between Broadstairs and Ramsgate Harbour including a tunnel to the seafront at Ramsgate was abandoned; the narrow-gauge Tunnel Railway was opened within the disused tunnel in 1936 to connect tourist attractions and shops near Ramsgate harbour with the new railway main line at Dumpton Park. Except for its two stations—one at each end of the tunnel—the line ran underground; the line was built in less than three months, on its completion in 1936 was one of the shortest independent railway lines in the country. It was open for only three years before being converted to a major air-raid shelter during World War II. After the war's end, it was not included in the 1948 nationalisation of British railways but remained in private hands. Passenger numbers fell during the 1960s, the line became economically unviable. Following a train crash in 1965, the owners closed the line at the end of September that year.

The tunnel still exists. The coastal resort and port town of Ramsgate was served by a complex network of unconnected railway lines, the legacy of competition between two rival companies to provide links to London and to neighbouring Margate; the town's first railway station, Ramsgate Town, was opened by the South Eastern Railway on 13 April 1846, on what was the outskirts of the town, about a mile from the seafront. Lines from the station ran north, before splitting west to Canterbury and on to London, north to Margate; the London and Dover Railway opened a second line to Ramsgate on 5 October 1863. This line ran from London via Herne Bay and Broadstairs before descending to sea level at Ramsgate through a 1,124-yard tunnel to Ramsgate Harbour station, on the seafront adjacent to the harbour. Although conveniently sited for passengers, Ramsgate Harbour station presented severe operating difficulties, its situation at the end of a steep gradient in the tunnel meant there was the constant risk that an out-of-control train would run through the station onto the beach, as happened on 3 August 1891 and 24 March 1915.

Cramped conditions allowed no room for station growth or improvement, the small turntable meant larger engines could not be used, so heavier trains needed two engines to haul them up the tunnel's gradient. Additionally, by the 1920s the population of Ramsgate had doubled since the station had opened, making the freight facilities inadequate, with no room for expansion. Following the railway grouping of 1923, both the South Eastern Railway and the London, Chatham & Dover Railway became part of the newly formed Southern Railway, which decided to address the duplication of lines and stations at Ramsgate and Margate, it decided to link the two lines at Ramsgate to allow through running between them. This scheme had been proposed by the South Eastern and Chatham Railway before World War I, but work did not commence until 1925; this meant the closure of the terminus stations at Ramsgate Town and Ramsgate Harbour, the construction of a line skirting the northern edge of the town to link the two existing lines.

New stations on the north-eastern and north-western fringes of the town, called Dumpton Park and Ramsgate replaced the existing stations in the town centre and at the harbour. Construction work on the new line involved over 700 men moving 200,000 long tons of chalk, at a cost of £500,000; the new link opened on 2 July 1926, from which date both former Ramsgate stations were closed along with the line through the tunnel to Ramsgate Harbour. The tunnel was sealed and abandoned, the former Ramsgate Harbour station was sold to Thanet Amusements, who converted it into a zoo and funfair called Merrie England. Although adequate for the town's residents the new stations were a long way from the seafront attractions, which were at the foot of a steep hill; the day-trippers on whom Ramsgate's tourist industry depended were therefore attracted to Margate, where the station was next to the beach. By 1933 Merrie England, now under the ownership of Ramsgate Olympia, had become popular, Ramsgate Olympia began to lobby the Southern Railway to reopen the line through the tunnel, with a new junction station between Dumpton Park and Broadstairs.

However, the Southern Railway rejected the proposal as too impractical. Ramsgate Olympia and the Southern Railway were keen to make the attractions near the harbour accessible from the railway main line and to provide a service from the seafront to the greyhound stadium at Dumpton Park; the two companies agreed on a scheme by which a new line would use the 780 yards of the tunnel nearest the beach, before branching off into a new 364-yard tunnel to emerge at a new station at Hereson Road, a 250-yard walk from Dumpton Park station. Ramsgate Olympia planned the construction of a large-scale housing estate, charabanc parking facilities, a 10,000-seat stadium at Dumpton Park to increase passenger numbers and encourage people to use the new rail line; the stations each had three platforms. Although the upper station was known as Hereson Road from the outset, the lower station was never named, it was known at various times as "Olympia", "Beach", "Sands" and "Lower Terminus". The platforms and tic


Sedano's Supermarket is the largest Hispanic-owned supermarket chain in the United States. Sedano's Supermarket was founded by Rene Sedano in Hialeah, Florida, a Miami suburb, in 1961; the first Sedano's Supermarket was a 4,000-square-foot store in Hialeah, Florida. Rene Sedano sold the store to Sr. because he wanted to return to Cuba. Armando Guerra, Sr. kept the name "Sedano's" and built more supermarkets and added discount pharmacy stores. Armando Guerra was a successful businessman in Cuba. During and after the Castro revolution of which culminated in 1959, Guerra had made several investments in the United States including the purchase of the existing Sedano's store in Hialeah, Florida in 1962. In 1971, Guerra brought Manuel Herrán into the small business to help in the daily operations. Armando Guerra, Sr. died in 1979 and Manuel Herrán took over the retail grocery company. Herrán led the successful expansion of the chain by bringing in several of his brothers and other relatives into the business.

By compensating store managers based on the profitability of the store and by allowing key managers to invest in the business, Herrán was able to attract and retain motivated partners. Armando Guerra, Sr.'s son, Armando Guerra, Jr. became President of Sedano's Pharmacy. The chain has grown to include more than 30 supermarkets in Miami-Dade, Palm Beach and Osceola counties in Florida. Sedano's has become the largest member of Associated Grocers of Florida, a wholesale grocery food cooperative. Manuel Herrán's son, Agustin Herrán, is the current President and CEO, Manuel serves as Chairman of the Board. Sedano's Supermarket Website Sedano's relation to the Hispanic culture