Circuit courts are court systems in several common law jurisdictions. The core concept of circuit courts requires judges to travel to different locales to ensure wide visibility and understanding of cases in a region. More some modern circuit courts may refer to a court that holds trials for cases of multiple locations in some rotation. King Henry II instituted the custom of having judges ride the circuit each year to hear cases, rather than requiring every citizen to bring their cases to London. Thus, the term "circuit court" is derived from the practice of having judges ride around the countryside each year on pre-set paths − circuits − to hear cases. On the United States frontier, a judge might travel on horseback along with a group of lawyers. Abraham Lincoln was one such attorney. In more settled areas, a stagecoach would be used; the legal caseload in a county would become great enough to warrant the establishment of a local judiciary. Most of these local judicial circuits have been thus replaced by judges stationed at local courthouses, but in many areas, the legacy term remains in usage.
England and Wales is divided into six regions or circuits for the purposes of the administration of justice. Northern Circuit North Eastern Circuit Wales and Chester Circuit Midland Circuit Western Circuit South Eastern CircuitThe system is overseen by the Lord Chancellor; the membership consists of High Court Judges, Circuit Judges, District Judges, law practitioners and academic lawyers. The Circuits form the basis for administration of the Bar in England and Wales; the Circuit Bars are represented on the Bar Council through the Circuit Leaders. In the Republic of Ireland the Circuit Court is part of the Courts of First Instance, senior to the District Court but junior to the High Court, it was first established as the Circuit Court of Justice under the Courts of Justice Act 1924 and replaced the County Court on the civil side, Quarter Sessions and Recorder's Courts on the criminal side, as well as some of the jurisdiction of the assizes. These are heard by a judge sitting alone, it has jurisdiction to hear appeals from the District Court.
Appeals from the Court lie to the High Court on the civil side and the Court of Criminal Appeal on the criminal side. The Circuit Court is so called because of the circuits on which its judges travel, namely Dublin, Northern, Eastern, South Western, South Eastern, Midland, each of which are composed of a number of counties; the court consist of thirty-seven judges. Although there is speaking just one Circuit Court, a sitting of the Circuit Court in any particular location is referred to as name of town Circuit Court, e.g. Trim Circuit Court; the High Court sits "on circuit" twice yearly, though this is called the High Court on Circuit rather than a circuit court. In this case, "on circuit" means sitting in a location other than Dublin. In the United States, circuit courts were first established in the British Thirteen Colonies. In 1789, the United States circuit courts were United States federal courts established in each federal judicial district; these circuit courts exercised both appellate jurisdiction.
They existed until 1912. The original jurisdiction exercised by the United States circuit courts is now exercised by the United States district courts, their appellate jurisdiction is now exercised by the United States courts of appeals, which were known as the United States circuit courts of appeals from their establishment in 1894 until 1947. The federal courts of appeals sit permanently in 13 appellate circuits. Note that there are several other federal courts that bear the phrase "Court of Appeals" in their names, but they are not Article III courts and are not considered to sit in appellate circuits; the federal courts of appeals are intermediate courts, between the district courts and the Supreme Court. Smaller circuits, such as the Second Circuit and Third Circuit, are based at a single federal courthouse, while others, such as the large Ninth Circuit, are spread across many courthouses. Since three-judge federal appellate panels are randomly selected from all sitting circuit judges, Ninth Circuit judges must "ride the circuit," though this duty has become much easier to carry out since the development of modern air travel.
