Pereira is the capital city of the Colombian department of Risaralda. It is located in the foothills of the Andes in a coffee-producing area of Colombia known as the "Coffee Axis". Pereira, alongside the rest of the Coffee Axis, form part of UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the "Coffee Cultural Landscape of Colombia", it is the most populated city in the Coffee Axis and the second-most populated city in the Paisa region, after Medellín. Pereira is part of the Central West Metropolitan Area, which has 709,322 residents and is composed of Pereira and the neighboring cities of Dosquebradas and La Virginia; as the capital of the department of Risaralda, Pereira houses the headquarters of the Government of Risaralda, the Departmental Assembly, the Departmental Court, the Metropolitan Area Authority and the Attorney General. It serves as the headquarters for numerous public companies and institutions of the Colombian state. Being in the center of the Golden Triangle, Pereira has become important in the fields of trade and commerce.
Pereira owes its name to the lawyer Francisco Pereira Martínez, a man, close to the fight for independence for a city in the territory that once belong to the old Cartago. The village of Pereira was named in honor of him after his death; the city of Pereira is known as "la querendona, trasnochadora y morena" and "the pearl of Otún". Pereira is located in what is known as the Golden Triangle, because it is located in the middle of Bogota and Cali. Pereira is located in the Central Cordillera of Colombia in the valley of the river Otún and part of the Cauca river valley. To the north is La Virginia and Dosquebradas. To the northeast is Santa Rosa de Cabal and to the east is Tolima. To the south is Quindío and Valle del Cauca and to the west is Balboa and Valle del Cauca; the municipal area is 702 km2 It shares boundaries with the municipalities of La Virginia and Dosquebradas to the north, to the northeast with Santa Rosa de Cabal and to the east with the department of Tolima, to the south with the departments of Quindío and Valle del Cauca, to the west with the municipality of Balboa and the department of Valle del Cauca.
Pereira is located on the central mountain range, on the Otún river valley, part of the Cauca river valley. Pereira, like many Colombian cities, has high-elevation areas with difficult access or flat or steep parts; the streets are laid out according to the elevation of the respective zones. The greater part of the municipal territory corresponds to the sheer elevations of the Central Mountain range. Among the orographic accidents are the snowcapped Quindio and Santa Isabel, located in the limits with the departments of Quindío, Caldas and Tolima respectively, it has other accidents like Santa Barbara known as the Alto del Nudo. The hydrographic system of the municipality includes the rivers Cauca, Barbas, La Vieja, Otún and Consota, with its many tributaries; the area enjoy a variety of climates, with the following thermal floors: warm, 60 km ². The climate of Pereira oscillates between warm climate 9.9%, moderate climate 60.7%, cold climate 11.5%, paramo 17.7%. Its annual average rainfall is 2,750 mm.
The Pereirano territory, which extends from east to west, gives the city different climates within its boundaries. For example, the areas of Caimalito and Cerritos to the west of the city, near the river Cauca, have temperatures up to 28 degrees, since the height in this zone is from 950 to 1250 m. At the other end is the Julita area, where the Technological University of Pereira is located. Due to the territory occupied by large forests, it is one of the coldest areas of the city, with high humidity; the temperature in this zone ranges with an average height of about 1550 msnm. This diversity of climates and terrain offers a rich range of vegetation and landscape coverage, providing Pereira with one of the richest biodiversities of the nation. However, the city is an area of high seismic vulnerability due to the type of soils that make up it and the geological faults that cross it, its average temperature is 22 degrees Celsius. Lake Otun, which feeds the River Otun, is the main body of water in the city.
The river system of the municipality includes the Cauca, The Barbas River, the Old River, the Otún River, the Consota, many tributaries. The history of the city goes back to the pre-Columbian era, in which the current city area was inhabited by the Quimbaya and Pijao cultures recognized for their goldsmiths. In this region, Marshal Jorge Robledo founded the city of Carthage on August 9, 1540, but due to the siege of the pijaos or reasons of economic expediency this city was moved in 1691 to the site that occupies the north end of the Valley of the Cauca, towards the banks of the La Vieja river; the original site buried the remains of civilization. On the few ruins of the Spanish population, crossed by the route that led from Valle del Cauca to Medellín, through Manizales, a group of 20 Antioqueno families had built their homes when a handful of Vallecaucanos appeared to find the population of Carthage La Vieja, today Pereira. Although the formal foundation came from the Caucano group, the emergence of Pereira was another chapter of the Antioqueno colonization, the contribution of other social groups such as the Caucano was in its beginning scarce.
