George Timothy Clooney is an American actor and businessman. He is the recipient of three Golden Globe Awards and two Academy Awards, one for acting in Syriana and the other for co-producing Argo. In 2018, he was the recipient of the AFI Lifetime Achievement Award, at the age of 57. Clooney made his acting debut on television in 1978, gained wide recognition in his role as Dr. Doug Ross on the long-running medical drama ER, from 1994 to 1999, for which he received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations. While working on ER, he began attracting a variety of leading roles in films, with his breakthrough role in From Dusk till Dawn, the crime comedy Out of Sight, in which he first worked with director Steven Soderbergh, who would become a long-time collaborator. In 1999, he took the lead role in a well-received war satire, set during the Gulf War. In 2001, Clooney's fame widened with the release of his biggest commercial success, the heist comedy remake Ocean's Eleven, the first of what became a trilogy, starring Clooney.
He made his directorial debut a year with the biographical spy comedy Confessions of a Dangerous Mind, has since directed the historical drama Good Night, Good Luck, the sports comedy Leatherheads, the political drama The Ides of March, the war film The Monuments Men. Clooney won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for the Middle East thriller Syriana, subsequently earned Best Actor nominations for the legal thriller Michael Clayton and the comedy-dramas Up in the Air and The Descendants. In 2013, he received the Academy Award for Best Picture for producing the political thriller Argo, he has been nominated for Academy Awards in six different categories, a record he shares with Walt Disney. In 2009, Clooney was included in Time's annual Time 100 as one of the "Most Influential People in the World", he is noted for his political and economic activism, has served as one of the United Nations Messengers of Peace since January 31, 2008. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, he is married to human rights lawyer Amal Clooney.
Clooney was born on May 1961, in Lexington, Kentucky. His mother, Nina Bruce, was a beauty city councilwoman, his father, Nick Clooney, is a former anchorman and television host, including five years on the AMC network. Clooney is of Irish and English ancestry, his maternal great-great-great-great-grandmother, Mary Ann Sparrow, was the half-sister of Nancy Lincoln, mother of President Abraham Lincoln. Clooney has an older sister named Adelia. Cabaret singer and actress Rosemary Clooney was an aunt. Through Rosemary, his cousins include actors Miguel Ferrer, Rafael Ferrer, Gabriel Ferrer, married to singer Debby Boone. Clooney was raised a strict Roman Catholic but said in 2006 that he did not know if he believed "in Heaven, or God." He has said, "Yes, we were Catholic, big-time, whole family, whole group." He began his education at the Blessed Sacrament School in Kentucky. He attended St. Michael's School in Ohio; the Clooneys moved back to Kentucky. In middle school, Clooney developed Bell's palsy, a medical condition that paralyzes the face.
The malady went away within a year. In an interview with Larry King, he stated, it takes about nine months to go away. It was the first year of high school, a bad time for having half your face paralyzed." He described one positive outcome of the condition: "It's a great thing that it happened to me because it forced me to engage in a series of making fun of myself. And I think; the practical jokes have to be aimed at you."After his parents moved to Augusta, Clooney attended Augusta High School. He has stated that he earned all As and a B in school, played baseball and basketball, he tried out to play professional baseball with the Cincinnati Reds in 1977, but he did not pass the first round of player cuts and was not offered a contract. He attended Northern Kentucky University from 1979 to 1981, majoring in broadcast journalism, briefly attended the University of Cincinnati, but did not graduate from either, he earned money selling women's shoes, insurance door-to-door, stocking shelves, working in construction, cutting tobacco.
