1080i is an abbreviation referring to a combination of frame resolution and scan type, used in high-definition television and high-definition video. The number "1080" refers to the number of horizontal lines on the screen; the "i" is an abbreviation for "interlaced". A related display resolution is 1080p, which has 1080 lines of resolution; the term assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, so the 1080 lines of vertical resolution implies 1920 columns of horizontal resolution, or 1920 pixels × 1080 lines. A 1920 pixels × 1080 lines screen has a total of 2.1 megapixels and a temporal resolution of 50 or 60 interlaced fields per second. This format is used in the SMPTE 292M standard; the choice of 1080 lines originates with Charles Poynton, who in the early 1990s pushed for "square pixels" to be used in HD video formats. Within the designation "1080i", the i stands for interlaced scan. A frame of 1080i video consists of two sequential fields of 540 vertical pixels; the first field consists of all odd-numbered TV lines and the second all numbered lines.
The horizontal lines of pixels in each field are captured and displayed with a one-line vertical gap between them, so the lines of the next field can be interlaced between them, resulting in 1080 total lines. 1080i differs from 1080p, where the p stands for progressive scan, where all lines in a frame are captured at the same time. In native or pure 1080i, the two fields of a frame correspond to different instants, so motion portrayal is good; this is true for interlaced video in general and can be observed in still images taken of fast motion scenes. However, when 1080p material is captured at 25 or 30 frames/second, it is converted to 1080i at 50 or 60 fields/second for processing or broadcasting. In this situation both fields in a frame do correspond to the same instant; the field-to-instant relation is somewhat more complex for the case of 1080p at 24 frames/second converted to 1080i at 60 fields/second. The field rate of 1080i is 60 Hz for countries that use or used System M as analog television system with 60 fields/sec, or 50 Hz for regions that use or used 625-lines television system with 50 fields/sec.
Both field rates can be carried by major digital television broadcast formats such as ATSC, DVB, ISDB-T International. The frame rate can be implied by the context, while the field rate is specified after the letter i, such as "1080i60". In this case 1080i60 refers to 60 fields per second; the European Broadcasting Union prefers to use the resolution and frame rate separated by a slash, as in 1080i/30 and 1080i/25 480i/30 and 576i/25. Resolutions of 1080i60 or 1080i50 refers to 1080i/30 or 1080i/25 in EBU notation. 1080i is directly compatible with some CRT HDTVs on which it can be displayed natively in interlaced form, but for display on progressive-scan—e.g. Most new LCD and plasma TVs, it must be deinterlaced. Depending on the television's video processing capabilities, the resulting video quality may vary, but may not suffer. For example, film material at 25fps may be deinterlaced from 1080i50 to restore a full 1080p resolution at the original frame rate without any loss. Preferably video material with 50 or 60 motion phases/second is to be converted to 50p or 60p before display.
Worldwide, most HD channels on satellite and cable broadcast in 1080i. In the United States, 1080i is the preferred format for most broadcasters, with Inc.. Viacom, AT&T, Comcast owned networks broadcasting in the format. Only Fox-owned television networks and Disney-owned television networks, along with MLB Network and a few other cable networks use 720p as the preferred format for their networks. Many ABC affiliates owned by Hearst Television and former Belo Corporation stations owned by TEGNA, along with some individual affiliates of those three networks, air their signals in 1080i and upscale network programming for master control and transmission purposes, as most syndicated programming and advertising is produced and distributed in 1080i, removing a downscaling step to 720p; this allows local newscasts on these ABC affiliates to be produced in the higher resolution to match the picture quality of their 1080i competitors. Some cameras and broadcast systems that use 1080 vertical lines per frame do not use the full 1920 pixels of a nominal 1080i picture for image capture and encoding.
Common subsampling ratios include 3/4 and 1/2. Where used, the lower horizontal resolution is scaled to capture and/or display a full-sized picture. Using half horizontal resolution and only one field of each frame results in the format known as qHD, which has fram
The Filipino Channel
The Filipino Channel known as TFC, is a global subscription television network based in Daly City, California with studio in Redwood City and offices in Australia, Cayman Islands, UAE, Japan, Middle East, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom. It is owned and operated by the Filipino media conglomerate ABS-CBN, its programming is composed of imported programs from the ABS-CBN television network. TFC is available globally on direct-to-home satellite, cable, IPTV, online streaming, video on demand and on other over-the-top content platforms. TFC is targeted to the Filipino diaspora, was launched on September 24, 1994, becoming the world's first trans-Pacific Asian broadcaster; as of 2014, The Filipino Channel has over three million subscribers worldwide, most of whom are in the United States, Middle East, Australia and Japan. On September 24, 1994 ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation through its newly established subsidiary ABS-CBN International signed a historic deal with the PanAmSat to bring the first trans-Pacific Asian programming service to some two million Filipino immigrants in the United States using the then-newly launched PAS 2 satellite.