Under the original Judiciary Act of 1789 and subsequent acts, the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States in Washington, D. C. had the responsibility of "riding circuit" and hearing intermediate appeals, in addition to their caseload back in the capital. This onerous duty was abolished by Congress with the Judiciary Act of 1891; the U. S. Supreme Court justices still retain vestiges of the days of riding circuit; the court's customary summer recess originated as the time during which the justices would leave Washington and ride circuit. Many U. S. states have state courts called "circuit courts." Most are trial courts of original jurisdiction. Connecticut - Vermont Circuit Courts Alabama – Alabama Circuit Courts Arkansas – Arkansas Circuit Courts Florida – Florida Circuit Courts Hawaii – Hawaii State Circuit Courts Illinois – Illinois Circuit Courts Indiana – Indiana Circuit Courts Kentucky – Kentucky Circuit Courts Maryland – Maryland Circuit Courts Michigan – Michigan Circ
MIB: Alien Crisis is an on rails third-person shooter for the PlayStation 3, Xbox 360. It is published by Activision; the game is the third installment in the Men in Black series of video games. Instead of Agent J or Agent K, the game features a new MIB agent named Agent P; the game was released on May 22, 2012. Alien Crisis is based on the Men in Black 3 movie and coincided with its launch in theaters. In 2012, Peter Delacour, a master thief and alien conspiracist, is hired to steal an ancient Egyptian artifact called the Book of Khnemu for his client: network maven Emilio Chauncey. However, once he gives it to him, wanting to use the book's power to take over the world, tells his bodyguards to get rid of any evidence, including Delacour. Peter narrowly escapes when it looks like a street gang engages Chauncey's men in a firefight with strange weapons. Chauncey gets shortly after, the MiB show up. Agent C, a MiB desk clerk, Frank the Pug takes Delacour into custody and uses an MiB car in hyper drive mode to get Peter back to MiB headquarters for questioning.
After interrogation, Delacour is caught. With the fact that J and K went missing on the same investigation and the fact that Chauncey is helping the Adorians, an alien race, part of a war, making its way to Earth, Agent O has no choice but to deputize Peter into helping retrieve the book. At a party in Chauncey's rooftop penthouse for his new program "C-YA", C manages to keep Chauncey occupied long enough for Peter to slip into Chauncey's study and steal the book. While there they find confirmation that Chauncey is indeed in some sort of partnership with the Adorians and that he somehow turned J and K into statues. Peter and C take the book to Professor Thurgood, a curator at the New York Museum of History who had Peter fired because of his theories. C tells Peter that Thurgood is an alien, which angers him due to the fact that he was holding information about himself out on him. Peter is further enraged when Thurgood pretends to know nothing about the Book of Khnemu though evidence around his study says otherwise.
However, before they can get any real answers out of him, the Adorians break in and steal the book back. The two follow them to Chauncey's New Mexico mansion where they discover a downed Adorian ship trapped in a mountain, which explains how Chauncey contacted the Adorians in the first place. By hacking into the ships mainframe, they discover how the war began: it came about when the Adorian prince Khnemu and Netheera, the daughter of the Nakkadan prime minister, were supposed to be married, with Earth being a neutral zone for it to happen. However, their ships were trapped in nullspace; the book is the only thing powerful enough to free the ship, allowing whoever finds it to tip the war in their favor. Chauncey and his Adorian allies capture them soon thereafter. Chauncey explains to them that his network is embedded with Adorian coding, allowing him to take control of every person's mind on Earth once he helps the Adorians win the war, he forces Peter to read a passage from the book thinking it will power the ship.
However, it backfires against him, allowing Khnemu to possess Chauncey and setting the ship to self-destruct. C and Peter manage to escape the blast, they manage to use the car's weaponry to kill Khnemu, but the explosion caused the Nakkadan ship to be freed as well. Out of leads, C and Peter return to the museum only to discover it to be crawling with Nakkadans, they manage to find Thurgood half frozen in some sort of residue. Peter pressures Thurgood into revealing the truth: he is an emissary of the Chtala Initiative sent to Earth to make sure the book and an Orb of Netheera didn't fall into the wrong hands. Now that the book had been captured and the Nakkadan ship exposed, Thurgood feels it's better to leave Earth and let his superiors handle the problems. However, Peter reminds him that his actions have been interfering with MiB's jurisdiction and forces him to reveal the Orb's hiding place. With his end of the deal satisfied, C prepares to neuralyze Peter back to before he stole the book of Khnemu.