With the ideal of reviving this city, which until was a jungle area, on August 24, 1863, the presbyter Remigio Antonio Cañarte and Jesús María Ormaza Niño, among others, returned to the ruins of ancient Carthage, where they establishe
Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
Salento is a town and municipality in the north-east of the department of Quindío, Colombia. The municipality covers an area of 377.67 km2. It was the first settlement in Quindío of the modern era, the first municipality founded in the department; the town of Salento itself is located 24 km northeast of the departmental capital Armenia. In 2005 the municipality of Salento had an estimated population of 7247, of which 3597 lived in the main urban zone; the main route from Popayán and Cali to Bogotá used to pass through Salento, but when the route was diverted the town became isolated and did not develop as as the rest of the region. For this reason it has retained more of its traditional colonial architecture than any other town in the eje cafetero, along with a quiet and relaxed way of life, as a result the town and nearby Cocora valley are among the most popular tourist destinations in Colombia; the municipality of Salento is located in the north-eastern corner of the department of Quindío. It borders the municipalities of Filandia and Circasia to the west and Calarcá to the south-west, the department of Tolima to the east, the department of Risaralda to the north.
Its geography is varied, rising from around 1300 m in the fertile valleys of the west of the municipality to the permanently snow-capped summit of the Nevado del Quindío, which at 4750 m is the highest point of the department of Quindío. The town of Salento itself lies on a plateau above the Quindío river valley; the section of the river valley from Salento to the head of the river is known as the Cocora valley. The town is located at an average altitude of 1895 meters above sea level, with steep drops to the valley floor at its northern and western perimeters. Due to its altitude and proximity to the high mountains of the Central Cordillera, Salento's climate is temperate; the average annual temperature of the town is 15 °C. In the colonial era, the main route from Popayán to Bogotá traveled over the Quindío Pass, passing through the modern-day site of Salento. In 1830 Simón Bolívar traveled the route and ordered that it be upgraded due to its poor condition and strategic importance. However, the town was not established until 5 January 1842, after the Guerra de los Supremos.
Political prisoners from that war were sent from Panamá, Antioquia and Cauca to upgrade and maintain the road. After completing their sentences they were given a plot of land in the region; the site of the penal colony was known as Barcinales, located. However, the main settlement was in the valley in Boquía, where the Boquía stream joins the Quindío river. Families of the prisoners arrived and built their houses in Boquía and established farms upstream in the Cocora valley. Sometime around 1854 a flood of the Quindío river destroyed the settlement of Boquía, the survivors rebuilt their houses in Barcinales, they retained the name Boquía for the new settlement, changing the name of the original settlement to Pueblo Viejo. In 1864 a census of the new Boquía showed; the occupational breakdown comprised 148 farmers, 2 carpenters, 1 blacksmith, 11 doctors, 1 lawyer, 2 tailors, 4 laborers, 11 merchants and 11 watchmakers. In 1865 Boquía was declared a municipality and its name was changed again to Villa de Nueva Salento, the name of Boquía reverted to the original settlement in the valley.
The new name of the municipality was given in honor of a region in the south of Italy. The town is one of the major tourist attractions of Colombia, thanks to its peaceful nature, impressive scenery, easy access to the Cocora valley, the retention of much of its original bahareque architecture typical of the eje cafetero region; this style of architecture is notable on Carrera 6, a.k.a. Calle Real, the road that leads north-east from the town square to a mirador, the Alto de la Cruz; the road is the major thoroughfare of Salento and contains many shops selling locally-made handcrafts. The Alto de la Cruz is reached from the end of Calle Real via 250 steps marked with the fourteen Stations of the Cross spaced at intervals along the way. An alternative, less direct route to the mirador by road avoids the steps. From the mirador there are extensive views of the Cocora valley and many of the mountains of the Los Nevados National Natural Park; the restaurants those in the town square, specialize in freshwater trout cooked in a variety of sauces and served on a large patacon, a fritter of green plantain.
