Mukeshpuri known as Mushkpuri, is a 2,800-metre-high mountain in the Nathia Gali Hills, in the Abbottabad District of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province in northern Pakistan. It is 90 kilometres north of Islamabad, just above Dunga Gali in the Nathia Gali area of Ayubia National Park, it is the second highest peak in the Galyat Region after Miranjani, located at 2,992 metres. Much of it the mountain is covered with Western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests; the name Mukeshpuri is derived from the Sanskrit words: Moksha and Puri. Mukeshpuri has a special of significance for the Hindus because of the Legends relating it to the Pandavas of the Mahabharata. There are the five Pandavas, the heroes of the Mahabharata, who are favourite objects of worship in the east and sometimes addressed as the Panj Pir. Many are the legends current about these heroes and they are localised at quite a number of places; the Hill of Mokeshpuri's name means'the hill of salvation' and on its summit is a Panduan da Sthan, or place of the Pandavas.
The route from Nathia Gali on western side of mountain is a 4-kilometre-long climb. The mountain has a route on the Dunga Gali side, with a steeper slope. There is a bird sanctuary on this side created with the help of the European Union. From the top of Mukeshpuri peak, on the eastern edge of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the following areas can be seen: — Circle Bakote, Jhelum River, the Bagh District of Azad Kashmir, in the south the city of Murree and the Murree Tehsil, as well as Islamabad. List of mountains in Pakistan Galyat region - the local region and its towns Muree - adjacent in the Rawalpindi District Murree travel guide from Wikivoyage
Nathia Gali or Nathiagali Urdu: نتھیا گلی) is a mountain resort town or hill station in Abbottabad District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is located at the center of the Galyat range, where several hill-stations are situated connected to each other, with their names ending in'Gali'. Nathiagali is known for its scenic beauty, hiking tracks and pleasant weather, much cooler than the rest of the Galyat due to it being at a greater altitude, it is situated 32 kilometers at one hour's drive away from both Murree and Abbottabad, lying midway between these two places. The drive time from Islamabad and Peshawar is about three and four hours unless there is a lot of traffic. During British rule Nathia Gali part of Abbottabad tehsil of Hazara District, served as the summer headquarters of the Chief Commissioner of the Peshawar division of the Punjab; the town along with Dunga Gali constituted a notified area under the Punjab Municipalities Act, 1891. The income in 1903-4 was Rs. 3,000 chiefly derived from a house tax, whilst expenditure was Rs. 1,900.
A British Kashmiri family were once driven up to the highest point in Nathiagali only realising at the last moment that their driver and guide had never driven in snow before. This revelation occurred at the exact moment the minibus they were travelling in began sliding on the ice towards the edge of the mountain. Nathiagali has no road safety barriers after Muree, travellers are advised not to attempt to ascend in winter months at night without a competent driver and experienced guide; the weather of Nathiagali remains cool and foggy in summers. During the monsoon season, rain is expected every day. Cold winds start to chill the weather in autumn. Winters are cold and chilly. In December and January, heavy snowfall occurs here; the weather remains cold in spring. Here most comfortable weather is the summer season. Frequent rainfall occurs here annually. Rainfall lies between 1650mm-1850mm annually.in winter temperature can drop to _10*C and in summer it rise to a high of 30*C. The town is connected to Murree by Nathiagali road.
Public transport runs daily from Rawalpindi to Nathiagali. In December and January, heavy snowfall occurs in this area and the road leading to Nathiagali is blocked due to heavy snow. Nathiagali is covered by all GSM operators. Land line phone service is available here; some Hotels, Rest houses and Cottages equipped with most facilities are available here for the tourists. During summers their rates become high. A small market exists here where all the basic necessities of life are available for the people. Nathia Gali town serves as the administrative centre of Nathia Gali Union Council, it is today located in, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. At an elevation of 2,410 m, it is a popular tourist resort in the summer months, it is forested with pine, oak walnut and oak and maple trees. During the summer, Nathia Gali is popular amongst tourists, but due to its limited area and availability of property, it is not thronged by as many people as the hill-station Murree, only an hour away though it has more to offer in terms of recreation.