Clooney's first role was as an extra in the television mini-series Centennial in 1978, based on the novel of the same name by James A. Michener and was filmed in Clooney's hometown of Augusta, Kentucky. Clooney's first major role came in 1984 in the short-lived sitcom E/R, he played a handyman on the series The Facts of Life and appeared as Bobby Hopkins, a detective, on an episode of The Golden Girls. His first prominent role was a semi-regular supporting role in the sitcom Roseanne, playing Roseanne Barr's supervisor Booker Brooks, followed by the role of a construction worker on Baby Talk, a co-starring role on the CBS drama Bodies of Evidence as Detective Ryan Walker, a year-long turn as Det. James Falconer on Sisters. In 1988, Clooney played a role in the comedy-horror film Return of the Killer Tomatoes. In 1990, he starred in the short-lived ABC police drama Sunset Beat. During this period, Clooney was a student at the Beverly Hills Playhouse acting school for five years. Clooney rose to fame when he played Dr. Doug Ross, alongside Anthony Edwards, Ju
Andrés Arturo García Menéndez is a Cuban American actor and director who became known in the late 1980s and 1990s, having appeared in successful Hollywood films, including The Godfather Part III, The Untouchables, Internal Affairs and When a Man Loves a Woman. In the 2000s, he starred in Ocean's Eleven and its sequels:, Ocean's Twelve and Ocean's Thirteen, in The Lost City. In recent years he's had a career resurgence in such films as Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again, Book Club, The Mule, My Dinner with Hervé. García was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role as Vincent Mancini in The Godfather Part III, he was Emmy Award- and Golden Globe Award-nominated for his titular role in For Love or Country: The Arturo Sandoval Story. Garcia was born Andrés Arturo García Menéndez in Cuba, his mother, Amelie Menéndez, was an English teacher and his father, René García Núñez, was an avocado farmer and attorney in Cuba who owned a fragrance business in the United States. García has two older siblings, a sister named Tessi and a brother named René.
When García was 5 years old, his family moved to Miami, after the failed Bay of Pigs Invasion. Over a period of several years, they built up a million-dollar perfume company. García was raised as a Roman Catholic and attended Miami Beach Senior High School, where he played on the basketball team. During his last year in high school, he became ill with mononucleosis, which convinced him to pursue a career in acting, he began his acting career by taking a drama class with Jay W. Jensen in his senior year at Miami Beach Senior High School, he graduated from Florida International University in Miami. García soon went to Hollywood, he had a short role in the first episode of Murder, She Wrote as "1st white tough", in 1984. He played the role of a gang member in the first episode of the popular TV series Hill Street Blues, he appeared alongside Kurt Russell. Director Brian De Palma engaged him for The Untouchables. García acted the Ridley Scott film Black Rain with Michael Douglas; that same year, Francis Ford Coppola was casting The Godfather Part III.
García won the part of Vincent Mancini, the illegitimate son of Sonny Corleone, earned an Academy Award nomination as Best Supporting Actor for his performance. In the 1990s, García appeared in Internal Affairs, in which he engages in a battle of wits with a corrupt fellow police officer, played by Richard Gere, he played a conflicted good samaritan in Hero, the enabling husband of an alcoholic in When a Man Loves a Woman, a doomed criminal in Things to Do in Denver When You're Dead, a crusading lawyer in the drama Night Falls on Manhattan, a cop trying to save his gravely ill son in the action thriller Desperate Measures. He played mobster Lucky Luciano in Hoodlum, he portrayed the ruthless Las Vegas casino owner Terry Benedict in Ocean's Eleven, a remake of the 1960 Rat Pack caper movie. He appeared in the sequel, Ocean's Twelve and in the third film, Ocean's Thirteen, he co-wrote and starred in The Lost City alongside Dustin Hoffman and Bill Murray. In 2006, he appeared in the last episode of the Turkish TV series Kurtlar Vadisi, along with Sharon Stone.
Garcia has had a recent career resurgence in film. He starred in 4 films in 2018. In starred in the critical and box office sequel Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again as Fernando Cienfuegos alongside Cher, Amanda Seyfried, Lily James, Colin Firth, Stellan Skarsgaard, Pierce Brosnan; the film is Certified Fresh on Rotten Tomatoes with an 81%, with the critics consensus reading, "Mamma Mia! Here We Go Again doubles down on just about everything fans loved about the original -- and my my, how can fans resist it?" When asked about singing with Cher, Garcia told NBC’s Today show, “It was sublime. One thing is to act with Cher, a great actress and to be asked to sing with her". Garcia starred in the Paramount romantic comedy, Book Club, alongside Diane Keaton, Candice Bergen, Jane Fonda, Mary Steenburgen; the film was a box office success grossing over $89 million worldwide against its $10 million budget. He starred in Clint Eastwood's drama film, The Mule alongside Eastwood, Bradley Cooper, Dianne Wiest, Laurence Fishburne, Michael Pena.
