Circuit Gilles Villeneuve
The Circuit Gilles Villeneuve is a motor racing circuit in Montreal, Canada. It is the venue for the FIA Formula One Canadian Grand Prix, it has hosted the FIA World Sportscar Championship, the Champ Car World Series, the NASCAR Canadian Tire Series, the NASCAR Xfinity Series and the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series. The venue hosted the Champ Car World Series Grand Prix of Montreal from 2002 to 2006; the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One racing, which had taken place for 30 years at Circuit Gilles-Villeneuve, was dropped from the 2009 Formula One calendar and replaced with the inaugural Abu Dhabi Grand Prix. On November 27, 2009, Quebec's officials and Canadian Grand Prix organizers announced a settlement with Formula One Administration and signed a new five-year contract spanning the 2010–2014 seasons; the 2011 edition took place on June 12 at 1:00 pm and was the longest World Championship Grand Prix due to a lengthy rain delay. Named the Île Notre-Dame Circuit, the circuit was built and finished in 1978.
In what has proven to be the venue's main event over the decades, the FIA Formula One Canadian Grand Prix had been part of the Formula One World Championship for 10 years, it was held at Mosport Park near Toronto on 8 occasions and in 1968 and 1970, the Mont-Tremblant circuit in Quebec. With safety concerns with Mosport blighting the 1977 event, it was decided to move the race to the new circuit in Montréal. In 1982, it was renamed in honour of Canadian Formula One driver Gilles Villeneuve, father of Jacques Villeneuve, following his death earlier in the year; the circuit is located in a part of the city of Montréal known as Parc Jean-Drapeau. The park is named after the mayor of Montréal, responsible for the organization of Expo 67; the race circuit lies across Île Sainte-Hélène and Notre Dame Island, a man-made island in the St. Lawrence River most of, built up for the Expo in 1967. Saint Helen's Island was artificially enlarged for the Expo'67 fairgrounds and a prominent remnant of the fair, the Biosphere can be seen during television coverage of racing events.
Half of the track – from the hairpin turn until after the pit area – runs alongside the Olympic Basin, a huge rectangular basin, created for the rowing and canoeing events of Montréal's 1976 Summer Olympics. Barriers run close to the circuit and many experienced drivers have been caught out by them. A famous part of the circuit is the wall on the outside of the exit of the final chicane before the start/finish straight. In 1999 the wall, which bears the name Bienvenue au Québec giving it the nickname "Mur du Québec", ended the race of three Formula One World Champions, Damon Hill, Michael Schumacher and Jacques Villeneuve along with FIA GT champion Ricardo Zonta. Since the wall has been nicknamed "The Wall of Champions". In recent years 2009 world champion Jenson Button and four time World Champion Sebastian Vettel have fallen victim to the wall. Changes made in 2005 to the curbs on the final chicane were controversial amongst drivers in the run-up to the Grand Prix; the curbs were made higher and more difficult for the drivers to see, making it more challenging.
On June 23, 2006, the Canadian Press reported that the city of Montréal had awarded exclusive rights to stage the two allowed race weekends on the track to Normand Legault, promoter of the Formula One Canadian Grand Prix. The deal was for 2007 to 2011, with an option for 2012 to 2016. Legault decided to replace the Champ Car race with races from the Grand American Road Racing Association's Rolex Series and NASCAR's Nationwide Series – the latter series' first race north of the Canada-United States border. On August 4, 2007, Kevin Harvick made history by winning the first NASCAR Busch Series race at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve in what was one of the most controversial NASCAR races as Robby Gordon claimed to have won the race; the NASCAR races have affected the circuit layout. An expansion of the pit lane took place, since a NASCAR pit lane must accommodate a minimum of 43 cars; the 2008 race made history as the first NASCAR race to run on rain tires. In 2017, due to the new safety requirements imposed by the FIA, the circuit had new Tecpro barriers installed, after removal of older tire barriers by May 2017.
With the 2017 technical regulations, experts predicted the F1 cars to be quicker by three to five seconds a lap in June at Montréal. The introduction this 2017 season of faster Formula 1 cars has forced the FIA to revise the safety features of every F1 circuit. 2017's F1 event saw a change to the exit of the last chicane with its angle modified, because the FIA found it was dangerous. The complex of turns one and two has become known as the Senna'S'. From a bird's eye view turns one and two together can represent an'S' shape. Since the pit-exit was redesigned merging into turn two, the'S' shape is not so evident on first glance; the fast Droit du Casino corner is after the bridge underpass and is known as a'quick kink' before Turn 9 and the rush to a passing zone at the Hairpin curve. Turn 10 at Île Notre-Dame is the best example of a 180° hairpin turn design with full wheel lock during F1 competition; the various lines taken entering the hairpin curve can predict overtaking on the apex, or exit during race competition.
Braking too late can see racecars offline into the runoff area, many spinning in front of packed grandstands. Many overtakes can be seen at this location due to engine drivers' racecraft. Entering turns 12 & 13 drivers encounter one of the best passing zones completing th
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
Rally is a form of motorsport that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars. It is distinguished by running not on a circuit, but instead in a point-to-point format in which participants and their co-drivers drive between set control points, leaving at regular intervals from one or more start points. Rallies may be won by pure speed within the stages or alternatively by driving to a predetermined ideal journey time within the stages; the term "rally", as a branch of motorsport dates from the first Monte Carlo Rally of January 1911. Until the late 1920s, few if any other events used the term. Rallying itself can be traced back to the 1894 Paris–Rouen Horseless Carriage Competition, sponsored by a Paris newspaper, Le Petit Journal, which attracted considerable public interest and entries from leading manufacturers. Prizes were awarded to the vehicles by a jury based on the reports of the observers who rode in each car; this event led directly to a period of city-to-city road races in France and other European countries, which introduced many of the features found in rallies: individual start times with cars running against the clock rather than head to head.
The first of these great races was the Paris–Bordeaux–Paris race of June 1895, won by Paul Koechlin in a Peugeot, despite arriving 11 hours after Émile Levassor in a Panhard et Levassor. Levassor's time for the 1,178 km course, running without a break, was 48 hours and 48 minutes, an average speed of 24 km/h. From 24 September-3 October 1895, the Automobile Club de France sponsored the longest race to date, a 1,710 km event, from Bordeaux to Agen and back; because it was held in ten stages, it can be considered the first rally. The first three places were taken by a Panhard, a Panhard, a three-wheeler De Dion-Bouton. In the Paris–Madrid race of May 1903, the Mors of Fernand Gabriel took just under five and a quarter hours for the 550 km to Bordeaux, an average of 105 km/h. Speeds had now far outstripped the safe limits of dusty highways thronged with spectators and open to other traffic and animals; the French government banned this style of event. From on, racing in Europe would be on closed circuits on long loops of public highway and in 1907, on the first purpose-built track, England's Brooklands.
Racing was going its own separate way. One of the earliest of road races, the Tour de France of 1899, was to have a long history, running 18 times as a reliability trial between 1906 and 1937, before being revived in 1951 by the Automobile Club de Nice. Italy had been running road competitions since 1895, when a reliability trial was run from Turin to Asti and back; the country's first true motor race was held in 1897 along the shore of Lake Maggiore, from Arona to Stresa and back. This led to a long tradition of road racing, including events like Sicily's Targa Florio and Giro di Sicilia, which went right round the island, both of which continued on and off until after World War II; the first Alpine event was held in 1898, the Austrian Touring Club's three-day Automobile Run through South Tyrol, which included the infamous Stelvio Pass. In Britain, the legal maximum speed of 12 mph precluded road racing, but in April and May 1900, the Automobile Club of Great Britain organised the Thousand Mile Trial, a 15-day event linking Britain's major cities, in order to promote this novel form of transport.
Seventy vehicles took part, the majority of them trade entries. They had to complete thirteen stages of route varying in length from 43 to 123 miles at average speeds of up to the legal limit of 12 mph, tackle six hillclimb or speed tests. On rest days and at lunch halts, the cars were shown to the public in exhibition halls; this was followed in 1901 by a five-day trial based in Glasgow The Scottish Automobile Club organised an annual Glasgow–London non-stop trial from 1902 to 1904 the Scottish Reliability Trial from 1905. The Motor Cycling Club allowed cars to enter its trials and runs from 1904. In 1908 the Royal Automobile Club held its 2,000 mi International Touring Car Trial, 1914 the important Light Car Trial for manufacturers of cars up to 1400 cc, to test comparative performances and improve the breed. In 1924, the exercise was repeated as the Small Car Trials. In Germany, the Herkomer Trophy was first held in 1905, again in 1906; this challenging five-day event attracted over 100 entrants to tackle its 1,000 km road section, a hillclimb and a speed trial, but sadly it was marred by poor organisation and confusing regulations.
One participant had been Prince Henry of Austria, inspired to do better, so he enlisted the aid of the Imperial Automobile Club of Germany to create the first Prinz Heinrich Fahrt in 1908. Another trial was held in 1910; these were successful, attracting top drivers and works cars from major teams – several manufacturers added "Prince Henry" models to their ranges. The first Alpine Trial was held in 1909, in Aus
Circuit of the Americas
Circuit of the Americas is a grade 1 FIA-specification 3.427-mile motor racing track and facilities located within the ETJ of Austin, Texas. The facility is home to the Formula One United States Grand Prix, the IndyCar Classic, the Motorcycle Grand Prix of The Americas, a round of the FIM Road Racing World Championship, it hosted the Australian V8 Supercars, the American Le Mans Series, the Rolex Sports Car Series, the FIA World Endurance Championship, the IMSA WeatherTech SportsCar Championship. The circuit and Grand Prix were first proposed in the middle of 2010; the circuit was the first in the United States to be purpose-built for Formula One. The layout was conceived by promoter Tavo Hellmund and 1993 Motorcycle World Champion Kevin Schwantz with the assistance of German architect and circuit designer Hermann Tilke, who has designed the Sepang, Yas Marina, Bahrain and Buddh circuits, as well as the reprofiling of the Hockenheimring and Fuji Speedway; the circuit has FIA Grade 1 license.
In a news conference on July 27, 2010, Tavo Hellmund announced plans to build the track on about 890 acres of undeveloped land in southeastern Travis County. The majority of the site had been planned to be developed into a residential subdivision called "Wandering Creek". In the same news conference, Hellmund revealed that Texas billionaire Red McCombs was the project's largest investor. McCombs wished to call the site "Speed City", but the owners anticipated selling the naming rights to various parts of the facility for $7 million. On April 12, 2011, the track's name was announced as "Circuit of the Americas" at a press conference; the circuit homologation design was submitted to the FIA in Geneva for approval on December 17, 2010. HKS, Inc. and Tilke Engineers & Architects designed the track and Austin Commercial, a subsidiary of Austin Industries, was the general contractor. Construction began on December 31, 2010, was due to be complete by June 2012. Following a stop-work order in December 2011, the completion date was revised to August.
The first tasks were building the silt fences, taking core samples, shredding existing vegetation. On January 21, 2011, a $900,000 check was posted with Travis County; the money was to be used to restore the land if the U. S. Federal Emergency Management Agency declined to allow the project to move forward because part of the site lies in a floodplain. FEMA issued a letter on June 2011, stating the project meets its floodplain management criteria. In January 2012, Travis County announced that Elroy Road—one of the two primary public access roads to the circuit—would receive an upgrade to handle the volume of incoming traffic, but not before the running of the 2012 race. At the time of the announcement, the unstable clay soils under the road surface had caused Elroy Road to buckle and shift, necessitating the upgrade. On June 13, 2012, Charlie Whiting—the FIA-appointed Race Director for Formula One—declared himself satisfied with the circuit's construction, scheduling a final pre-race inspection of the circuit for September 25, sixty days before the first race, which the circuit passed.
To ensure the demanding FIA specifications for the track were met, GPS-based 3D paving equipment was used on the asphalt paving and milling machines. The first layer of asphalt was completed on August 3, 2012. Construction began laying the final layer of asphalt on August 14, was finished on September 21; the track was opened on October 21, with Mario Andretti running the ceremonial first laps in a Lotus 79, the car he drove when he became the last American to win the World Drivers' Championship in 1978. A crowd of 117,429 watched the Formula One race in November 2012; the Grand Plaza, Observation Structure, Tower Amphitheater, Main Grandstand were designed by Austin-based architectural firm Miró Rivera Architects. In order for the race to take place, the Austin city council was asked to be the sponsoring municipality for the event. Through being a sponsor, the city could apply for money from a state fund, the Major Events Trust Fund, designed to attract major sporting events to Texas that would be used to pay the Formula One race sanctioning fee.
This matter was complicated by opponents of the project who filed a lawsuit against state comptroller Susan Combs, claiming that she had promised the funding to the circuit without having been authorized to do so, though promoters have responded stating that all necessary guidelines had been followed. On July 1, 2011, a state district court judge declined to enter a temporary restraining order against Combs preventing payments from the METF; the attorney for the project's opponents has stated that he is unsure if they will continue pursuing the lawsuit. In June 2011, the Austin city council agreed to allow the circuit to apply to the Texas Major Events Trust Fund but withheld its full endorsement requiring the circuit to pay the financial match borne by the local government sponsor; as a part of the endorsement, the sport will pay $15,000 in carbon offsets and $5 million to establish an on-site research project into environmentally friendly technologies. In November 2011, Bernie Ecclestone expressed what he called "minor" doubt over the future of the United States Grand Prix in Austin after "disagreements inside the company".
These issues were confirmed when construction of the circuit came to a halt because of a dispute between the circuit owners, promoter Full Throttle Productions, Formula One Management. Promoter Tavo Hellmund admi
Suzuka International Racing Course
The Suzuka International Racing Course is a motorsport race track located in Ino, Suzuka City, Mie Prefecture and operated by Mobilityland Corporation, a subsidiary of Honda Motor Co, Ltd. It has a capacity of 155,000. Soichiro Honda decided to develop a new permanent circuit in Mie prefecture in the late 1950s. Designed as a Honda test track in 1962 by Dutchman John "Hans" Hugenholtz, Suzuka is one of few circuits in the world to have a "figure eight" layout, with the 1.2 km back straight passing over the front section by means of an overpass. The circuit has been modified four times: In 1983 a chicane was put at the last curve to slow the cars into the pit straight and the Degner curve was made into two corners instead of one long curve. Following the death of Daijiro Kato at the 2003 Japanese motorcycle Grand Prix, Suzuka reconfigured the motorcycle variant of what is now known as the Hitachi Automotive Systems Chicane before the final turn, added a second chicane, between the hairpin and 200R.
The circuit can be used in five configurations. The "east" portion of the course consists of the pit straight to the first half of the Dunlop curve, before leading back to the pit straight via a tight right-hander; the "west" course is made up of the other part including the crossover bridge. The chicane between the hairpin and 200R separates the west and full course sections between cars and motorcycles; the Degner curve was named in honour of Ernst Degner after he crashed his factory Suzuki 50 there during Suzuka's inaugural All Japan Championship Road Race meeting on 3 November 1962. Suzuka touted by F1 drivers and fans as one of the most enjoyed, is one of the oldest remaining tracks of the Formula One World Championship, so has a long history of races as venue of the Japanese Grand Prix since 1987, its traditional role as one of the last Grands Prix of the season means numerous world championships have been decided at the track. Suzuka was dropped from the Formula One calendar for the 2007 and 2008 seasons in favour of the Toyota-owned Fuji Speedway, after the latter underwent a transformation and redesign by circuit designer Hermann Tilke.
Suzuka and Fuji were to alternate hosting the Japanese Grand Prix from 2009. However, after Fuji announced in July 2009 that it would no longer be part of the F1 calendar, Suzuka signed a deal to host the Japanese Grand Prix in 2009, 2010 and 2011; the circuit closed for a year in order for the renovation to make it F1-compliant for 2009, with the last major event held on November 18, 2007, although some annual events were still held. The track held a re-opening day on April 12, 2009. Suzuka hosts other motorsport events including the Suzuka 1000 km endurance race. A part of multiple GT racing series including the now defunct group C class of the All Japan Sports Prototype Championship, the Suzuka 1000 km as of 2006 is now a points round of the Super GT Series, is the only race of such length in that series. In 2010, the GT500 pole position time was 1:55.237. In 2007, the GT300 pole position time was 2:06.838. Another major motorsport event is the Suzuka 8 Hours for motorcycles, run since 1978.
This event attracts big name riders and with the exception of 2005, due to the importance of the major manufacturers' involvement, the FIM ensures that no motorcycle races clash on the date. NASCAR organized the NASCAR Thunder 100, a pair of exhibition 100-lap races on the east circuit, a 1.4 miles layout which utilizes the pit straight and esses, before rejoining the main circuit near the Casio triangle. The cars were Sprint Cup Series and Camping World West Series cars and the field was by invitation for the two races, run after the 1996 and 1997 seasons; the 1996 event was marred by tragedy when during practice, pace car driver Elmo Langley died of a heart attack in the Chevrolet Corvette pace car at the esses during an evaluation run. The pole position speed was 83.079 miles per hour. During qualifying for the 1997 race, rain caused Goodyear to use rain tires on Sprint Cup cars for the first time in the modern era, it was announced on June 21, 2010 that the east section of the Suzuka Circuit would host the Japan round of the 2011 WTCC season instead of the Okayama International Circuit.
At the 2012 event, the pole position time was 52.885 seconds, for an average speed of 94.875 miles per hour. Following two major accidents in 2002 and 2003, one of the main issues in safety has been at the corner 130R. In 2002, Toyota F1 driver Allan McNish suffered a high-speed crash through the bump, which sent him through a metal fence. Track officials revised the 130R, redesigning it as a double-apex section, one with an 85 metres radius, a second featuring a 340 metres radius, leading to a much closer Casio triangle, with the chicane becoming a "bus stop" type for motorcycles. However, the problem continued for the new revised section. During the 2003 MotoGP Grand Prix of Japan, the track's first major event since the revisions, MotoGP rider Daijiro Kato was killed when he crashed in the new section, on his way to the brak
National Council (Switzerland)
The National Council is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Switzerland, the upper house being the Council of States. With 200 seats, the National Council is the larger of the two houses. Adult citizens elect the council's members; these members are apportioned to the Swiss cantons in proportion to their population. Both houses meet in the Federal Palace of Switzerland in Berne. With 200 members, the National Council is the larger house of the Swiss legislature; when the Swiss federation was founded in 1848, the number of seats was not yet fixed, but was determined by the population of the individual cantons. According to the provisions of the federal constitution at that time, a canton was to receive one National Council member for every 20,000 citizens. Thus, the first National Council, which met in 1848, had 111 members. In 1963, the number of members was fixed at 200; the division of the seats between the individual cantons is determined by each canton's percentage of the national population, as revealed in the national census, using the largest remainder method.
A change in the division of the seats occurred as a result of the 2000 census. Every canton is entitled to at least one seat in the National Council. Elections are held for the National Council every four years by the Swiss people; the most recent election took place on Sunday, 18 October 2015. Since a popular initiative in 1918, elections have been by proportional representation, in which each canton forms an electoral district. There is no election threshold. Since 1971 women have been entitled to stand in National Council elections. Since the reform of the census system and the adoption of the use of government administrative data for determining the population in 2007, the distribution of the seats in the National Council between the cantons has been based on the permanent resident population in the year following the most recent federal election. There is a proviso; the number of seats given to the cantons which are entitled to more than one seat is determined using the largest remainder method.
Cantons which are only entitled to send one councillor to the National Council elect the candidate who wins a majority of votes. The cantons use a unique system of proportional representation, sometimes called a "free list"; each citizen may cast as many votes as there are seats available to their constituency, may cast up to two votes for the same candidate. For every vote received by a candidate, that candidate's party receives a vote. Voters list a party vote, in which all blank candidate votes contribute towards the parties total. In elections, political parties publish lists in the cantons with their candidates; each list contains at most the number of candidates which the canton is entitled to send to the National Council. Each voter is entitled to vote for as many candidates as their canton is entitled to send to the National Council, it is possible for one or more candidates to be listed twice. In addition, each party can produce multiple lists to the canton, it is possible for several parties to enter a single shared list.
Voters are entitled to choose a pre-prepared party list without making changes or they can alter it by cumulative voting or panachage. Thus, the voter can give his vote to a specific candidate and ignore the rest of that candidate's party. Alternatively, it is possible for the voter to split his or her vote among several candidates from different parties; the seats are apportioned using the Hagenbach-Bischoff System. This system is unique in that it allows voters to split their vote across different parties, depending on which candidate the voter prefers. To determine a party's strength, the notion of "fictional voter" was introduced and is defined by the Swiss Federal Statistical Institute as: number of votes obtained by party A *. Individual voters can choose to make fewer than the permissible number of votes; the number of valid votes / number of valid ballots matches the number of deputies a canton needs to elect. More this number represents the average number of valid votes per voter; the formula can be summed up by: number of votes obtained by party A / average of valid votes per voters.
The result is the number of fictional voters for a given party in a given canton. A total number of fictional voters can be established and the party strength can be deduced; the number of deputies in each party is determined at the cantonal level using proportional representation with the Hagenbach-Bischoff system The election's turnout is computed as: number of valid ballots cast / number of registered voters. The role and powers of the National Council are regulated by the Bundesgesetz über die Bundesversammlung and the fifth article of the Swiss Federal Constitution; the National Council, together with the Council of States, forms the Federal Parliament and exercises the highest legal authority in Switzerland, subject to the rights of the people and the cantons. Both chambers of the Federal Parliament are called "councils"; the National Council and the Council of States do not meet daily, but meet regularly
Autódromo José Carlos Pace
Autódromo José Carlos Pace known as Interlagos, is a motorsport circuit located in the city of São Paulo, in the neighborhood of Interlagos. It is named after Brazilian Formula One driver Carlos Pace, who died in a plane crash in 1977, it has hosted the Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix since 1973. The Brazilian Grand Prix has always been more of a promoter event than a profit-raiser in itself; the contract was prolonged until 2022, although tobacco advertising has been banned since 2006. The land on which the circuit is located was bought in 1926 by property developers who wanted to build housing. Following difficulties due to the 1929 stock market crash, it was decided to build a racing circuit instead, construction started in 1938 and the track was inaugurated in May 1940; the design was based on New York's Roosevelt Field Raceway. The traditional name of the circuit comes from its location on the neighborhood of Interlagos, a region between two large artificial lakes and Billings, which were built in the early 20th century to supply the city with water and electric power.
It was renamed in 1985 from "Autódromo de Interlagos" to its current name to honor the Brazilian Formula One driver José Carlos Pace, who died in a plane crash in 1977. Formula One started racing there in 1972, the first year being a non-championship race, won by Argentinean Carlos Reutemann; the first World Championship Brazilian Grand Prix was held at Interlagos in 1973, the race won by defending Formula One World Champion and São Paulo local Emerson Fittipaldi. Fittipaldi won the race again the following year in bad weather and Brazilian driver José Carlos Pace won his only race at Interlagos in 1975. Due to safety concerns with the 4.9 mile circuit, including the bumpy track surface and the inadequate barriers, deep ditches, embankments, the last Formula One race held on the original Interlagos was in 1980, the race was nearly cancelled after protests by many Formula One drivers including defending world champion Jody Scheckter. The safety concerns were somewhat directed towards the track surface, which BBC commentator Murray Walker described as "appallingly bumpy".
Most of the ground-effect cars of 1980 were designed in such a way that bumpy surfaces were tolerable for the drivers. These factors meant that Formula One would move back to the Jacarepaguá circuit in Rio de Janeiro, hometown of established star Nelson Piquet and where the Brazilian Grand Prix was held in 1978. After Formula One moved away, the only major race being held at Interlagos was the Mil Milhas Brasil, the last major race on the original circuit was the 1989 Mil Milhas Brasil, Formula One returned to the circuit the following year after it had been shortened and modified at a cost of $15 million; the track layout, aside from the pit exit being extended along the Curva do Sol over the years has remained the same since 1990. After the ascendancy of another São Paulo local, Ayrton Senna, negotiations were made to return to Interlagos that year, it has stayed there since; the facilities include a kart circuit named after Ayrton Senna. The circuit now hosts the Brazilian Formula Three Championship.
The circuit is witness to dramatic results when it hosts the Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix since its move to an end of season slot in 2004. Fernando Alonso won both the 2005 and 2006 world titles in Brazil, with Renault clinching the constructors' title in 2006. Kimi Räikkönen won the 2007 World Championship here after being seven points down and in third place in the championship entering the final race of the season. Felipe Massa won the 2008 Driver's World Championship when he finished the 2008 Brazilian Grand Prix as winner, but after he finished, Lewis Hamilton overtook Timo Glock and was crowned World Champion. Despite Rubens Barrichello's pole position in 2009, Mark Webber won the race and Jenson Button won the championship for Brawn after starting 14th. Williams got their first pole since 2005 here at the 2010 Brazilian Grand Prix with Nico Hülkenberg; the race was won by Sebastian Vettel, with Mark Webber coming second, Red Bull secured the constructors title. The circuit is one of a minority of non-oval racing circuits to go in an anti-clockwise direction.
In 1979 upgrading work was done and the pit lane was extended past the first left-hand turn, making the corner more narrow, the pit lane ended right in the middle of Curva 1 and 2. The present design of the track dates back to 1990, when the original circuit was shortened from 7.87385 km to 4.325 km. As a consequence of the reduction, the track lost nine fast curves; the original track was full of fast corners and it allowed cars to keep maximum speed for up to twenty seconds and was considered dangerous and in 1990 the old layout was majorly revised. The new track still had a long top-speed section that contained bumps, high-speed turns and little run-off area. One reason why many drivers consider Interlagos interesting is that it was not built on flat terrain, but follows the ups and downs of hilly ground, which makes it harder to drive and demands more power from the car's engines; the hilly course is a good feature for road cycling races held at the circuit. The circuit is known for its many inclines and bumpy surface