Nathiagali is known for a beautiful trek. The natural scenery is attractive. Nathia Gali is famous for its lush green meadows, deep forests of oak and pine, where fog in July/August present a glory. In winter snowfall adds to the scene. Nathia Gali boasts a nice church, St. Matthew's, a remnant from the British period and made of wood, it is situated at the edge of the mountain with a nice panorama towards Kashmir. Nathia Gali has a mini bazar. Mukshpuri and Miranjani are two nearby high peaks. On a clear day, the Nanga Parbat can be seen in the distance; the Nathia Gali region is home to various species of birds, insects and other animals. The World Wildlife Fund has an office in the Galliat and has assisted in the breeding and reintroduction of the species of the near-extinct common hill leopard in the forests of the Ayubia National park, right by Dungagali and Nathia Gali; this area was thought to be a perfect habitat for them but according to local reports they came out of the forest after cattle of the local villagers and were shot.
Packs of pi-dogs which were considered to be a night-time menace can no longer be seen anywhere in the Galliat. In the summer of 2006, several women were found dead in the deep valleys of Galliat with wounds from attacks. A large leopard was caught and shot, his body has been stuffed and kept in the Dunga Gali Wildlife Museum, where he has been named the'Ghost of Galyat'. However, despite their reputation, these leopards are spotted. Horses are a common sight during summer months and are offered to children and adults alike for rides at rates that are negotiable; the common hill rhesus monkeys can be seen. Known to be a little shy, they have become more aggressive in recent years; this may be due to increased interaction with tourists, who tease these monkeys or try to catch them. Monkeys come up to guesthouses and hotels in search of snacks and can be quite noisy and playful. Visitors are advised to sun their bedding on arrival to get rid of bed-bugs, to keep repellents and pesticides for insects as these have a tendency to show up a lot in old homes, in the monsoon season.
The Union Council of Nathia Gali is divided into the following areas: Bagan, Donga Gali, Keri Sarafali, Keri Raiki, Malach, Nathi
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is one of the four administrative provinces of Pakistan, located in the northwestern region of the country along the international border with Afghanistan. It was known as the North-West Frontier Province until 2010 when the name was changed to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by the 18th Amendment to Pakistan's Constitution, is known colloquially by various other names. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is the third-largest province of Pakistan by the size of both population and economy, though it is geographically the smallest of four. Within Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa shares a border with Punjab, Azad Kashmir, Gilgit-Baltistan, Islamabad, it is home to 17.9% of Pakistan's total population, with the majority of the province's inhabitants being Pashtuns. The province is the site of the ancient kingdom Gandhara, including the ruins of its capital Pushkalavati near modern-day Charsadda. A stronghold of Buddhism, the history of the region was characterized by frequent invasions under various Empires due to its geographical proximity to the Khyber Pass.
Since the 9/11 attacks in the United States in 2001, the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has been a major theatre of militancy and terrorism which intensified when the Taliban began an unsuccessful attempt to seize the control of the province in 2004. With the launch of Operation Zarb-e-Azb against the Taliban insurgency, the casualty and crime rates in the country as a whole dropped by 40.0% as compared to 2011–13, with greater drops noted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas. As of July 2014, about 929,859 people were reported to be internally displaced from North Waziristan to Khyber Pakhtunkhwa as a result of Operation Zarb-e-Azb. On March 2, 2017, the Government of Pakistan considered a proposal to merge the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, to repeal the Frontier Crimes Regulations, which are applicable to the tribal areas. However, some political parties have opposed the merger, called for the tribal areas to instead become a separate province of Pakistan.
On 24 May 2018, the National Assembly of Pakistan voted in favour of an amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan to merge the Federally Administered Tribal Areas with Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Assembly approved the historic FATA-KP merger bill on 28 May 2018 making FATA part of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, signed by President Mamnoon Hussain, completing the process of this historic merger. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa means the "Khyber part of the land of the Pashtuns", while only the word Pakhtunkhwa means "Land of Pashtuns", according to some scholars, it means "Pashtun culture and society"; when the British established it as a province, they called it "North West Frontier Province" due to its relative location being in north west of their Indian Empire. After the creation of Pakistan, Pakistan continued with this name but a Pashtun nationalist party, Awami National Party demanded that the province name be changed to "Pakhtunkhwa", their logic behind that demand was that Punjabi people, Sindhi people and Balochi people have their provinces named after their ethnicities but, not the case for Pashtun people.