It has grossed $166 million and received positive reviews from critics, who called it "poignant and charming" and praised Eastwood's performance. He appeared in the acclaimed HBO movie My Dinner with Hervé alongside Peter Dinklage, Jamie Dornan. Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 83% with the site's critical consensus reading, "My Dinner with Hervé offers a standard narrative on celebrity and infamy, but formidable performances by Peter Dinklage and Jamie Dornan find the dimensionality and pathos of Hervé Villechaize the man." The film received a Critics Choice Television Award nomination for Best Movie/Miniseries. García is slated to direct the upcoming film Hemingway & Fuentes about famous writer Ernest Hemingway co-written by García and Hemingway's niece Hilary Hemingway. Announced stars included Anthony Hopkins, Annette Bening and García himself. Filming was to have begun in January 2013, but due to delays, Hopkins left the project and Garcia announced that the role of Hemingway would be played by actor Jon Voight.
In 1982, García married Marivi Lorido. The couple has four children: daughters Dominik García-Lorido, an actress and Alessandra. García has expressed, on a number of occasions, his opposition to the communist regime that has ruled Cuba since the revolution that occurred there fr
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
National Film Registry
The National Film Registry is the United States National Film Preservation Board's selection of films deserving of preservation. The NFPB, established by the National Film Preservation Act of 1988, was reauthorized by acts of Congress in 1992, 1996, 2005, again in October 2008; the NFPB's mission, to which the NFR contributes, is to ensure the survival and increased public availability of America's film heritage. The 1996 law created the non-profit National Film Preservation Foundation which, although affiliated with the NFPB, raises money from the private sector; the NFPB adds to the NFR up to 25 "culturally or aesthetically significant films" each year, showcasing the range and diversity of American film heritage to increase awareness for its preservation. A film becomes eligible for inclusion ten years after its original release. For the first selection in 1989, the public nominated 1,000 films for consideration. Members of the NFPB developed individual ballots of possible films for inclusion.
The ballots were tabulated into a list of 25 films, modified by Librarian of Congress James H. Billington and his staff at the Library for the final selection. Since 1997, members of the public have been able to nominate up to 50 films a year for the NFPB and Librarian to consider; the NFR includes films ranging from Hollywood classics to orphan films. A film is not required to be feature-length, nor is it required to have been theatrically released in the traditional sense. In addition, television programs and foreign films are not excluded from consideration, although American films are given preference; the Registry contains newsreels, silent films, student films, experimental films, short films, music videos, films out of copyright protection or in the public domain, film serials, home movies, documentaries and independent films. As of the 2018 listing, there are 750 films in the Registry; the earliest listed film is Newark Athlete, the most recent is Brokeback Mountain. Counting the 11 multi-year serials in the NFR once each by year of completion, the year with the most films selected is 1939, with 19 films from that year chosen.
The time between a film's debut and its selection varies greatly. The longest span is 121 years; the shortest span is the minimum 10 years. This table is through the 2018 induction list. For purposes of this list, multi-year serials are counted only once by year of completion. Category:United States National Film Registry films National Recording Registry These Amazing Shadows, a 2011 documentary film that tells the history and importance of the registry National Film Registry homepage Classic Movie Hub: National Film Registry List These Amazing Shadows site for Independent Lens on PBS
Steven Andrew Soderbergh is an American film director and producer. He is considered one of the founding pioneers of the independent cinema movement and among the most acclaimed and prolific filmmakers of his generation. Soderbergh's directorial breakthrough—indie drama Sex and Videotape —lifted him into the public spotlight as a notable presence in the film industry. At 26, Soderbergh became the youngest solo director to win the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival which garnered the film worldwide commercial success, among numerous accolades, his breakthrough saw him to Hollywood. He found further critical success with the Ocean's trilogy and film franchise. Despite his film career spanning a multitude of genres, his cinematic niche centers on psychological and heist thrillers, his films have grossed over US$2.2 billion worldwide and garnered nine Oscar nominations, winning seven. Soderbergh's films center on the metaphysical themes of distorted reality, shifting personal identities, sexuality and the human condition.