However, she is possessed by Netheera's spirit. Thurgood's office is swarmed by Nakkadan soldiers and Peter has to fight his way to a fountain in Central Park. There, he finds Netheera and two Nakkadan generals using a nullspace portal to make their way to the ship and follows them through. After fighting his way through the ship, he corners Netheera at a command module. Netheera tells Peter she plans to destroy Earth for its indirect involvement in Khnemu's death and taunts Peter's romantic feelings for C before turning into a giant scorpion like creature to deal with him. Peter manages to defeat her by trapping her under one of the ships machines and escaping with a conscious C as the ship explodes. Back at MiB headquarters, Peter tells C that while he cares for her, he's aware MiB agents aren't allowed to fraternize with each other. O congratulates the two for their success and tells Peter she's considering bringing him on full-time as the head of a division designated with locating alien artifacts, starting with a downed UFO in Central America.
MIB: Alien Crisis was universally panned with critics because of its gameplay concepts specially criticising it for its weak story, repetitive gameplay and graphics. GameSpot's Chris Watters opined, "Ugly and brazenly priced, MIB: Alien Crisis is an absolute embarrassment," giving it a 2.5 score out of 10. Robert Workman of GameZone gave the game a score of 2.0, "Everything about Men In Black
Phonogram Incorporated was started in 1970 as a successor to Philips Phonographic Industries, a unit of the Grammophon-Philips Group, a joint venture of Philips N. V. of the Netherlands and Siemens A. G. of Germany. Phonogram was the name of a parent company that owned and or distributed many different record labels. Phonogram was never a record label as such, but a holding company for labels which included Phillips, Fontana and Mercury and many other licensed labels. In 1972 Grammophon-Philips Group was reorganized as The PolyGram Group. Following PolyGram's acquisition of Mercury in the United States, the corporate name was changed from Mercury Record Productions, Inc. to Phonogram, Inc. In the U. S. Phonogram artists were released on Mercury Records, but the label is independent from its U. K. counterpart. By 1982, Mercury and all other PolyGram owned labels including, RSO, Total Experience and Casablanca carried the following wording "Manufactured And Marketed by PolyGram Records" with the PolyGram Records logo.
In the United Kingdom, Phonogram was the holding company for Philips Records, which had started in 1953 and had launched the Fontana label in 1958. As well as producing their own recordings many of which became U. K. hits, Philips/Fontana licensed the rights from Columbia Records to release and distribute their product from 1953 until the end of 1964. After that time, Columbia U. S. set up their own marketing and production unit in the UK in Theobalds Road, having acquired Oriole Records and its record-pressing plant that had prospered in manufacturing discs for U. K. budget labels including Embassy, sold through Woolworths. U. S. Columbia was unable to use the "Columbia" trademark outside the United States and Canada as it had been copyrighted overseas by EMI; therefore U. S. Columbia product was released in most territories on the CBS record label. Releases in Europe were issued by Vertigo and Philips and carried the "Marketed by Phonogram" wording with the Phonogram logo. Phonogram licensed recordings from small U.
S. record labels for European release. Among these were Avco, Janus, All Platinum, Chess. In 1997, all PolyGram units still using the Phonogram name were renamed Mercury Records. By that time, Mercury had become PolyGram's flagship label. PolyGram continued until 1998, when the company was purchased by Seagram and merged with Universal Music Group, now owned by Vivendi. Philips Records UK and Phonogram UK still have their own websites. List of record labels
Vojislav Jakić was a Serbian artist of outsider art and naive art. Vojislav Jakić was born in 1932 in Golem Radobil part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, where his father worked as a priest, in a severe, religiously devout Serbian Orthodox family, he soon moved to Despotovac. His childhood was filled with poverty and sadness for the loss of his closest, he moved to Belgrade in 1952 to take drawing and sculpture clases, but feeling disappointed and marginalized, five years he returned to Despotovac to his mother's home. He married in 1962, but the marriage dissolved and he returned to live with his mother. Jakić lived in severe poverty during his early career, executing portraits of the dead for local grieving families for meager commissions, working from passport photos. Jakic is known for his phase of paintings — the abstract works that he began to execute after the dissolution of his marriage around 1969 or 1970; these works are more disturbing and unusual than those which survived from the first phase of his career.
"He drew assiduously on large formats from 1970 onwards. His compositions with ballpoint pens and both normal and wax crayons teem with insects, embryonic figures and human beings."He died in March 2003 in Despotovac. Jakić's subjects are predominantly dark visions of death and exposed viscera; the illustrations that inhabit his paintings intertwine and overlap, creating complex and frightening configurations. One of his paintings carries the explanation: "This is neither a drawing nor a painting, but a sedimentary deposit of suffering."Jakić's large, minutely detailed tapestries depict nightmarish visions of death and human insides. There he found his only partner, the rest for his soul and embodiment of his phantasmagoria, his world was apocalyptic and pessimistic. Under the pressure and restrictions, his figures get together in the universal nightmare. At the end of 1970 he completed his second autobiography entitled Nemenikuće, where the real moments of the experienced are intersected with the artist’s fiction and irony.
He transmitted his bitter obsessions and memento mori atmosphere into his ‘rolls’, as he used to call his endless stories. For one of the longest he said: "This is neither a drawing nor a painting – it is a condensed sorrow!" Made of a series of smaller or larger pieces of cartridge paper, they were treated as an uninterrupted compositional thread, like a symbol of bound, unbreakable fastening of the conscience. That strange, black man, as they used to call him because he permanently wore black, drew attention like unpleasant conscience, a personification of an outcast, a betrayed, while his anthropomorphic and zoomorphic forms exuberated under the radiation of human animosity. Strong linearism of hallucinate, multiplied texture without a beginning and an end creates unique atmosphere where the powerful presence of the artist’s sensuality and agony is felt. Tubular forms of organic ornaments create unique arabesques abundant with optical effects, either pulling the form deep, or drawing it from a flat surface.
Jakić used a symbol and a metaphor as a means of contemplation. He most worked in Indian ink, felt pen and less used colour, pastel or gouache. In addition to drawing, he wrote a conclusion as a supplementary media in order to emphasize his observation with the use of a written text. Though Jakić did receive some limited training in his youth, the naive, bizarre and visionary nature of his style has led to him being classified as an outsider artist, to his body of work falling under the umbrella of art brut, he is a world classic. Vojislav Jakić had group exhibitions in the country and abroad, he was respected for a long time worldwide and his works are included in permanent exhibitions at the most famous galleries and museums of art brut. His most significant works are in Collection de l'art brut in Lausanne. On the Tenth International Biennial of Naïve and Marginal Art in 2001, he was awarded Grand Prix for the exhibited works. Vojislav Jakic. Exhibition catalogue of the Collection de l’Art Brut.
Lausanne: Collection de l’Art Brut, 1979. Алекса Челебоновић|Aleksa Čelebonović, Michel Thévoz, Vojislav Jakić, Vojislav Jakić, Collection de l'Art Brut, Lausanne, 1979 Publications de la Collection de l’Art Brut, fascicule 10. Text by Aleksa Celebonovic. Lausanne, 1977; the End is Near!: Visions of Apocalypse and Utopia. American Visionary Art Museum,1998 N. Krstić, Outsider Art in Serbia, MNMA, Јагодина, 2014
The Moerkuilen are, along with the Dommelbeemden a forestry area in a bend of the Dommel river north east of Nijnsel in Sint-Oedenrode. It is located at the Lieshoutse Dijk, not far from the A50 motorway; the protected area connects with the Vresselse Bossen in the south. The Moerkuilen are part of the larger area Het Groene Woud; the lake in a lowland peat soil, was created by the dredging of Moer, quagmire consisting of decayed plant material that could be used as peat after drying. The Moerkuilen borders the Dommelbeemden, it is a moore lake in the Dommel valley, is known for water lilies, potamogeton and carex species. Around the fish-rich peat lake, which attracts many birds, is a swamp forest bordered by forestry river dunes. There may lily; the river Dommel streamed past it over a higher plateau. Because of this there remains a striking steep edge. There are different trails through the terrain. There is a 4.5 km long marked trail. At the road "Lieshoutse Dijk" is a car park with an information board on the flora and fauna
Otto Fernand Landauer was a prominent Canadian photographer of German-Jewish origin, proprietor of Leonard Frank Photos Studio from 1946–1980. He is regarded as one of the most significant photographers of Vancouver during the city's commercial and industrial development after World War II. Otto Landauer was born to German-Jewish parents and Senta Landauer in the Bavarian capital of Munich in southeastern Germany, he enjoyed a comfortable childhood with his three siblings: older brother Leopold, younger brother Albert, younger sister Johanna Henrietta, affectionately called Hansi. He attended public school for four years and in preparation for one day running his father's wholesale textile business, enrolled in the Higher Commercial School of the Chief City of Munich, he graduated from their business program five years working casually for his father's company, Gebruder Landauer. Despite being in his youth during World War I, Landauer's fierce patriotism compelled him to join the Bavarian Defense Organization as a cadet.
He continued to serve as a part-time volunteer in the Bavarian Group Commando after the war. He loved the beauty of his native land and spent a large amount of time traversing the mountains of the Karwendel Range with other members of the Männer Turn-Verein of Munich; until 1927, when he was forced to reside more permanently in Munich due to his father's ailing health, Landauer spent time in the Swiss and Italian Alps and working as a ski instructor for the German-Austrian Alpenclub. During his time in the mountains, Landauer took up photography, for which he had discovered a passion, he captured images of alpine villages, skiers descending powdery mountains, panoramas of mountain ranges, for which he won numerous amateur photography prizes. When he returned to Munich, however, it would be more than ten years before he was able to resume his hobby with much tenacity, his father died March 28, 1928, leaving Landauer and his brother Albert to manage Gebruder Landauer which had taken a beating in the wake of the economic depression Germany faced after World War I.
The company rallied but faced a crushing and permanent in 1937 after the implementation of the Nuremberg Laws. The Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews and others considered undesirable by the Nazis of their German citizenship. Any rights that had enabled them to operate businesses or own land, in addition to many others, were revoked. After having been jailed on falsified charges by the SS, Landauer fled Germany, skiing west through the Austrian Alps to Liechtenstein. In March 1939, he left Liechtenstein for Switzerland; the neutrality of Switzerland did not, guarantee his safety, in 1941 Landauer immigrated to Portland, Oregon. Landauer's brother Albert had settled in Portland, their sister Hansi had immigrated to Vancouver with her husband years earlier and was able to fund Landauer's passage to Portland by way of Cuba. Upon his arrival, he took up his old hobby of photography completing a year at the North Western School of Photography. Since arriving in Vancouver and her husband befriended Bernard Frank, brother of the photographer Leonard Frank, who owned and operated Leonard Frank Photos Studio.
In 1946, two years after Leonard had died, Bernard needed to sell the business. At the urging of both Bernard and Hansi, with a $1500 loan from his brother-in-law, Landauer purchased the studio. Now the owner of a business in Canada, Landauer was able to enter the country as a permanent resident. In 1952, he met his future wife Barbara. Despite his Jewish heritage, they were married by a priest in St. Andrew's Roman Catholic Cathedral in Victoria, British Columbia on August 9, 1954, the same year Landauer attained Canadian citizenship; until his death in 1980, Otto Landauer was hired to document the construction of many landmark buildings and structures in Vancouver. Cyril Leonoff says Landauer was: "proud of Vancouver, felt that his photographs were a continuum in the history of the city, he had an archivist's determination that the photos he produced with such care, like those of his predecessor Leonard Frank, should be preserved for posterity." His photographs of the Second Narrows Bridge collapse taken for a Royal Commission, have been used in two publications, Falsework by Gary Geddes, Tragedy at Second Narrows: The Story of the Ironworkers Memorial Bridge.
Landauer worked predominantly in white. He felt that large-format cameras provided better-quality photographs than light, automated equipment, it was only in his years, due to health concerns, that he switched to lighter equipment. Construction photographs he was contracted to photograph include: Second Narrows Bridge, Oak Street Bridge, Granville Street Bridge, Port Mann Bridge, The General Post Office at 349 West Georgia Street, Queen Elizabeth Theatre, Playhouse Theatre, United Grain Growers Pier, Air Terminal Building at Vancouver International Airport, Various buildings at the University of British Columbia including the Forest Products Laboratory, the Fine Arts Centre, the Wesbrook Building, Simon Fraser University's Academic Quadrangle and Convocation Mall. Today, the Jewish Museum and Archives of British Columbia, administered by the Jewish Historical Society of British Columbia hold the Otto Landauer Photo Collection in the Leonard Frank Photos Studio fonds, they were acquired in 1985 when the JHSBC purchased them from Barba