Pakistan Muslim League was against that name since it was too similar to Bacha Khan's demand of separate nation of Pashtunistan. PML-N wanted to name the province something other than which does not carry Pashtun identity in it as they argued that there were other minor ethnicities living in the province Hindkowans who spoke Hindko, thus the word Khyber was introduced with the name because it is the name of a major pass which connects Pakistan to Afghanistan. During the times of Indus Valley Civilization the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Khyber Pass, through Hindu Kush provided a route to other neighbouring regions and was used by merchants on trade excursions. From 1500 BCE, Indo-Aryan peoples started to enter in the region after having passed Khyber Pass; the Gandharan civilization, which reached its zenith between the sixth and first centuries BCE, which features prominently in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharatha, had one of its cores over the modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The modern day capital city of Peshawar was known in ancient times as Purushapura when the region was Hindu.
Vedic texts refer to the area as the Janapada of Pushkalavati. The area was once known to be a great center of learning. At around 516 BCE. Darius Hystaspes sent Scylax, a Greek seaman from Karyanda, to explore the course of the Indus river. Darius Hystaspes subsequently subdued north of Kabul. Gandhara was incorporated into the Persian Empire as one of its far easternmost satrapy system of government; the satrapy of Gandhara is recorded to have sent troops for Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BCE. In the spring of 327 BCE Alexander the Great crossed the Indian Caucasus and advanced to Nicaea, where Omphis, king of Taxila and other chiefs joined him. Alexander dispatched part of his force through the valley of the Kabul River, while he himself advanced into modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's Bajaur and Swat regions with his troops. Having defeated the Aspasians, from whom he took 40,000 prisoners and 230,000 oxen, Alexander crossed the Gouraios and entered into the territory of the Assakenoi – in modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Alexander made Embolima his base. The ancient region of Peukelaotis submitted to the Greek invasion, leading to Ni
Thandiani is a hill station in the Galyat area of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa the Province of Pakistan. Thandiani is located in the northeast of Abbottabad District and is about 37.5 kilometres from Abbottabad in the foothills of the Himalayas. To the east beyond the Kunhar River lies the snow-covered Pir Panjal mountain range of Kashmir. Visible to the north and northeast are the mountains of Kaghan. To the northwest are the snowy ranges of Swat and Chitral; the hills of Thandiani are about 2,750 metres above sea level. Most of the people residing here belong to the Sadaat, Abbasi, Jadoon Gujjar, Karlal tribes; the nearest villages are Bandi Sarara Mara Rehmat Khan, Birnagalli, Chamaili, Pattan, Dheri and Kukmang. Thandiani was granted as a lease to some members of the Battye family in British India, who were Christian missionaries and found in civil and military service, who produced scions such as Wigram Battye and Quintin Battye; the Battyes subsequently gifted the location to the church authorities, where a sanatorium and various other facilities were set up during the British rule for the convenience of missionaries, Anglican church personnel and officers stationed at the neighbouring cantonment of Abbottabad.
It contained some private European houses, a camping ground, a small bazaar, the small seasonal church of St. Xavier in the Wilderness which were occupied only during the summer months. Thandiani is characterized by excellent weather and lush greenery in the summer months, snow-covered vistas and hills in the winter. Many tourists from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and all over Pakistan visit here in the summer season. Being at a high altitude, with attractive scenery and several hiking trails into the forests and other nearby locations, it is a attractive prospect. A beautiful trek leads to Thandiani from Abbottabad; the mountains around Thandiani are quite thickly forested compared to most other hill stations in the locality, which have suffered some degree of deforestation over time. The local wildlife includes leopards, several kinds of pheasants and the rare flying squirrel and pine marten, to name only a few; the area and its surrounding villages were damaged by the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. Now it's developed spot for tourists Thandiani Revisited Murree travel guide from Wikivoyage Pictures of Thandiani VTEAMS/NXB Thandiani Trip March 2009
Islamabad is the capital city of Pakistan, is federally administered as part of the Islamabad Capital Territory. Built as a planned city in the 1960s to replace Karachi as Pakistan's capital, Islamabad is noted for its high standards of living and abundant greenery. With a population of 1,014,825 as per the 2017 Census, Islamabad is the 9th largest city in Pakistan, while the larger Islamabad-Rawalpindi metropolitan area is the country's third largest with a population exceeding four million; the city is the political seat of Pakistan and is administered by the Islamabad Metropolitan Corporation, supported by the Capital Development Authority. Islamabad is located in the Pothohar Plateau in the northeastern part of the country, between Rawalpindi District and the Margalla Hills National Park to the north; the region has been a part of the crossroads of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with the Margalla Pass acting as the gateway between the two regions. The city's master-plan, designed by Greek architect Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis, divides the city into eight zones, including administrative, diplomatic enclave, residential areas, educational sectors, industrial sectors, commercial areas, rural and green areas.
The city is known for the presence of several parks and forests, including the Margalla Hills National Park and Shakarparian Park. The city is home to several landmarks, including the Faisal Mosque, the largest mosque in South Asia and the fourth largest in the world. Other landmarks include Democracy Square. Islamabad is a beta-world city; the city has the highest cost of living in Pakistan, its population is dominated by middle and upper middle class citizens. The city is home to twenty universities, including the Quaid-e-Azam University, PIEAS, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology and NUST; the city is one of the safest in Pakistan, has an expansive surveillance system with 1,900 CCTV cameras. The name of the city, Islamabad, is derived from two words and abad, meaning "City of Islam". Islam is an urdu word which refers to the religion of Islam and -abad is a Persian suffix indicating an inhabited place or city; the name is influenced from the Mughal name for the port city of Chittagong known as Islamabad.
Islamabad Capital Territory, located on the Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab region, is considered one of the earliest sites of human settlement in Asia. Some of the earliest Stone Age artefacts in the world have been found on the plateau, dating from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago. Rudimentary stones recovered from the terraces of the Soan River testify to the endeavours of early man in the inter-glacial period. Items of pottery and utensils dating back to prehistory have been found. Excavations by Dr. Abdul Ghafoor Lone reveal evidence of a prehistoric culture in the area. Relics and human skulls have been found dating back to 5000 BCE that indicate the region was home to Neolithic peoples who settled on the banks of the Swaan River, who developed small communities in the region around 3000 BCE; the Indus Valley Civilization flourished in the region between the 23rd and 18th centuries BCE. The area was an early settlement of the Aryan community which migrated into the region from Central Asia. Many great armies such as those of Zahiruddin Babur, Genghis Khan and Ahmad Shah Durrani crossed the region during their invasions of the Indian Subcontinent.
In 2015-16, the Federal Department of Archaeology and Museums, with the financial support of National Fund for Cultural Heritage, carried out initial archaeological excavations in which unearthed the remains of a Buddhist stupa at Ban Faqiran, near the Shah Allah Ditta caves, dated to the 2nd to the 5th century CE. When Pakistan gained independence in 1947, the southern port city of Karachi was its first national capital. In the 1960s, Islamabad was constructed as a forward capital for several reasons. Traditionally, development in Pakistan was focused on the colonial centre of Karachi - a tradition which President Ayub Khan wished to abolish. Karachi was located at the southern end of the country, exposed to attacks from the Arabian Sea. Pakistan needed a capital, accessible from all parts of the country. Karachi, a business centre, was considered unsuitable because of intervention of business interests in government affairs; the newly selected location of Islamabad was closer to the army headquarters in Rawalpindi and the disputed territory of Kashmir in the north.
In 1958, a commission was constituted to select a suitable site for the national capital with particular emphasis on location, climate and defence requirements, along with other attributes. After extensive study, a thorough review of potential sites, the commission recommended the area northeast of Rawalpindi in 1959. A Greek firm of architects, led by Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis, designed the master plan of the city based on a grid plan, triangular in shape with its apex towards the Margalla Hills; the capital was not moved directly from Karachi to Islamabad. Islamabad has attracted people from all over Pakistan, making it one of the most cosmopolitan and urbanised cities of Pakistan; as the capital city it has hosted a number of important meetings, such as the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation summit. In October 2005, the city suffered damage due to the 2005 Kashmir earthquake which had a magnitude of 7.6. Isla
The Kohala Bridge across the Jhelum River, a tributary of the Indus River, forms part of one of the land routes from the Azad Kashmir to Pakistan. The bridge is located at the town of Kohala, 38 kilometres north of Murree and 35 km south of Muzaffarabad. A suspension bridge was vanished in an 1890 flood. A new transportable steel bridge was constructed in 1899, in 1990 it too vanished in a flood. A third bridge was constructed on the north edge of Union Council Birote Kalan, Abbottabad District, in 1993
The Jhelum River is a river in Northern India and Eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of the Punjab region, passes through the Kashmir Valley, it has a total length of about 725 kilometres. Anjum Sultan Shahbaz recorded some stories of the name Jhelum in his book Tareekh-e-Jhelum as: Many writers have different opinions about the name of Jhelum. One suggestion is; the word Jhelum is derived from the words Jal and Ham. The name thus refers to the waters of a river. However, some writers believe that when "Dara-e-Azam" reached a certain place on the river bank after winning many battles, he fixed his flag at that place and called it "Ja-e-Alam" which means "Place of the Flag". With the passage of time it became Jhelum from "Ja-e-Alam"; the Sanskrit name of this river is Vitasta. The river's name is derived from an apocryphal legend regarding the origin of the river as explained in Nilamata Purana. Goddess Parvati was requested by sage Kasyapa to come to Kashmir for purification of the land from evil practices and impurities of Pisachas living there.