Salento is the starting point for excursions into the Cocora valley and hiking in the Los Nevados National Natural Park: jeep taxis leave from the town square and travel 11 km up the valley to the settlement of "Cocora", from where the valley may be explored on foot or on horseback via numerous trails. The town's festival takes place each year in the first week of January, to coincide with the celebrations of the anniversary of the town's foundation on 5 January. Tourism is the dominant economy of the town, but outside the urban area farming and agriculture is still important, with dairy farming and the production of coffee and flowers among other crops. Loaiza Piedrahita, Los corredores del tiempo: Guía turística por la historia del Quindío. ISBN 958-33-7088-6. Book in Spanish on the history of the municipalities of Quindío until the foundation of the department in 1966; the local history is placed in the context of wider events in Colombia. Salento travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website of Salento municipality
Calarcá is a municipality in the eastern part of the department of Quindío, Colombia. It is located 4 km east of the departmental capital Armenia, its nickname is La Villa del Cacique in homage of its writers. The city was founded in 1886 by Segundo Henao during the time of colonization by people from Antioquia Department, it is the second city in Quindío with major quantity of inhabitants. In 2016 it had an estimated population of 78,779; the name derived from an indigenous chief of the Pijaos Tribe. According to the legends, this chief died in a fight with an indigenous converted into the Catholicism, Baltazar Maldonado, to keep the power of the territory, in a fight placed on Peñas Blancas, a characteristic mountain of the city. Calarcá was founded on June 29 of 1886; the city was founded by Roman Mario Valencia and Segundo Henao, people who went from Salento making explorations through the region, in the final part of the antioqueña foundations. In the beginning the city based its economy on commerce.
Years about 30's the coffee arrived in the region and Calarcá became in one of the most important producers of the region and whole the country. The wealthy generated by the coffee, allowed the city to reach good conditions of developed and a cultural progress, which started to characterize the city as a cradle of poets, such as Luis Vidales and Bauidilio Montoya; the city is host of different events, such as the national festival of the coffee, among the many activities there is one called "yippao" where different Jeep's are customized by their owner and go through the city, the national meeting of writers. In 1999 the city was destroyed for an earthquake, which affected the department; this made. The municipality of Calarcá is located between 4° 20’ 40” and 4° 33’ 50” north and between 75° 33’ 40” and 75° 48’ 40” west; the inner city is located 75 ° 39' 00" west. It lies in the Andean zone flanking the Central Cordillera, east of the department of Quindío in the centre-western part of the country, within the area known as the Eje Cafetero.
Calarcá is bordered by the municipalities of Salento to the north, Cajamarca to the east, Córdoba, Pijao in Quindío and Caicedonia in the Cauca Valley to the south, La Tebaida y Armenia to the west. The municipality has an area of 219.23 km². Urban area is 2.44 km². Rural area is 216.79 km². It varies in altitude between 1000 m above sea level at the confluence of the Quindío y Barragán rivers to 3667 m above sea level in the El Campanario highland area; the city itself sits at an average of 1536 m above sea level. Just like in others towns in the Quindio, the economy is based on Colombian coffee crops and manioc. Another important source of income is money remittance from people working in other countries to their families. Ecotourism is strongly supported in the area. Just outside the town is the Quindío Botanical Garden, which opened in 1985, includes an outdoor butterfly house that contains more than 1200 species of butterflies native to Colombia, housed inside a butterfly-shaped structure of 640 m2.
Peñas Blancas consists of a crag and three vertical rock faces located on the western slopes of the Central Cordillera of the Andes near Calarcá. The bright white color of the rock walls is due to the presence of limestone. There are a large number of solutional caves and rock shelters inside the cliff, but access is difficult; the caves are believed by some local people to be the location of a legendary treasure hidden by an indigenous Pijao tribal leader, the Cacique Calarcá, during his battle against the Spanish colonialists The cliffs are a landmark of the region, can be seen from the nearby towns of Armenia and Calarcá. They offer opportunities for rock climbing and abseiling up to heights of 80 meters, as well as a 40-meter zip-line, ecological trails of 3.2 km and 9 km, camping and a restaurant. From the foot of the cliffs there are fine views of Armenia and the surrounding area. Luis Vidales Poet and writer Baudilio Montoya Poet Francisco Noe Torres Rincon Artist Octavio Guzmán Bahen Physicist Noel Estrada Roldan Poet Fabio Botero Cartoonist Hernando Jiménez Sánchez Artist Olga Lucia Roldan Artist Gloria Cecilia Díaz Writer Jaime Lopera Gutierrez Writer Lucelly García de Montoya Politician Jairo Ramon Pelaez Cartoonist Jairo Alvarez Osorio Cartoonist Jairo Ramon Pelaez Cartoonist Carlos A. Villegas U.o Writer Laura del Sol Jiménez, Flutist Official web page of the city council Quindío Botanical Garden Lopera Gutiérrez, Jaime, La Colonización del Quindío.
