A quintain is any poetic form containing five lines. Examples include the tanka, the cinquain, the limerick. Mukhammas Stanza Quintil Hobsbaum, Philip. Metre and verse form; the new critical idiom. Routledge. Pp. 186–188. ISBN 0-415-08797-X. Five Line Poetry Forms
William Soutar was a Scottish poet and diarist, who wrote in both English and Braid Scots. He is known best for his epigrams. William Soutar was born on 28 April 1898 in Perth, the only child of John Soutar, master joiner, his wife, Margaret Smith, who wrote poetry, his parents belonged to the United Free Church of Scotland. He was educated at Southern District School, at Perth Academy, before joining the wartime Royal Navy in 1916. By the time he was demobilized in November 1918, he was suffering from what was to be diagnosed in 1924 as ankylosing spondylitis, a form of chronic inflammatory arthritis. Soutar switched to English, he did not excel academically. His first volume, Gleanings by an Undergraduate, was published at his father's expense, as were several others, he began to keep a diary on 18 April 1919. During that period he made contact with Hugh MacDiarmid in Montrose, with Ezra Pound. MacDiarmid at this time was abandoning poetry in English in favour of a "synthetic Scots" as a literary language compiled from dialects and from earlier writers such as Robert Henryson and William Dunbar.
Soutar's work correspondingly altered radically, he became a leading figure of the Scottish Literary Renaissance, whom posthumous editors would dub "one of the greatest poets Scotland has produced." His family adopted an orphaned cousin of his, the seven-year-old Evelyn, in 1927, this became a spur for him to write for children. Seeds in the Wind was a volume of "bairn-rhymes" in Scots. By 1930 Soutar was bedridden with his disease, he died in 1943 of tuberculosis, which he had contracted in 1929. He is buried in Perth's Wellshill Cemetery, his collected poems, edited by MacDiarmid, were published in 1948. His journal, The Diary of a Dying Man, was published posthumously. One form of verse which he used were cinquains. Interest in Soutar's work in Scots and English, for adults and children, has revived since the 1980s, although none of his verse was in print at the time of his centenary in 1998. In 2014 he was the subject of a BBC radio programme: The Still Life Poet by Liz Lochhead. Benjamin Britten set twelve of Soutar's poems for tenor voice and piano in the 1969 song cycle Who Are These Children?.
Gleanings by an Undergraduate Brief Words. One Hundred Epigrams Seeds in the Wind, Poems in Scots for Children Diaries of a Dying Man ISBN 0-86241-347-8. In fact only a short selection; the Collected Poems of William Soutar, ed. Hugh McDiarmid Poems of William Soutar: a New Selection, ed. W. R. Aitken ISBN 0707305543 The Diary of a Dying Man ISBN 0906772311 At the Year's Fa': Selected Poems in Scots and English ISBN 0905452356 The Scottish Poetry Library site includes a handful of Soutar's poems: Retrieved 16 August 2013. More can be found here Retrieved 16 August 2013 and here Retrieved 16 August 2013. A sample of Soutar's cinquains
Tanka is a genre of classical Japanese poetry and one of the major genres of Japanese literature. In the time of the Man'yōshū, the term tanka was used to distinguish "short poems" from the longer chōka. In the ninth and tenth centuries, notably with the compilation of the Kokinshū, the short poem became the dominant form of poetry in Japan, the general word waka became the standard name for this form. Japanese poet and critic Masaoka Shiki revived the term tanka in the early twentieth century for his statement that waka should be renewed and modernized. Haiku is a term of his invention, used for his revision of standalone hokku, with the same idea. Tanka consist of five units with the following pattern of on: 5-7-5-7-7; the 5-7-5 is called the kami-no-ku, the 7-7 is called the shimo-no-ku. During the Kojiki and Nihonshoki periods the tanka retained a well defined form, but the history of the mutations of the tanka itself forms an important chapter in haiku history, until the modern revival of tanka began with several poets who began to publish literary magazines, gathering their friends and disciples as contributors.
