Ricardo Tormo Blaya was a Spanish Grand Prix motorcycle road racer. Tormo was born in the Spanish province of Valencia, in Ayacor, a small village dependant on Canals; when he was 8, his family moved into the center of Canals. Tormo won the 1978 FIM 50cc world championship as a member of the Bultaco factory racing team, he repeated as 50cc world champion in 1981 on a backed Bultaco. He was a three-time 50cc Spanish national champion and a four-time 125cc national champion, his career was linked to that of Ángel Nieto, both a team mate and rival of Tormo. In 1983, together with Jorge “Aspar” Martínez, Tormo signed with the Derbi factory to compete for the 1984 world championship in the new 80cc category. Tormo suffered an engine failure at the first race of the year at Misano; the second race of the season was to be held at Spain’s Jarama Circuit. At that time, there were only two official circuits in Spain, one in Jarama and the other in Calafat; the team planned test rides before the race, but both circuits were booked, forcing them to practice in Martorelles.
This region of Barcelona was an industrial park near the Derbi factory. The team had test runs in this area, blocking off the roads to ensure that no cars would interfere with the racers. However, during a practice prior to the Spanish Grand Prix, a vehicle gained access to the area from one of the team’s assistants, supposed to have blocked off all of the roads. Tragically, testing a new racing suit, hit the car and shattered his right leg; the accident marked the end of his racing career and the beginning of a countless series of operations. In 1994, Tormo received Valencia’s highest honor when he was given the Valencian Community’s High Distinction award. In collaboration with the journalist Paco Desamparados, an autobiography was published, entitled "Yo Ricardo. Una vida por y para la moto".. On December 27, 1998, Tormo died from leukemia. In his honor, Valencia’s racetrack was renamed the Circuit de la Comunitat Valenciana Ricardo Tormo. Points system from 1969 to 1987: Ricardo Tormo at Find a Grave Ricardo Tormo's Circuit https://web.archive.org/web/20090506222853/http://www.portalmundos.com/mundomotormania/campeones/ricardotormo.htm http://www.lahoya.net/circuitodecheste/ricardo.html https://web.archive.org/web/20080801212254/http://reinodevalencia.com/2008/06/17/don-ricardo-tormo-blaya/
Brands Hatch is a motor racing circuit in West Kingsdown, England. First used as a grasstrack motorcycle circuit on farmland, it hosted 12 runnings of the British Grand Prix between 1964 and 1986 and hosts many British and International racing events; the venue is operated by Jonathan Palmer's MotorSport Vision organisation. Gerhard Berger once said that Brands Hatch is "the best circuit in the world". Paddock Hill Bend is a renowned corner. Brands Hatch offers two layout configurations; the shorter "Indy Circuit" layout is located within a natural amphitheatre offering spectators views of all of the shorter configuration from wherever they watch. The longer "Grand Prix" layout played host to Formula One racing, including events such as Jo Siffert's duel with Chris Amon in 1968 and future World Champion Nigel Mansell's first win in 1985. Noise restrictions and the proximity of the Grand Prix loop to local residents mean that the number of race meetings held on the extended circuit are limited to just a few per year.
The full Grand Prix circuit begins on the Brabham Straight, an off-camber curved stretch, before plunging into the right-hander at Paddock Hill Bend, with gradients of 8%. Despite the difficulty of the curve, due to the straight that precedes it, it is one of the track's few overtaking spots; the next corner, Druids, is a hairpin bend, negotiated after an uphill braking zone at Hailwood Hill. The track curves around the south bank spectator area into the downhill, off-camber Graham Hill Bend, another bent stretch at the Cooper Straight, which runs parallel to the pit lane. After the straight, the circuit climbs uphill though the decreasing-radius Surtees turn, before moving onto the back straight where the track's top speeds can be reached; the most significant elevation changes on the circuit occur here at Pilgrim's Drop and Hawthorn Hill, which leads into Hawthorn Bend. The track loops around the woodland with a series of mid-speed corners, most notably the dip at Westfield and Dingle Dell and the blind Sheene curve.
From there the track emerges from the left hand and cambered Stirlings Bend onto the short straight to Clearways and rejoins the Indy Circuit for Clark Curve with its uphill off-camber approach to the pit straight and the start/finish line. The British Rallycross Circuit at Brands Hatch was designed and constructed by four-times British Rallycross Champion Trevor Hopkins, it is 0.9 miles long and was completed around 1981. Unlike earlier rallycross courses at Brands Hatch, cars start on the startline veer right and downhill on the loose at Paddock Hill Bend. Through the left-right Esses at the bottom, the circuit rejoins the Indy Circuit to travel up and round Druids hairpin, before a 90-degree left through Langley's Gap and across the knife-edge, rejoining the Indy Circuit, but travelling anti-clockwise. From Cooper Straight, the cars back to Paddock. Brands Hatch was the name of a natural grassy hollow, shaped like an amphitheatre. Although the site was used as a military training ground, the fields belonging to Brands Farm were first used as a circuit by a group of Gravesend cyclists led by Ron Argent, with the permission of the local farmer and landowner, Harry White.
Using the natural contours of the land, many cyclists from around London practised and ran time trials on the dirt roads carved out by farm machinery. The first actual race on the circuit was held in 1926, over 4 miles between cyclists and cross-country runners. Within a few years, motorcyclists were using the circuit, laying out a three-quarter-mile anti-clockwise track in the valley, they saw the advantage of competing in a natural arena just a few hundred yards from the A20, with the passage of time, a kidney-shaped circuit came into use. The first motorcycle races were "very informal" with much of the organisation being done on the spot; the racing was on a straight strip where Cooper Straight came to be when the track was tarmacked. Brands Hatch remained in operation during the 1930s, but after being used as a military vehicle park and being subject to many bombing raids during World War II, it needed much work before it could become a professional racing circuit. In 1932, four local motorcycling clubs staged their first meeting that March.
Motorcycle racing resumed after World War II and in 1947, Joe Francis persuaded the BBC to televise a grass track meeting, the first motorcycle event to be televised on British TV. Following World War II, cinders were laid on the track of what was by known as Brands Hatch Stadium and motorcycle racing continued; that was until 1950 when the 500 Club managed to persuade Joe Francis, that the future for his stadium lay in car and motorcycle road racing. The group behind 500 c.c. single-seater racing cars was the 500 Club and it, together with the owners, invested the sum of £17,000 on a tarmac surface. Thus Brands Hatch was born as a motor racing venue, on 16 April 1950, the opening meeting was scheduled for the first purpose-built post-war racing circuit in England, approval having been given by the RAC following a demonstration by a handful of 500s in February. Amongst those giving the demonstration was a young Stirling Moss; the Half-Litre Car Club for 500 cc Formula 3 organised that first race on 16 April, with 7,000 spectators coming to witness these cars complete in 10 races.
The first victory went to a man, to become a legend in Formula 3, Don Parker. Before the year was out, fi
The Honda RA106 was the car with which the Honda team competed in the 2006 Formula One season. It was driven by Rubens Barrichello, who joined from Ferrari, Jenson Button, who had spent three seasons with the team as British American Racing; the year marked the first time Honda had competed as a full team since 1968. Honda used'Lucky Strike' logos in Bahrain, Australia and Japan, and'555' logos in China. Although the year was a significant improvement on 2005, Honda were unable to challenge for the world championship after impressive winter testing form; the car was quick in qualifying, but less so in the races. A performance slump mid-season led to the team parting company with the car's designer, Geoff Willis, he was replaced by the inexperienced Shuhei Nakamoto. However, things improved from the German GP. Button was the stronger driver throughout the season, it was felt that he deserved to get Honda's first win in their F1 return. Honda finished the season with a run of points finishes, culminating in a third-place finish for Button at the final race in Brazil.
They successfully introduced their 2007-spec engine before the season was over. The team finished fourth in the Constructors' Championship, with 86 points; the RA106 formed the basis of the Super Aguri SA07. Henry, Alan. AUTOCOURSE 2006-2007. Crash Media Group. Pp. 68–71. ISBN 1-905334-15-X. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Racecar Engineering technical review
Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme
The Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme is the global governing/sanctioning body of motorcycle racing. It represents 113 national motorcycle federations that are divided into six regional continental unions. There are six motorcycle-racing disciplines that FIM covers, encompassing 65 world championships and prizes: road racing, motocross trials, enduro and track racing. FIM is involved in many non-racing activities that promote the sport, its safety, support relevant public policy; the FIM is the first international sporting federation to publish an Environmental Code, in 1994. In 2007, a Commission for Women in Motorcycling was created by the FIM in order to promote the use of powered two-wheelers and the motorcycle sport among women; the FIM was born from the Fédération Internationale des Clubs Motocyclistes, which itself was founded in Paris, France, on 21 December 1904. The British Auto-Cycle Union was one of the founding members. In 1906, the FICM was reborn in 1912 with the headquarters now located in England.
The Six Days Reliability Trial was held the next year, the first international event held by the new incarnation. The name was changed to the Fédération Internationale Motocycliste in 1949, the same year that saw the first race of the famed Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix; the headquarters were transferred to Geneva, Switzerland in 1959. 1994 saw the headquarters relocated, this time to Mies and occupy its own building for the first time, shaped like a stylized motorcycle. The name was changed again in 1998 to the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme at the congress in Cape Town, South Africa; the same year, the FIM was given provisional status of recognition by the International Olympic Committee, gained full status in 2000 at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. 2004 marked the organization's centenary, celebrations were held at the congress in Paris in October. Since 2006, Vito Ippolito is the first non-European president of the FIM. FIM Grand Prix motorcycle racing FIM Superbike World Championship FIM Supersport World Championship FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix FIM Endurance World Championship FIM Sidecar World Championship FIM CEV Moto2 European Championship FIM CEV Moto3 Junior World Championship MotoE World Cup FIM Cross-Country Rallies World Championship FIM World Enduro Championship International Six Days Enduro FIM SuperEnduro World Championship FIM Motocross World Championship Motocross des Nations FIM Supercross World Championship FIM Sidecarcross World Championship FIM Snowcross World Championship FIM Trial World Championship Trial des Nations FIM Speedway World Championship FIM Supermoto World Championship Supermoto of Nations FIM Freestyle Motocross World Championship Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling FIM Official website
Alfa Romeo Racing Italiano
Alfa Romeo Racing Italiano, known in Europe as SCAR - Squadra Corse Alfa Romeo, is a racing video game for the PlayStation 2, Windows and Xbox. It was developed by Milestone S.r.l. and released in 2005. All the cars in the game are manufactured by the Alfa Romeo motor company. While most of the tracks are in Italy, a few are in other countries like Germany and the United States. A distinguishing feature of the game is that it models driver development using a system identical to a role-playing video game. In addition, cars get damaged, both visibly and in performance, by collisions or by driving off course. Like many racing games, the game has a career mode; the initial choices of cars and tracks in "quick race mode" are limited. Dynasty mode has a limited number of events available to enter. Placing third or better in races unlocks new races, series of races, championships. At the same time, the game models the development of the driver using a system, identical to a role-playing video game; this elaborate system of developing the driver's experience is used to toughen up both the player and the car that he or she uses.
Experience points are acquired for various achievements during a race, such as passing opponents, or driving a clean lap. Similar to the way that XP is lost after dying in some role-playing games, failing to finish the race cancels all XP earned in the event; when certain thresholds of XP are reached, a new driver level is achieved, a Skill Point is awarded. These Skill Points can be used to develop car. Additional Skill Points are awarded for other achievements; some races award a skill point for beating a particular opponent for the first time. There is a list of dynasty achievements, the completion of which awards a number of Skill Points. One such achievement, for example, is going faster than a certain speed in dynasty mode. All cars in the game are manufactured in real life by Alfa Romeo and in any race the player always races against seven other instances of the model that he or she is driving; the player cannot choose his or her vehicle for a race, except in the "quick race" mode, then the opponent vehicles are all the same model.
Cars assigned to beginners can go up to 110 miles per hour. Advanced cars, can go 200 miles per hour. Cars cannot be customized. Various achievements in the game achieving XP point levels, are rewarded with Skill Points which can be distributed across nine different categories to affect car and driver characteristics. In addition, the player wins racing gear—helmets, suits and boots—by winning "gear races" or by achieving a certain number of victories. Gear can be earned by passing challenges; the gear a driver is wearing can be changed to further affect driver characteristics. All the gear, unlocked in the game has a minimum level requirement. Players who do not meet the minimum requirements cannot wear the new gear until they reach that experience level. Different computer-controlled opponents in a race will have different skill points and gear, resulting in differing driving skills and endurance of both car and driver. All opponent drivers have names shown in results. During a race, the game's unique "Tiger Effect" allows players to go back in time a few seconds and try again.
This is used to avoid accidents. The Tiger Effect does not automatically cause the player to avoid accidents. In rare cases, the players' second attempt might make things worse. Tiger Effect points are decreased by units of 1.0 every time they are used. For instance, using a Tiger Effect when a player has 1.7 Tiger Effect points will reduce his or her Tiger Effects points to 0.7. The explanations in the game suggest that the Tiger Effect is meant to represent an expert driver's keen ability to anticipate and avoid danger. Statistics to improve during the course of the game are named "heart", "vision", "intimidation", "handling", "acceleration", "recovery", "focus", "anticipation", "endurance"; some of these affect the driver, others the car, some affect both. Building up points in "anticipation" can help increase the frequency that the player can turn back the clock and try to prevent accidents in a single race. Building up points in "heart" can help the player heal faster so that he or she is less to lose focus on the race track.
All drivers start each race with all their available driver condition points. Driving close behind another driver reduces her current driver condition points. If a driver loses all such driver condition points, the game calls this a "Knockout". Computer-controlled drivers can do the same thing to each other. If the player receives a Knockout, he or she suffer a temporary loss of control; this is signified by blurry graphics, heart-pounding audio, a difference in car response. This temporary condition ends and driver condition points begin to regenerate according to the rate, established in the player's statistics; when computer-controlled drivers suffer a Knockout, their driving becomes visibly slower and erratic. Expert players will be able to recognize the pattern that the knocked out vehicle will take and can avoid them completely; the erratic movements tend to include slowing down, wobbling around the c
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15
Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier class of motorcycle road racing events held on road circuits sanctioned by FIM. Independent motorcycle racing events have been held since the start of the twentieth century and large national events were given the title Grand Prix, The foundation of a recognised international governing body for motorcycle sport, the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme in 1949 provided the opportunity to coordinate rules and regulations in order that selected events could count towards official World Championships as FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix, it is the oldest established motorsport world championship. Grand Prix motorcycles are purpose-built racing machines that are unavailable for purchase by the general public or able to be ridden on public roads; this contrasts with the various production-based categories of racing, such as the Superbike World Championship and the Isle of Man TT Races that feature modified versions of road-going motorcycles available to the public.
The championship is divided into four classes: MotoGP, Moto2, Moto3 and MotoE. The first three classes use four-stroke engines; the 2019 MotoGP season comprises 19 Grands Prix, with 12 held in Europe, three in Asia, two in the Americas, one each in Australia and the Middle East. A FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme in 1949; the commercial rights are now owned by Dorna Sports, with the FIM remaining as the sport sanctioning body. Teams are represented by the International Road Racing Teams Association and manufacturers by the Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association. Rules and changes to regulations are decided between the four entities, with Dorna casting a tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the MSMA can unilaterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote among its members; these four entities compose the Grand Prix Commission. There have traditionally been several races at each event for various classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, one class for sidecars.
Classes for 50 cc, 80 cc, 125 cc, 250 cc, 350 cc, 500 cc solo machines have existed at some time, 350 cc and 500 cc sidecars. Up through the 1950s and most of the 1960s, four-stroke engines dominated all classes. In part this was due to rules, which allowed a multiplicity of cylinders and a multiplicity of gears. In the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the smaller classes. In 1969, the FIM —citing high development costs for non-works teams— brought in new rules restricting all classes to six gears and most to two cylinders; this led to a mass walk-out of the sport by the highly successful Honda and Yamaha manufacturer teams, skewing the results tables for the next several years, with MV Agusta the only works team left in the sport until Yamaha and Suzuki returned with new two-stroke designs. By this time, two-strokes eclipsed the four-strokes in all classes. In 1979, Honda, on its return to GP racing, made an attempt to return the four-stroke to the top class with the NR500, but this project failed, and, in 1983 Honda was winning with a two-stroke 500.
The championship featured a 50cc class from 1962 to 1983 changed to an 80cc class from 1984 to 1989. The class was dropped for the 1990 season, after being dominated by Spanish and Italian makes, it featured a 350cc class from 1949 to 1982, a 750 cc class from 1977 to 1979. Sidecars were dropped from world championship events in the 1990s. From the mid-1970s through to 2001, the top class of GP racing allowed 500 cc displacement with a maximum of four cylinders, regardless of whether the engine was a two-stroke or four-stroke; this is unlike TT Formula or motocross, where two and four strokes had different engine size limits in the same class to provide similar performance. All machines were two-strokes, since they produce power with every rotation of the crank, whereas four-stroke engines produce power only every second rotation; some two- and three-cylinder two-stroke 500s were seen, but though they had a minimum-weight advantage under the rules attained higher corner speed and could qualify well, they lacked the power of the four-cylinder machines.
In 2002, rule changes were introduced to facilitate the phasing out of the 500 cc two-strokes. The premier class was rebranded MotoGP, as manufacturers were to choose between running two-stroke engines up to 500 cc or four-strokes up to 990 cc or less. Manufacturers were permitted to employ their choice of engine configuration. Despite the increased costs of the new four-stroke engines, they were soon able to dominate their two-stroke rivals; as a result, by 2003 no two-stroke machines remained in the MotoGP field. The 125 cc and 250 cc classes still consisted of two-stroke machines. In 2007, the MotoGP class had its maximum engine displacement capacity reduced to 800 cc for a minimum of five years; as a result of the 2008–2009 financial crisis, MotoGP underwent changes in an effort to cut costs. Among them are reducing Friday practice sessions and testing sessions, extending the lifespan of engines, switching to a single tyre manufacturer, banning qualifying tyres, active suspension, launch control and ceramic composite brakes.
For the 2010 season, carbon brake discs were banned. For the 2012 season, the MotoGP engine capacity was increased again to 1,000 cc, it saw the introduction of Claiming Rule Teams, which were given more engi