The first headquarters of TFC was built in a garage in Daly City, California with only eight employees doing all the tasks from managing the phones, the computers, the like. By 1995, TFC has grown to 25,000 subscribers in the United States. Airings of Mara Clara and other programming aired during the daytime and night in 1997 Esperanza and Mula Sa Puso where the biggest programs on TFC In 1996, TFC Direct! was launched, an independently operated direct-to-home television service that incorporates the TV channels Sarimanok News Network, Pinoy Blockbuster Channel, Pinoy Central, the radio channels DZMM Radyo Patrol 630 and WRR 101.9 For Life!. By 2004, TFC has grown to 250,000 subscribers in the United States; this growth led to the expansion of TFC to other territories in the world. In 2005, ABS-CBN International signed an affiliation agreement with DirecTV, one of the leading DTH providers in the United States. Under the deal, DirecTV has the exclusive right to distribute the TFC package on its DTH platform.
In return, DirecTV will pay license fees to ABS-CBN International. That year, the now defunct and award-winning internet television service TFC Now! was launched. This was replaced by TFC.tv video streaming website. In this year, ABS-CBN International acquired San Francisco International Gateway from Loral Space & Communications. SFIG is a telecommunications port company based in California. SFIG provides satellite communications services through its 2.5 acre facility consisting of 19 satellite dish antennas and 9 modular equipment buildings. ABS-CBN International received Federal Communications Commission licensing approval in April 2006. In this year, ABS-CBN International opened its state-of-the-art studio and office in Redwood City, California. In 2006, SFIG handled the pay per view distribution to In Demand and DirecTV for the Manny Pacquiao vs. Oscar Larios super featherweight championship title fight. SFIG's customers include Discovery CBS, ESPN, Playboy among others. SFIG is a member of the World Teleport Association.
In 2007, ABS-CBN International launched Myx, the first and only television channel in the United States, targeted to the Asian-American youth audience. As of 2011, TFC has over 2.47 million subscribers worldwide, Same Year, TFC Was Change 2nd New Logo. As of 2015, The Filipino Channel has over three million subscribers worldwide most of which are in United States, Middle East, New Zealand, Europe and Southeast Asia; the program line-up of The Filipino Channel is composed of programs from ABS-CBN, a national television network in the Philippines. Programming ranging from news, public service, reality shows, soap operas, talk shows, gag shows, live events, other formats and genres are shown on TFC in a delayed basis and are synchronized automatically depending on the location of the broadcast. TFC shows original programs not shown in the Philippines and these are produced abroad by ABS-CBN's foreign subsidiaries in United States, Middle East, Europe. In 2007 the short lived Hero TV on TFC aired in April 2007-August 2007 TFC Video On Demand is an IPTV service distributed around the world under the brand of The Filipino Channel.
To avail of the service, users must acquire the TFC IPTV set-top box, connect the box to a TV set and broadband internet through WiFi or Ethernet, subscribe to monthly subscription. The channel line up will depend on the subscription package availed and may include the live-streaming of TV channels The Filipino Channel, Myx TV, the international feeds of ABS-CBN Sports+Action, ABS-CBN News Channel, Cinema One, Lifestyle, as well as radio channels DZMM and My Only Radio, an in-house interactive Karaoke channel. Aside from the live-streaming of ABS-CBN channels, the service includes a video on demand feature that allow users to watch, rewind, fast-forward select programs of the channels anytime for a period of one month and in high-definition format; the service offers a wide selection of fresh movies from the Philippines and other pay per view contents like concerts and sporting events in high-def
A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. In particular, diaspora has come to refer to involuntary mass dispersions of a population from its indigenous territories, most notably the expulsion of Jews from the Land of Israel and the fleeing of Greeks after the fall of Constantinople. Other examples are the African transatlantic slave trade, the southern Chinese or Indians during the coolie trade, the Irish during and after the Irish Famine, the Romani from India, the Italian diaspora, the exile and deportation of Circassians, the emigration of Anglo-Saxon warriors and their families after the Norman Conquest of England. Scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora, based on its causes such as imperialism, trade or labor migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands; some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland. Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, relationships with other communities in the diaspora, lack of full integration into the host countries.
Diasporas maintain ties to the country of their historical affiliation and influence the policies of the country where they are located. The term is derived from the Greek verb διασπείρω, "I scatter", "I spread about" which in turn is composed of διά, "between, across" and the verb σπείρω, "I sow, I scatter". In Ancient Greece the term διασπορά hence meant "scattering" and was inter alia used to refer to citizens of a dominant city-state who emigrated to a conquered land with the purpose of colonization, to assimilate the territory into the empire. An example of a diaspora from classical antiquity is the century-long exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule and the Ageanites as described by Thucydides in his "history of the Peloponnesian wars." Its use began to develop from this original sense. So after the Bible's translation into Greek, the word diaspora would have been used to refer to the Northern Kingdom exiled between 740–722 BC from Israel by the Assyrians, as well as Jews and Levites exiled from the Southern Kingdom in 587 BC by the Babylonians, from Roman Judea in 70 AD by the Roman Empire.
It subsequently came to be used to refer to the historical movements and settlement patterns of the dispersed indigenous population of Israel. In English when capitalized and without modifiers, the term refers to the Jewish diaspora; the wider application of diaspora evolved from the Assyrian two-way mass deportation policy of conquered populations to deny future territorial claims on their part. According to the Oxford English Dictionary Online, the first known recorded usage of the word diaspora in the English language was in 1876 referring "extensive diaspora work of evangelizing among the National Protestant Churches on the continent"; the term became more assimilated into English by the mid 1950s, with long-term expatriates in significant numbers from other particular countries or regions being referred to as a diaspora. An academic field, diaspora studies, has become established relating to this sense of the word. In all cases, the term diaspora carries a sense of displacement the population so described finds itself for whatever reason separated from its national territory, its people have a hope, or at least a desire, to return to their homeland at some point, if the "homeland" still exists in any meaningful sense.
Some writers have noted that diaspora may result in a loss of nostalgia for a single home as people "re-root" in a series of meaningful displacements. In this sense, individuals may have multiple homes throughout their diaspora, with different reasons for maintaining some form of attachment to each. Diasporic cultural development assumes a different course from that of the population in the original place of settlement. Over time, remotely separated communities tend to vary in culture, traditions and other factors; the last vestiges of cultural affiliation in a diaspora is found in community resistance to language change and in maintenance of traditional religious practice. William Safran in an article published in 1991, set out six rules to distinguish diasporas from migrant communities; these included criteria. While Safran's definitions were influenced by the idea of the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term. Rogers Brubaker notes that use of the term diaspora has been widening.
He suggests that one el
Pinoy Box Office
Pinoy Box Office is a Philippine television film channel owned and operated by Viva Entertainment. The channel was launched as Viva Cinema on May 6, 1996, in partnership between Viva Entertainment in the Philippines and Star TV in Hong Kong; the 1996 Viva Cinema logo was similar like different logos of STAR TV channels until 1998, the "Viva" text on the top and the "Cinema" text on the below, the old Viva's 1981 logo on the Blue square background. On July 10, 2003, Star announced that the joint venture with Viva Entertainment would not be renewed, meaning Viva Cinema would'cease broadcasting' on July 31, 2003. On August 1, 2003, Viva Cinema was relaunched as Pinoy Box Office; the current logo, which renders the channel's name in all lowercase, was introduced on March 1, 2015. The channel's new slogan, Paborito ng Bayan, was introduced. PBO Direk - recognizes the masterpiece creators Philippines’ Best Films: Director/s of the month. PBO Senti - are about movies which touch the soul. PBO TNT - Airing old TV shows produced by Viva Entertainment.