Yosano Tekkan and the poets that were associated with his Myōjō magazine were one example, but that magazine was short-lived. A young high school student, Otori You, Ishikawa Takuboku contributed to Myōjō. In 1980 the New York Times published a representative work: Masaoka Shiki's poems and writing have had a more lasting influence; the magazine Hototogisu, which he founded, still publishes. In the Meiji period, Shiki claimed the situation with waka should be rectified, waka should be modernized in the same way as other things in the country, he praised the style of Man'yōshū as manly, as opposed to the style of Kokin Wakashū, the model for waka for a thousand years, which he denigrated and called feminine. He praised Minamoto no Sanetomo, the third shōgun of the Kamakura shogunate, a disciple of Fujiwara no Teika and composed waka in a style much like that in the Man'yōshū. Following Shiki's death, in the Taishō period, Mokichi Saitō and his friends began publishing a magazine, which praised the Man'yōshū.
Using their magazine they spread their influence throughout the country. Their modernization aside, in the court the old traditions still prevailed; the court continues to hold many utakai both and privately. The utakai that the Emperor holds on the first of the year is called Utakai Hajime and it is an important event for waka poets. After World War II, waka began to be considered out-of-date, but since the late 1980s it has revived under the example of contemporary poets, such as Tawara Machi. With her 1987 bestselling collection Salad Anniversary, the poet has been credited with revitalizing the tanka for modern audiences. Today there are many circles of tanka poets. Many newspapers have a weekly tanka column, there are many professional and amateur tanka poets; as a parting gesture, outgoing PM Jun'ichirō Koizumi wrote a tanka to thank his supporters. The Japanese imperial family continue to write tanka for the New Year. In ancient times, it was a custom between two writers to exchange waka instead of letters in prose.
In particular, it was common between lovers. Reflecting this custom, five of the twenty volumes of the Kokin Wakashū gathered waka for love. In the Heian period the lovers would exchange waka in the morning when lovers met at the woman's home; the exchanged waka were called Kinuginu, because it was thought the man wanted to stay with his lover and when the sun rose he had no time to put on his clothes on which he had lain instead of a mattress. Works of this period, The Pillow Book and The Tale of Genji provide us with such examples in the life of aristocrats. Murasaki Shikibu uses 795 waka in her The Tale of Genji as waka her characters made in the story; some of these are her own. Shortly and reciting waka became a part of aristocratic culture, they recited a part of appropriate waka to imply something on an occasion. Much like with tea, there were a number of rituals and events surrounding the composition and judgment of waka. There were two types of waka party that produced occasional poetry: Uta-awase.
Utakai was a party in which all participants recited them. Utakai derived from Shikai, Kanshi party and was held in occasion people gathered like seasonal party for the New Year, some celebrations for a newborn baby, a birthday, or a newly built house. Utaawase was a contest in two teams. Themes were determined and a chosen poet from each team wrote a waka for a given theme; the judge gave points to the winning team. The team which received the largest sum was the winner; the first recorded Utaawase was held in around 885. At first, Utaawase was playful and mere entertainment, but as the poetic tradition deepened and grew, it turned into a serious aesthetic contest, with more formality. Ochiai Naobumi Masaoka Shiki Yosano Akiko Ishikawa Takuboku Saitō Mokichi Itō Sachio Kitahara Hakus
Adelaide Crapsey was an American poet. Born in Brooklyn, New York, she was raised in Rochester, New York, daughter of Adelaide T. Crapsey and Episcopal priest Algernon Sidney Crapsey, who had moved from New York City to Rochester. Adelaide Crapsey was born on September 1878 in Brooklyn Heights, New York, her parents were Adelaide Crapsey. She was the third child of her parents, their first child was a son their second child was a daughter Emily. Adelaide was baptized on November 1, 1878 in Trinity Church in New York City where her father was an assistant minister. Before Adelaide was a year old, her father became the rector of St. Andrew's Episcopal Church in Rochester, N. Y, his family followed him to Rochester from New York City on the canal boat. In Rochester, Adelaide attended the public schools. Crapsey was "raised in a liberal environment that encouraged great expectations for women."After leaving the Rochester public schools, Adelaide with her sister Emily entered Kemper Hall in 1893. Kemper Hall was an Episcopalian woman's college preparatory school in Wisconsin.