Goddess Parvati assumed the form of a river in the Nether World. Lord Shiva made a stroke with his spear near the abode of Nila. By that stroke of the spear, Goddess Parvati came out of the Nether World. Shiva himself named her as Vitasta, he had excavated with the spear a ditch measuring one Vitasti, through which the river - gone to the Nether World - had come out, so she was given the name Vitasta by him. The river Jhelum is called Vitastā in the Hydaspes by the ancient Greeks; the Vitastā is mentioned as one of the major rivers by the holy scriptures — the Rigveda. It has been speculated that the Vitastā must have been one of the seven rivers mentioned so many times in the Rigveda; the name survives in the Kashmiri name for this river as Vyeth. According to the major religious work Srimad Bhagavatam, the Vitastā is one of the many transcendental rivers flowing through land of Bharata, or ancient India. Alexander the Great and his army crossed the Jhelum in BC 326 at the Battle of the Hydaspes River where he defeated the Indian king, Porus.
According to Arrian, he built a city "on the spot whence he started to cross the river Hydaspes", which he named Bukephala to honour his famous horse Bukephalus or Bucephalus, buried in Jalalpur Sharif. It is thought. According to a historian of Gujrat district, Mansoor Behzad Butt, Bukephalus was buried in Jalalpur Sharif, but the people of Mandi Bahauddin, a district close to Jehlum, believed that their tehsil Phalia was named after Bucephalus, Alexander's dead horse, they say. The waters of the Jhelum are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty. India is working on a hydropower project on a tributary of Jhelum river to establish first-use rights on the river water over Pakistan as per the Indus Waters Treaty; the river was regarded as a god by the ancient Greeks, as streams. He was the brother of Iris, the goddess of the rainbow, half-brother to the Harpies, the snatching winds. Since the river is in a country foreign to the ancient Greeks, it is not clear whether they named the river after the god, or whether the god Hydaspes was named after the river.
The river Jhelum rises from Verinag Spring situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal in the south-eastern part of the valley of Kashmir. It's joined by its tributaries Lidder River at Mirgund Khannabal and Sind River at Shadipora in Kashmir Valley, it flows through the Wular lake before entering Pakistan through a deep narrow gorge. The Neelum River, the largest tributary of the Jhelum, joins it, at Domel Muzaffarabad, as does the next largest, the Kunhar River of the Kaghan valley, it connects with rest of Pakistan and Pakistani Kashmir on Kohala Bridge east of Circle Bakote. It is joined by the Poonch river, flows into the Mangla Dam reservoir in the district of Mirpur; the Jhelum enters the Punjab in the Jhelum District. From there, it flows through the plains of Pakistan's Punjab, forming the boundary between the Chaj and Sindh Sagar Doabs, it ends in a confluence with the Chenab at Trimmu in District Jhang. The Chenab merges with the Sutlej to form the Panjnad River which joins the Indus River at Mithankot.
The river has rich power generation potential in India. Water control structures are being built as a result of the Indus Basin Project, including the following: Mangla Dam, completed in 1967, is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world, with a storage capacity of 5,900,000 acre feet Rasul Barrage, constructed in 1967, has a maximum flow of 850,000 ft³/s. Trimmu Barrage, constructed in 1939 some 20 km from Jhang Sadar at the confluence with the Chenab, has maximum discharge capacity of 645,000 ft³/s. Haranpur Constructed in 1933 Approximate 5 km from Malakwal near Chak Nizam Village, its length is 1 km used by Pakistan Railways but there is a passage for light vehicles, motorcyc