His feature films retain distinctive cinematography as a result of his liberal use of avant-garde cinema coupled with unconventional film and camera formats. Many of Soderbergh's films are anchored by multi-dimensional storylines with plot twists, nonlinear storytelling, experimental sequencing, suspenseful soundscapes, third person vantage points. Soderbergh was born on January 14, 1963, in Atlanta, Georgia, to Mary Ann and Peter Andrew Soderbergh, a university administrator and educator, he has Swedish and Italian roots. Soderbergh's paternal grandfather immigrated to the U. S. from Stockholm. As a child, he moved with his family to Charlottesville, where he lived during his adolescence, to Baton Rouge, where his father became Dean of Education at Louisiana State University. Soderbergh discovered filmmaking as a teenager and directed short films with a Super 8 and 16 mm cameras, he attended the Louisiana State University Laboratory School for high school before graduating and moving to Hollywood to pursue professional filmmaking.
In his first job he worked as a game show composer and cue card holder soon after which he found work as a freelance film editor. During this time, he directed the concert video 9012Live for the rock band Yes in 1985, for which he received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Music Video, Long Form. After Soderbergh returned to Baton Rouge, he wrote a film titled Sex and Videotape on a legal pad during an eight-day cross country drive; the movie tells the story of a troubled man who videotapes women discussing their lives and sexuality, his impact on the relationship of a married couple. Soderbergh submitted the film to the Cannes Film Festival where it won a variety of awards, including the Palme d'Or, its critical performance led it to become a worldwide commercial success, grossing $36.7 million on a $1.2 million budget. The film was considered to be the most influential catalyst of the 1990s Independent Cinema movement. At age 26, Soderbergh became the youngest solo director and the second youngest director to win the festival's top award.
Movie critic Roger Ebert called Soderbergh the "poster boy of the Sundance generation". His relative youth and sudden rise to prominence in the film industry had him referred to as a "sensation" and a prodigy. In 2006, the film was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the United States National Film Registry, being deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" and the American Film Institute nominated it as one of the greatest movies made. Soderbergh's directorial debut was followed by a series of low-budget box-office disappointments. In 1991, he directed a biopic of Franz Kafka written by Lem Dobbs and starring Jeremy Irons; the film received mixed reviews from critics. Roger Ebert's review stated, "Soderbergh does demonstrate again here that he's a gifted director, however unwise in his choice of project". Two years he directed the drama King of the Hill, again met with poor commercial performance, although fared well with critics. Based on the memoir of writer A. E. Hotchner, the film is set during the Great Depression and follows a young boy struggling to survive on his own in a hotel in St. Louis during after his mother falls ill and his father is away on business trips.
In 1995, he directed a remake of Robert Siodmak's 1949 film noir Criss Cross, titled The Underneath, which grossed $536,020 on a $6.5 million budget and was panned by critics, with Rodrigo Perez of IndieWire accusing Soderbergh of "throwing himself under the bus."Soderbergh directed Schizopolis in 1996, a comedy which he starred in, wrote and shot as well as directed. The 96-minute film was submitted to the Cannes Film Festival to such a "chilly response" that he reworked the entire introduction and conclusion before releasing it commercially. In the movie's introduction, he placed a title page that read: ”In the event that you find certain sequences or events confusing, please bear in mind this is your fault, not ours. You will need to see the picture again and again until you understand everything", he starred in Schizopolis as Fletcher Munson, a spokesman for a Scientology-esque lifestyle cult, again as Dr. Jeffrey Korchek, a dentist having an affair with Munson's wife; the film switched languages multi
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i