At Kemper Hall, she took the college preparatory courses which included French. She was the editor of the school magazine and she played and refereed basketball, she graduated in 1897 as the valedictorian for her class. Adelaide matriculated in Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York in 1897, she had "a active four years" in Vassar. For three years she was class poet, she managed the basketball team. She was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, she played the role of Lucy the maid in the play The Rivals. Crapsey roomed with Jean Webster who continued to be "her best friend and literary comrade" for the rest of her life. Two of Adelaide's sisters died. Ruth died in 1898 of undulant fever at the age of eleven. Emily, with whom Adelaide was closest, died in 1901 of appendicitis at the age of twenty-four. Adelaide planned a career in teaching after graduating from Vassar in 1901. However, before beginning work, she took a year off both "to regain her strength" and "to recover from the shock" of Emily's death."After her year off, Adelaide returned to Kemper Hall to teach history and literature in 1903-1904.
While there, she suffered chronic fatigue, a symptom of her not-yet-diagnosed tuberculosis. This caused Adelaide to leave her teaching in 1904, to study at the School of Classical Studies of the American Academy in Rome, she supported herself by working as a lecturer. In Rome, she had a great "rebirth of energy and creativeness" in the warm and temperate Italian climate. While there, she met a man ``. However, the seriousness of her father's situation faced with interviews by the Committee of Investigation of the Diocese of Western New York and possible charges of heresy brought Adelaide back home from Rome in 1905 to support her parents. One afternoon, when Adelaide and her mother were in the rectory and her father was out, members of the Committee of Investigation came to ask her father some questions, her mother was "too nervous and worn out from the months in the public eye," so Adelaide offered to serve the men tea. She "spiked the tea with rum," which contributed to their good mood when they left.
Adelaide's courage in the face of the enemy may have inspired her poem about the biblical Judith: Israel! Wake! Be gay! Thine enemy is brought low— Thy foe slain—by the hand, by the hand Of a woman! In 1906, the Diocese presented charges of heresy against Adelaide's father and an Ecclesiastical Court was established and trial was set to be held in Batavia, New York. On April 18, 1906, she went with his chief counsel to Batavia. At the end of the trial, her father was found guilty of heresy. After the trial, Adelaide remained with her family to give them her "support and good humor." However, her "literary and academic future" had been suspended for eighteen months. She needed a job near enough to Rochester to be "relatively accessible to her family." She found such a job, teaching literature at Miss Low's School in Stamford, Connecticut. Stamford was only a short train ride from New York City where her father's Court of Appeal was held; the appeal was denied on November 20, 1906. Adelaide taught at Miss Low's for the academic years 1906-1907 and 1907-1908.
With her father's appeal having been denied, he was no longer a minister in the Episcopal Church. He was given until the end of December 1906 to vacate the St. Andrew's rectory. Therefore, when Adelaide went home for Christmas in 1906, the family was moving out of the house in, her home for twenty-seven years and into a rented house; when Adelaide went back to Stamford, other sad events followed. Her grandmother Harriet Gunn Trowbridge, whom she had visited as a child, died. In May 1907, her eldest brother Philip died of chronic malaria, which he had contracted during the invasion of Cuba during the Spanish–American War. Adelaide was not happy teaching at Miss Low's school; the "atmosphere was oppressive" to her. Her teaching was described as "thrilling." Her students "seemed to gravitate" to her classes. In 1907, Adelaide's father was a delegate to the International Peace Conference at the Hague, she accompanied him. During the Conference, fluent in French, was in demand as a translator; the Conference was conducted in French and the newspapers were printed in French, a language which few Americans knew.
The Crapseys left the Conference early "disillusioned and disappointed." After the Conference and her
Imagism was a movement in early 20th-century Anglo-American poetry that favored precision of imagery and clear, sharp language. It has been described as the most influential movement in English poetry since the Pre-Raphaelites; as a poetic style it gave modernism its start in the early 20th century, is considered to be the first organized modernist literary movement in the English language. Imagism is sometimes viewed as "a succession of creative moments" rather than a continuous or sustained period of development. René Taupin remarked that "it is more accurate to consider Imagism not as a doctrine, nor as a poetic school, but as the association of a few poets who were for a certain time in agreement on a small number of important principles"; the Imagists rejected the sentiment and discursiveness typical of much Romantic and Victorian poetry, in contrast to their contemporaries, the Georgian poets, who were content to work within that tradition. Imagism called for a return to what were seen as more Classical values, such as directness of presentation and economy of language, a willingness to experiment with non-traditional verse forms.
A characteristic feature of Imagism is its attempt to isolate a single image to reveal its essence. This feature mirrors contemporary developments in avant-garde art Cubism. Although Imagism isolates objects through the use of what Ezra Pound called "luminous details", Pound's ideogrammic method of juxtaposing concrete instances to express an abstraction is similar to Cubism's manner of synthesizing multiple perspectives into a single image. Imagist publications appearing between 1914 and 1917 featured works by many of the most prominent modernist figures in poetry and other fields, including Ezra Pound, H. D. Ford Madox Ford, William Carlos Williams, F. S. Flint, T. E. Hulme; the Imagists were centered in London, with members from Great Britain and the United States. Somewhat unusually for the time, a number of women writers were major Imagist figures. Well-known poets of the Edwardian era of the 1890s, such as Alfred Austin, Stephen Phillips, William Watson, had been working much in the shadow of Tennyson, producing weak imitations of the poetry of the Victorian era.
They continued to work in this vein into the early years of the 20th century. As the new century opened, Austin was still the serving British Poet Laureate, a post he held up to 1913. In the century's first decade, poetry still had a large audience. Future Nobel Prize winner William Butler Yeats was devoting much of his energy to the Abbey Theatre and writing for the stage, producing little lyric poetry during this period. In 1907, the Nobel Prize for Literature was awarded to Rudyard Kipling; the origins of Imagism are to be found in Autumn and A City Sunset by T. E. Hulme; these were published in January 1909 by the Poets' Club in London in a booklet called For Christmas MDCCCCVIII. Hulme was a student of philosophy. Around the end of 1908, he presented his paper A Lecture on Modern Poetry at one of the club's meetings. Writing in A. R. Orage's magazine The New Age, the poet and critic F. S. Flint was critical of the club and its publications. From the ensuing debate and Flint became close friends.
In 1909, Hulme left the Poets' Club and started meeting with Flint and other poets in a new group which Hulme referred to as the "Secession Club". The interest in Japanese verse forms can be placed in a context of the late Victorian and Edwardian revival of interest in Chinoiserie and Japonism as witnessed in the 1890s vogue for William Anderson's Japanese prints donated to the British Museum, performances of Noh plays in London, the success of Gilbert and Sullivan's operetta The Mikado. Direct literary models were available from a number of sources, including F. V. Dickins's 1866 Hyak nin is'shiu, or, Stanzas by a Century of Poets, Being Japanese Lyrical Odes, the first English-language version of the Hyakunin Isshū, a 13th-century anthology of 100 waka, the early 20th-century critical writings and poems of Sadakichi Hartmann, contemporary French-language translations; the American poet Ezra Pound was introduced to the group in April 1909 and found their ideas close to his own. In particular, Pound's studies of Romantic literature had led him to an admiration of the condensed, direct expression that he detected in the writings of Arnaut Daniel and Guido Cavalcanti, amongst others.
For example, in his 1911–12 series of essays I gather the limbs of Osiris, Pound writes of Daniel's line "pensar de lieis m'es repaus", from the canzone En breu brizara'l temps braus: "You cannot get statement simpler than that, or clearer, or less rhetorical". These criteria—directness and lack of rhetoric—were to be amongst the defining qualities of Imagist poetry. Through his friendship with Laurence Binyon, Pound had developed an interest in Japanese art by examining Nishiki-e prints at the British Museum, he became absorbed in the study of related Japanese verse forms. In a 1915 article in La France, the French critic Remy de Gourmont described the Imagists as descendants of the French Symbo
An epigram is a brief, interesting and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. The word is derived from the Greek: ἐπίγραμμα epigramma "inscription" from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein "to write on, to inscribe", the literary device has been employed for over two millennia; the presence of wit or sarcasm tends to distinguish non-poetic epigrams from aphorisms and adages, which may lack them. The Greek tradition of epigrams began as poems inscribed on votive offerings at sanctuaries – including statues of athletes – and on funerary monuments, for example "Go tell it to the Spartans, passersby...". These original epigrams did the same job, but in verse. Epigram became a literary genre in the Hellenistic period developing out of scholarly collections of inscriptional epigrams. Though modern epigrams are thought of as short, Greek literary epigram was not always as short as examples, the divide between "epigram" and "elegy" is sometimes indistinct. In the classical period, the clear distinction between them was that epigrams were inscribed and meant to be read, while elegies were recited and meant to be heard.