PBO Marathon - 6 hours of non-stop and most requested movies aired on TV. Pinoy Sports Special - featuring the program, The Main Event, produced by Viva Sports. Anong Ganap? Phoemela Baranda Roxee B Bea Rose Santiago Mayton Eugenio Shy Carlos Viva Entertainment Viva Television Viva Films Viva TV Viva TV
Movie Central (Philippines)
Movie Central is a Philippine free-to-air channel created by ABS-CBN. Its programming consists of Hollywood movies, it is the second digital terrestrial television-exclusive movie channel after Cine Mo!, which airs local and Filipino-dubbed foreign movies. Movie Central operates daily from 7:00 AM to 1:00 AM of the following day. Starting from 30 July up until 31 December 2018, Movie Central was available on ABS-CBN TV Plus as a free-trial channel, along with O Shopping, Asianovela Channel, Jeepney TV and Myx. Movie Central carries films from various Hollywood film studios. Action Zone - a weekday early-evening showcase of action films. Date Night - a program block dedicated to romantic films. Hit Play Now - blockbuster movies from various genres are presented. Thriller Theater - the channel's late-night block, featuring horror and suspense movies. Movie Blowout - a weekly showcase of the well-loved blockbuster movies, airing every Saturday night. Sunday Double Rumble - the other weekend block which features two movies from the same genre, airing back-to-back every Sunday night
ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center
The ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center in Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines is the oldest headquarters of ABS-CBN. It occupies an area of 34,000 square meters adjacent to ELJ Communications Center, it was built in 1968 and was the most advanced broadcast facility in Asia. Today it is now the country's largest and most technologically advanced media facility. Built as the headquarters of ABS-CBN, the center has since seen several management changes, such as a takeover by RPN and sister station BBC in 1973, the addition of a third tenant, the government station GTV in 1974, the departure of RPN and BBC in 1978 to Broadcast City and the entry of NMPC and BB in 1980 which accompanied the remaining tenant MBS. From 1986 to 1992, the reopened ABS-CBN and PTV, along with PBS, shared the Broadcast Center and following PTV's departure in 1992, ABS-CBN has since regained full control of the facility; the broadcasting center, conceptualized by ABS-CBN's then-President Eugenio Lopez Jr. began construction in 1966 and was opened on December 18, 1968.
Prior to the opening, ABS-CBN held headquarters in two buildings: the ABS building in Roxas Boulevard for ABS-CBN's Manila TV stations at that time, DZAQ-TV 3 and DZXL-TV 9, the Chronicle Building in Aduana, Manila for its Manila radio stations. With the opening, ABS-CBN's radio and TV operations were housed in one building. ABS-CBN would soon give away the Roxas Boulevard studios to Kanlaon Broadcasting System or KBS, which took Channel 9 and prompted ABS-CBN to switch frequencies from Channels 3 and 9 to Channels 2 and 4; when it was opened, it was the most advanced TV broadcasting facility in Asia. ABS-CBN mentioned that before Martial Law, it was once the training ground of TV electronics engineers from other countries; the new TV transmitter tower known as the Millennium Transmitter in the complex would begin beaming Channel 2 and 4's signals in 1969. On September 22, 1972, ABS-CBN was shut down after then-President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law. All of its properties, which included the Broadcast Center, were seized from the network.
The facility was not to be used again at least until RPN, whose first facility given by ABS-CBN was destroyed by a fire, took over the facility in 1973. It became home of two newly formed networks BBC which took Channel 2 and Government Television which took Channel 4 in 1974; the facility was renamed as the Broadcast Plaza. RPN and BBC, were all owned by Roberto Benedicto, GTV was owned by the government through National Media Production Center. Benedicto owned the facility without any compensation; the crony-owned networks used ABS-CBN's facilities without paying the network's owners, the Lopezes, making the network's technologies dilapidated, resulting in it losing its prestige as one of the most advanced broadcasting centers in Asia. In July 1978, RPN and BBC left the Broadcast Plaza for their new home in the Broadcast City, situated in Old Balara in Quezon City, leaving GTV, which at that point was relaunched as Maharlika Broadcasting System two years as the sole tenant of the facility.
In 1980, the Bureau of Broadcasts, a radio network owned by the government under the Department/Ministry of Public Information, was transferred to Broadcast Plaza after the Office of Media Affairs was created to provide a unitary form of media for both NMPC and the BB. In 1986, the complex was stormed by anti-Marcos rebel soldiers that attacked and took over Channel 4 under the supervision of ABS-CBN's former General Manager Augusto Almeda-Lopez. Channel 4 went back on the air to serve the people and to broadcast the historic People Power Revolution that resulted in Ferdinand Marcos being ousted from office. After Marcos was deposed and when Corazon Aquino became the first female president, MBS became People's Television Network while the radio properties of NMPC and the BB were integrated to the reinstated pre-Martial Law era Philippine Broadcasting Service; the same year, RPN, IBC, BBC were sequestered by the government from Benedicto. BBC was dissolved and its frequencies were given to ABS-CBN, turned back to the Lopezes and was relaunched on September 14, 1986.
RPN and IBC, on the other hand − were turned over to the government. While Channel 4 remained with PTV, Channel 2 of the former BBC was given back to ABS-CBN. At that time, the facility was dilapidated; the technology in the facility was old, the center was sorely lacking in tables and telephones, there were plants growing on the compound's walls, some of the studios' walls were crumbling. The network did get back the facility, but with an agreement with PTV wherein they will share the space, splitting it 50-50. In just two years after reopening, ABS-CBN would soon regain ratings leadership and propel itself back to financial stability; the network soon filed a case against Marcos and his networks for not compensating for the usage of the broadcast technology and equipment in
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around