Loaiza Piedrahita, Los corredores del tiempo: Guía turística por la historia del Quindío. ISBN 958-33-7088-6. Book in Spanish on the history of the municipalities of Quindío until the foundation of the department in 1966; the local history is placed in the context of wider events in Colombia
Quindío is a department of Colombia. It is in the western central region of the country, crossed by the Andes mountains, its capital is Armenia. It is famous for the quality of the coffee plantations, colorful architecture, benign weather, variety of hotel accommodations and tourist landmarks; this department is located in a strategic area, in the center of the triangle formed by the three main cities of the country: Bogotá, Medellín and Cali. Quindío is the second-smallest Colombian department with 12 municipalities. Ethnographically and culturally it belongs to the Paisa region. Before the Spanish invasion the entire area was inhabited by the peoples of the Quimbaya civilization until the 10th century B. C. At the time of Spanish conquest the area was inhabited by indigenous people of Carib descent known as the Pijao tribes; the native population was reduced due to slavery, armed confrontations, massacres during the Rubber boom, causing the territory to remain uninhabited over the following centuries.
At the present time, only a small population of nearly 2000 Amerindians remains in an indigenous reservation near La Tebaida. The first settlement to be founded in the area was Salento in 1842. In the 19th century northern peasants from Antioquia set out to settle in the area and their goal was to stay there permanently in a process known as Colonización antioqueña. Due to the inaccessibility of the territory and the lack of roads and communications were made through mule caravans or by porters such as the silleros; the capital city, Tigrero was founded on October 14, 1889 by colonists led by Jesus Maria Ocampo, but changed to Armenia to honor the Armenians who were murdered by Ottoman Army in Hamidian massacres and the Armenian Genocide. In 1905, the old Department of Antioquia was partitioned into two, giving rise to the new Department of Caldas, which at the time included the modern department of Risaralda. In 1908 the territory in jurisdiction of the Cauca Department, was annexed to Caldas department.
Other relevant events in the history of the Quindío department are: 1942: The opening of the first beer factory 1947: The opening of the first coffee roaster industry 1954: The most successful coffee harvest in the history of the country 1964: Opening of the Metalmechanic Industries of Quindío 1964: The Regional Autonomous Corporation is created to protect the local environment 1965: Opening of the Soft drinks factory Gaseosas Regional 1966: The pyramidal cathedral to the Immaculate Conception with post-modern architecture is built. 1967: Ivan Botero Gomez enterprise starts operationsalso see list of Governors of the Department of Quindío. In order of population: Armenia, capital city. Named after the Caucasus republic of Armenia. Calarca. Named after Cacique Calarca of the Pijao. La Tebaida. Named after the Thebaid region of ancient Egypt. Circasia. Named after the Caucasus region of Circassia. Montenegro. Named after the Balkan republic of Montenegro. Quimbaya. Named after the indigenous Quimbaya civilization.
Salento. Named after the Salento region in Italy. Córdoba. Named after the Andalusian city of Cordoba, Spain. Pijao. Named after the Amerindian Pijao federation. Génova. Named after the Italian city of Genoa. Buenavista. Named after the Spanish city of Buenavista de Valdavia. Filandia. Named from the Latin words "filia" and "Andia", thus "daughter of the Andes". Most of its surface is occupied for the western face of the Cordillera Central. Highest mountain: 5,150 m high; the lowest area is the valley of La Vieja River, 1,100 m high. This department consists of mountain landscapes covered in tropical rainforest and Guadua bamboo forests; the ground is enriched with ancient volcanic eruptions. There are many rivers and streams, including the Quindío River which rises in the Cocora Valley; the weather varies having two rainy seasons separated by two dry seasons. The annual precipitation is around 2,500 mm and comes from the humidity of winds from the Pacific Ocean being cooled as they rise over the Andes; the average temperature is between 16 °C in Salento.
With law 61 of 1985, the Colombian Congress adopted the Quindío wax palm tree, Ceroxylon quindiuense, a local endangered species adapted to high altitudes, as the National Tree. As ratified on September 16, 1985, by the president of Colombia, Belisario Betancur, the law states: "The species known as the Quindío wax palm tree, scientific name Ceroxylon quindiuense, is declared the national tree and symbol of our fatherland; the national government is empowered to buy as much land as needed to create wildlife sanctuaries with the purpose of preserving this national symbol and its natural environment. It is forbidden to cut down the Quindío wax palm tree; the punishment for doing so shall be a fine and a term in jail"." The Quindío wax palm tree was nearly driven to extinction by the extraction of the resinous substance that it exudes. Furthermore, its leaves were used for the celebration of Holy Week processions that of Palm Sunday. Quindío's economy is based in the harvest of coffee, it is one of the most important producers of Colombian coffee.