Some elegies could be quite short. All the same, the origin of epigram in inscription exerted a residual pressure to keep things concise when they were recited in Hellenistic times. Many of the characteristic types of literary epigram look back to inscriptional contexts funerary epigram, which in the Hellenistic era becomes a literary exercise. Many "sympotic" epigrams combine sympotic and funerary elements – they tell their readers to drink and live for today because life is short. Any theme found in classical elegies could be and were adapted for literary epigrams. Hellenistic epigrams are thought of as having a "point" – that is, the poem ends in a punchline or satirical twist. By no means do all Greek epigrams behave this way. Since their collections helped form knowledge of the genre in Rome and later throughout Europe, Epigram came to be associated with'point,' because the European epigram tradition takes the Latin poet Martial as its principal model. Greek epigram was much more diverse, as the Milan Papyrus now indicates.
A major source for Greek literary epigram is the Greek Anthology, a compilation from the 10th century AD based on older collections, including those of Meleager and Philippus. It contains epigrams ranging from the Hellenistic period through the Imperial period and Late Antiquity into the compiler's own Byzantine era – a thousand years of short elegiac texts on every topic under the sun; the Anthology includes one book of Christian epigrams as well as one book of erotic and amorous homosexual epigrams called the Μοῦσα Παιδικἠ. Roman epigrams owe much to their Greek contemporaries. Roman epigrams, were more satirical than Greek ones, at times used obscene language for effect. Latin epigrams could be composed as inscriptions or graffiti, such as this one from Pompeii, which exists in several versions and seems from its inexact meter to have been composed by a less educated person, its content makes it clear how popular such poems were: Admiror, O paries, te non cecidisse ruinis qui tot scriptorum taedia sustineas.
I'm astonished, that you haven't collapsed into ruins, since you're holding up the weary verse of so many poets. However, in the literary world, epigrams were most gifts to patrons or entertaining verse to be published, not inscriptions. Many Roman writers seem to have composed epigrams, including Domitius Marsus, whose collection Cicuta was named after the poisonous plant Cicuta for its biting wit, Lucan, more famous for his epic Pharsalia. Authors whose epigrams survive include Catullus, who wrote both invectives and love epigrams – his poem 85 is one of the latter. Odi et amo. Quare id faciam fortasse requires. Nescio, sed fieri sentio, et excrucior. I hate and I love. Maybe you'd like to know why I do? I don't know, but I feel it happening, I am tormented. Martial, however, is considered to be the master of the Latin epigram, his technique relies on the satirical poem with a joke in the last line, thus drawing him closer to the modern idea of epigram as a genre. Here he defines his genre against a critic: Disce quod ignoras: Marsi doctique Pedonis saepe duplex unum pagina tractat opus.
Non sunt longa quibus nihil est quod demere possis, sed tu, disticha longa facis. Learn what you don't know: one work of Marsus or learned Pedo stretches out over a doublesided page. A work isn't long if you can't take anything out of it, but you, write a couplet too long. Poets known for their epigrams whose work has been lost include Cornificia. In early English literature the short couplet poem was dominated by the poetic epigram and proverb in the translations of the Bible and the Greek and Roman poets. Since 1600, two successive lines of verse that rhyme with each other, known as a couplet featured as a part of the longer sonnet form, most notably in William Shakespeare's sonnets. Sonnet 76 is an excellent example; the two line poetic form as a closed cou
Haiku listen is a short form of Japanese poetry in three phrases characterized by three qualities: The essence of haiku is "cutting". This is represented by the juxtaposition of two images or ideas and a kireji between them, a kind of verbal punctuation mark which signals the moment of separation and colours the manner in which the juxtaposed elements are related. Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of 5, 7, 5 on, respectively. A kigo drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but defined list of such terms. Modern Japanese haiku are said by some to vary from the tradition of 17 on or taking nature as their subject. Despite the western influence, the use of juxtaposition continues to be honored in both traditional and modern haiku. There is a common, although recent, perception that the images juxtaposed must be directly observed everyday objects or occurrences. In Japanese, haiku are traditionally printed in a single vertical line while haiku in English appear in three lines parallel to the three phrases of Japanese haiku.
Called hokku, haiku was given its current name by the Japanese writer Masaoka Shiki at the end of the 19th century. In Japanese haiku a kireji, or cutting word appears at the end of one of the verse's three phrases. A kireji fills a role somewhat analogous to a caesura in classical western poetry or to a volta in sonnets. Depending on which cutting word is chosen, its position within the verse, it may cut the stream of thought, suggesting a parallel between the preceding and following phrases, or it may provide a dignified ending, concluding the verse with a heightened sense of closure; the fundamental aesthetic quality of both hokku and haiku is that it is internally sufficient, independent of context, will bear consideration as a complete work. The kireji lends the verse structural support, allowing it to stand as an independent poem; the use of kireji distinguishes hokku from second and subsequent verses of renku. However, renku employ kireji. In English, since kireji have no direct equivalent, poets sometimes use punctuation such as a dash or ellipsis, or an implied break to create a juxtaposition intended to prompt the reader to reflect on the relationship between the two parts.
The kireji in the Bashō examples "old pond" and "the wind of Mt Fuji" are both "ya". Neither the remaining Bashō example nor the Issa example contain a kireji although they do both balance a fragment in the first five on against a phrase in the remaining 12 on. In comparison with English verse characterized by syllabic meter, Japanese verse counts sound units known as "on" or morae. Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of five and five on respectively. Among contemporary poems teikei haiku continue to use the 5-7-5 pattern while jiyuritsu haiku do not. One of the examples below illustrates that traditional haiku masters were not always constrained by the 5-7-5 pattern. Although the word "on" is sometimes translated as "syllable", one on is counted for a short syllable, two for an elongated vowel or doubled consonant, one for an "n" at the end of a syllable. Thus, the word "haibun", though counted as two syllables in English, is counted as four on in Japanese; this is illustrated by the Issa haiku below.
Conversely, some sounds, such as "kyo" may look like two syllables to English speakers but are in fact a single on in Japanese. In 1973, the Haiku Society of America noted that the norm for writers of haiku in English was to use 17 syllables, but they noted a trend toward shorter haiku. Shorter haiku are much more common in 21st century English haiku writing. While some translators of Japanese poetry infer that about 12 syllables in English approximate the duration of 17 Japanese on. A haiku traditionally contains a kigo, a word or phrase that symbolizes or implies the season of the poem and, drawn from a saijiki, an extensive but prescriptive list of such words. Kigo are in the form of metonyms and can be difficult for those who lack Japanese cultural references to spot; the Bashō examples below include "kawazu", "frog" implying spring, "shigure", a rain shower in late autumn or early winter. Kigo are not always included in non-Japanese haiku or by modern writers of Japanese "free-form" haiku.
The best-known Japanese haiku is Bashō's "old pond": 古池や蛙飛び込む水の音 ふるいけやかわずとびこむみずのおと furu ike ya kawazu tobikomu mizu no oto This separates into on as: fu-ru-i-ke ya ka-wa-zu to-bi-ko-mu mi-zu-no-o-to Translated: old pond frog leaps in water's soundAnother haiku by Bashō: 初しぐれ猿も小蓑をほしげ也 はつしぐれさるもこみのをほしげなり hatsu shigure saru mo komino o hoshige nariThis separates into on as: ha-tsu shi-gu-re sa-ru mo ko-mi-no o ho-shi-ge na-ri Translated: the first cold shower the monkey seems to want a little coat of strawThis haiku by Bashō illustrates that he was not always constrained to a 5-7-5 on pattern. It contains 18 on in the pattern 6-7-5 富士の風や扇にのせて江戸土産 ふじのかぜやおうぎにのせてえどみやげ Fuji no kaze ya ōgi ni nosete Edo miyage