The department belongs to the Colombian Coffee-Growers Axis, the center of production and export of the highest quality coffee in Colombia. Plantain, Salentune potato and sugarcane are cultivated for sale in th
Filandia is a town and municipality in the northern part of the department of Quindío, Colombia. It is located on the west side of Cordillera Central of the Andes mountain range running through central Colombia, 26 km north of the departmental capital Armenia, it is the northernmost of twelve municipalities that form Quindío, the second smallest department of Colombia. It houses a small community economically supported by tourism. Although coffee is the major agricultural product, the municipality's diverse ecosystem makes it perfect for the production of numerous fruits and vegetables; the population is evenly split between the urban and rural areas, with an urban population in the town of Filandia itself of nearly 7000 inhabitants and a population of around 6500 in the rest of the municipality. Most of the population is classified as the most common religion is Roman Catholic; the town's architecture and the sociability of the locals makes Filandia one of the most beautiful and attractive towns in the department of Quindio and the nation.
The town's best-known tourist attractions are its "mirador" with its extensive views over the Cauca River valley to the west and the Parque Nacional Natural los Nevados to the east, the cafe in the main square where scenes from the popular Colombian telenovela Cafe, con aroma de mujer were filmed. Filandia is the northernmost town of the Department of Quindío; the town is located on the west slope of the Cordillera Central of the Colombian Andes, on the Alto Cauca basin and the Rio La Vieja sub-basin. The main urban area is located at an altitude of 1923 metres above sea level and the altitude range of the municipality is between 1300 and 2200 metres above sea level; the total territory of the municipality extends from the foot of the Andes to the plains of the northern Valle del Cauca department. The town is bordered by the department of Risaralda to the north, the department of Valle del Cauca to the west, the town of Salento to the east, the town of Circasia to the south, the town of Quimbaya to the southwest.
Due to its geographical location, Filandia has a high-land tropical climate characterized by two main climatic indicators, "frió-húmedo" and "templado-húmedo". The average annual temperature is 18 °C, precipitation in the form of rain is sporadic. However, due to the climatic phenomena known as El Niño and La Niña precipitation in the form of hail sometimes occurs, most in 1996 when 15 cm of hail fell over most of northern Quindío; the town known as "La Colina Iluminada de los Andes", is the second oldest municipality in the department. In Pre-Columbian times the territory where modern Filandia is located was occupied by indigenous peoples of the Quimbaya tribe, who not only practiced agriculture but were noted for their metalwork in gold and tumbaga, an alloy of gold and copper; the name Filandia comes from "Filia", "Andia". The Quimbayans began to diminish in number after the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, it is estimated that Filandia along with most of the Quindío territories were uninhabited for about 200 years until the "Colonizacion Antioqueña" in the 19th century.
It is thought that by 1870 settlers from the department of Antioquia in the northwest of Colombia were settled in modern-day Filandia. On August 20, 1878, Filandia was founded by Felipe Melendez, Eliseo Buitrago, others, as a settlement of Colombians escaping the misfortune faced by the rest of the nation at the time; the Antioqueños came to Quindío attracted by the rumors of massive gold and emerald deposits in the area. In the early years of the 20th century, Filandia was a prosperous community - trade and industry had grown to the point that by 1900 there were estimated to be 250,000 coffee bushes in Filandia; as a response to the increased coffee production, many processing plants were created and the coffee culture now synonymous with the town was born. By 1930, Filandia was in decline; the road the first settlers used to populate the town lost its importance due to the construction of a highway to the east connecting the capital of Risaralda and the capital of Quindío, isolating the town and providing a more direct alternate route to goods and services that were obliged to pass through Filandia.
The economy of Filandia is dependent on agriculture and tourism. Another source of income is money sent from other countries by family members that have emigrated to the United States and Europe; the largest of these immigrant communities originating from Filandia is located in Madison, New Jersey where several Filandeños have settled. Loaiza Piedrahita, Los corredores del tiempo: Guía turística por la historia del Quindío. ISBN 958-33-7088-6. Book in Spanish on the history of the municipalities of Quindío until the foundation of the department in 1966; the local history is placed in the context of wider events in Colombia
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex