Yale University Press
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University. It was founded in 1908 by George Parmly Day, became an official department of Yale University in 1961, but it remains financially and operationally autonomous; as of 2009, Yale University Press published 300 new hardcover and 150 new paperback books annually and has more than 6,000 books in print. Its books have won five National Book Awards, two National Book Critics Circle Awards and eight Pulitzer Prizes; the press maintains offices in New Haven and London, England. It was a co-founder of the distributer TriLiteral LLC with Harvard University Press. TriLiteral was sold to LSC Communications in 2018. Since its inception in 1919, the Yale Series of Younger Poets Competition has published the first collection of poetry by new poets; the first winner was Howard Buck. Yale University Press and Yale Repertory Theatre jointly sponsor the Yale Drama Series, a playwriting competition; the winner of the annual competition is awarded the David C.
Horn Prize of $10,000, publication of his/her manuscript by Yale University Press, a staged reading at Yale Rep. The Yale Drama Series and David C. Horn Prize are funded by the David Charles Horn Foundation. In 2007, Yale University Press acquired the Anchor Bible Series, a collection of more than 115 volumes of biblical scholarship, from the Doubleday Publishing Group. New and backlist titles are now published under the Anchor Yale Bible Series name. Yale University Press is publishing the Future of American Democracy Series, which "aims to examine and renew the historic vision of American democracy in a series of books by some of America's foremost thinkers", in partnership with the Future of American Democracy Foundation; the Lamar Series in Western History was established in 1962 to publish works that enhance the understanding of human affairs in the American West and contribute to a wider understanding of why the West matters in the political and cultural life of America. The Dwight H. Terry Lectureship was established in 1905 to encourage the consideration of religion in the context of modern science and philosophy.
Many of the lectures, which are hosted by Yale University, have been edited into book form by the Yale University Press. On September 22, 2000, Yale University Press announced a new Yale Nota Bene imprint that would "feature reprints of best-selling and classic Yale Press titles encompassing works of history, science, current affairs and biography, in addition to fiction and drama." The Yale Publishing Course was founded in 2010 by former Publishing Director of the Yale University Press, Tina C. Weiner, it filled the gap created by the closing of the legendary Stanford Publishing Course. It operates under the aegis of the Office of International Affairs of Yale University; the Course trains mid to senior-level publishing professionals to tackle the most compelling issues facing the publishing industry and concentrates on building leadership skills. The curriculum focuses on in-depth analyses of global trends, innovative business models, management strategies, new advances in technology, its immersive week-long programs, one devoted to book publishing and the other to magazine and digital publishing, combine lectures, discussion groups, one-on-one counseling sessions.
The faculty is made up of leading industry experts and members of the Yale School of Management, the Yale Library, the Yale University Press. Participants come from all over the world and represent all areas of publishing within organizations of all sizes and types of publications. In 1963, the Press published a revised edition of Ludwig von Mises's "Human Action". In the May 5, 1964 issue of National Review, Henry Hazlitt wrote the story "Mangling a Masterpiece", accusing Yale University Press of intentionally typesetting the new edition in an amateurish fashion, due to the Press's differing ideological beliefs. In August, 2009, officials at the Press ignited a controversy when they decided to expunge reproductions of the cartoons involved in the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, along with all other images of Muhammad, from a scholarly book entitled The Cartoons that Shook the World, by professor Jytte Klausen. Official website Yale University Press, London Yale Publishing Course, New Haven, Connecticut
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830; the style was revived in the late 19th century in the United States as Colonial Revival architecture and in the early 20th century in Great Britain as Neo-Georgian architecture. In the United States the term "Georgian" is used to describe all buildings from the period, regardless of style; the Georgian style is variable, but marked by symmetry and proportion based on the classical architecture of Greece and Rome, as revived in Renaissance architecture. Ornament is normally in the classical tradition, but restrained, sometimes completely absent on the exterior; the period brought the vocabulary of classical architecture to smaller and more modest buildings than had been the case before, replacing English vernacular architecture for all new middle-class homes and public buildings by the end of the period.
Georgian architecture is characterized by its balance. Regularity, as with ashlar stonework, was approved, imbuing symmetry and adherence to classical rules: the lack of symmetry, where Georgian additions were added to earlier structures remaining visible, was felt as a flaw, at least before Nash began to introduce it in a variety of styles. Regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning; until the start of the Gothic Revival in the early 19th century, Georgian designs lay within the Classical orders of architecture and employed a decorative vocabulary derived from ancient Rome or Greece. In towns, which expanded during the period, landowners turned into property developers, rows of identical terraced houses became the norm; the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an enormous amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world, the standards of construction were high.
Where they have not been demolished, large numbers of Georgian buildings have survived two centuries or more, they still form large parts of the core of cities such as London, Dublin, Newcastle upon Tyne and Bristol. The period saw the growth of a trained architectural profession; this contrasted with earlier styles, which were disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system. But most buildings were still designed by builders and landlords together, the wide spread of Georgian architecture, the Georgian styles of design more came from dissemination through pattern books and inexpensive suites of engravings. Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny had editions in America as well as Britain. A similar phenomenon can be seen in the commonality of housing designs in Canada and the United States from the 19th century down to the 1950s, using pattern books drawn up by professional architects that were distributed by lumber companies and hardware stores to contractors and homebuilders.
From the mid-18th century, Georgian styles were assimilated into an architectural vernacular that became part and parcel of the training of every architect, builder, carpenter and plasterer, from Edinburgh to Maryland. Georgian succeeded the English Baroque of Sir Christopher Wren, Sir John Vanbrugh, Thomas Archer, William Talman, Nicholas Hawksmoor; the architect James Gibbs was a transitional figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century, but he adjusted his style after 1720. Major architects to promote the change in direction from baroque were Colen Campbell, author of the influential book Vitruvius Britannicus. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, John Wood, the Elder; the European Grand Tour became common for wealthy patrons in the period, Italian influence remained dominant, though at the start of the period Hanover Square, Westminster and occupied by Whig supporters of the new dynasty, seems to have deliberately adopted German stylistic elements in their honour vertical bands connecting the windows.
The styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking world's equivalent of European Rococo. From the mid-1760s a range of Neoclassical modes were fashionable, associated with the British architects Robert Adam, James Gibbs, Sir William Chambers, James Wyatt, George Dance the Younger, Henry Holland and Sir John Soane. John Nash was one of the
The Doric order was one of the three orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The Doric is most recognized by the simple circular capitals at the top of columns. Originating in the western Dorian region of Greece, it is the earliest and in its essence the simplest of the orders, though still with complex details in the entablature above; the Greek Doric column was fluted or smooth-surfaced, had no base, dropping straight into the stylobate or platform on which the temple or other building stood. The capital was a simple circular form, with some mouldings, under a square cushion, wide in early versions, but more restrained. Above a plain architrave, the complexity comes in the frieze, where the two features unique to the Doric, the triglyph and guttae, are skeuomorphic memories of the beams and retaining pegs of the wooden constructions that preceded stone Doric temples. In stone they are purely ornamental; the uncommon Roman and Renaissance Doric retained these, introduced thin layers of moulding or further ornament, as well as using plain columns.
More they used versions of the Tuscan order, elaborated for nationalistic reasons by Italian Renaissance writers, in effect a simplified Doric, with un-fluted columns and a simpler entablature with no triglyphs or guttae. The Doric order was much used in Greek Revival architecture from the 18th century onwards. Since at least Vitruvius it has been customary for writers to associate the Doric with masculine virtues, it is normally the cheapest of the orders to use. When the three orders are used one above the other, it is usual for the Doric to be at the bottom, with the Ionic and the Corinthian above, the Doric, as "strongest", is used on the ground floor below another order in the storey above. In their original Greek version, Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement of a temple without a base. With a height only four to eight times their diameter, the columns were the most squat of all the classical orders; the Parthenon has the Doric design columns. It was most popular in the Archaic Period in mainland Greece, found in Magna Graecia, as in the three temples at Paestum.
These are in the Archaic Doric, where the capitals spread wide from the column compared to Classical forms, as exemplified in the Parthenon. Pronounced features of both Greek and Roman versions of the Doric order are the alternating triglyphs and metopes; the triglyphs are decoratively grooved with two vertical grooves and represent the original wooden end-beams, which rest on the plain architrave that occupies the lower half of the entablature. Under each triglyph are peglike "stagons" or "guttae" that appear as if they were hammered in from below to stabilize the post-and-beam construction, they served to "organize" rainwater runoff from above. The spaces between the triglyphs are the "metopes", they may be left plain. The spacing of the triglyphs caused problems. A triglyph is centered above every column, with another between columns, though the Greeks felt that the corner triglyph should form the corner of the entablature, creating an inharmonious mismatch with the supporting column; the architecture followed rules of harmony.
Since the original design came from wooden temples and the triglyphs were real heads of wooden beams, every column had to bear a beam which lay across the centre of the column. Triglyphs were arranged regularly; this was regarded as the ideal solution. Changing to stone cubes instead of wooden beams required full support of the architrave load at the last column. At the first temples the final triglyph was moved, still terminating the sequence, but leaving a gap disturbing the regular order. Worse, the last triglyph was not centered with the corresponding column; that "archaic" manner was not regarded as a harmonious design. The resulting problem is called the doric corner conflict. Another approach was to apply a broader corner triglyph but was not satisfying; because the metopes are somewhat flexible in their proportions, the modular space between columns can be adjusted by the architect. The last two columns were set closer together, to give a subtle visual strengthening to the corners; that is called the "classic" solution of the corner conflict.
Triglyphs could be arranged in a harmonic manner again, the corner was terminated with a triglyph. However, final triglyph and column were not centered. There are many theories as to the origins of the Doric order in temples; the term Doric is believed to have originated from the Greek-speaking Dorian tribes. One belief is. With no hard proof and the sudden appearance of stone temples from one period after the other, this becomes speculation. Another belief is. With the Greeks being present in Ancient Egypt as soon the 7th-century BC, it is possible that Greek traders were inspired by the structure
The Corinthian order is the last developed of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric order, the earliest, followed by the Ionic order; when classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with its offshoot the Composite, is the most ornate of the orders; this architectural style is characterized by slender fluted columns and elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls. There are many variations; the name Corinthian is derived from the ancient Greek city of Corinth, although the style had its own model in Roman practice, following precedents set by the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus. It was employed in southern Gaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Other prime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the lower order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona the "column of Phocas", the "Temple of Bacchus" at Baalbek.
The Corinthian order is named for the Greek city-state of Corinth, to which it was connected in the period. However, according to the architectural historian Vitruvius, the column was created by the sculptor Callimachus an Athenian, who drew acanthus leaves growing around a votive basket, its earliest use can be traced back to the Late Classical Period. The earliest Corinthian capital was found in Bassae, dated at 427 BC. Proportion is a defining characteristic of the Corinthian order: the "coherent integration of dimensions and ratios in accordance with the principles of symmetria" are noted by Mark Wilson Jones, who finds that the ratio of total column height to column-shaft height is in a 6:5 ratio, so that, the full height of column with capital is a multiple of 6 Roman feet while the column height itself is a multiple of 5. In its proportions, the Corinthian column is similar to the Ionic column, though it is more slender, stands apart by its distinctive carved capital; the abacus upon the capital has concave sides to conform to the outscrolling corners of the capital, it may have a rosette at the center of each side.
Corinthian columns were erected on the top level of the Roman Colosseum, holding up the least weight, having the slenderest ratio of thickness to height. Their height to width ratio is about 10:1. One variant is the Tivoli Order, found at the Temple of Tivoli; the Tivoli Order's Corintinan Capital has two rows of Acanthus and its abacus is decorated with oversize fleuron in the form of hibiscus flowers with pronounced spiral pistils. The column flutes have flat tops; the frieze exhibits fruit swag suspended between bucrania. Above each swag is a rosette; the cornice does not have modillions. Indo-Corinthian capitals are capitals crowning columns or pilasters, which can be found in the northwestern Indian subcontinent, combine Hellenistic and Indian elements; these capitals are dated to the 1st centuries of our era, constitute important elements of Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara. The classical design was adapted taking a more elongated form, sometimes being combined with scrolls within the context of Buddhist stupas and temples.
Indo-Corinthian capitals incorporated figures of the Buddha or Bodhisattvas as central figures surrounded, in the shade, of the luxurious foliage of Corinthian designs. During the first flush of the Italian Renaissance, the Florentine architectural theorist Francesco di Giorgio expressed the human analogies that writers who followed Vitruvius associated with the human form, in squared drawings he made of the Corinthian capital overlaid with human heads, to show the proportions common to both; the Corinthian architrave is divided in two or three sections, which may be equal, or may bear interesting proportional relationships, to one with another. Above the plain, unadorned architrave lies the frieze, which may be richly carved with a continuous design or left plain, as at the U. S. Capitol extension. At the Capitol the proportions of architrave to frieze are 1:1. Above that, the profiles of the cornice moldings are like those of the Ionic order. If the cornice is deep, it may be supported by brackets or modillions, which are ornamental brackets used in a series under a cornice.
The Corinthian column is always fluted, the flutes of a Corinthian column may be enriched. They may be filleted, with rods nestled within the hollow flutes, or stop-fluted, with the rods rising a third of the way, to where the entasis begins. In French, these are called chandelles and sometimes terminate in carved wisps of flame, or with bellflowers. Alternatively, beading or chains of husks may take the place of the fillets in the fluting, Corinthian being the most flexible of the orders, with more opportunities for variation. Elaborating upon an offhand remark when Vitruvius accounted for the origin of its acanthus capital, it became a commonplace to identify the Corinthian column with the slender figure of a young girl. Sir William Chambers expressed the conventional comparison with the Doric order: The proportions of the orders were by the ancients formed on those of the human body, it could n
An architect is a person who plans and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e. chief builder. Professionally, an architect's decisions affect public safety, thus an architect must undergo specialized training consisting of advanced education and a practicum for practical experience to earn a license to practice architecture. Practical and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. Throughout ancient and medieval history, most of the architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder; until modern times, there was no clear distinction between engineer. In Europe, the titles architect and engineer were geographical variations that referred to the same person used interchangeably.
It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the professional'gentleman' architect, separate from the hands-on craftsman. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century but became available after 1500. Pencils were used more for drawing by 1600; the availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals. Concurrently, the introduction of linear perspective and innovations such as the use of different projections to describe a three-dimensional building in two dimensions, together with an increased understanding of dimensional accuracy, helped building designers communicate their ideas. However, the development was gradual; until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only those qualified with an appropriate license, certification or registration with a relevant body may practice architecture.
Such licensure requires a university degree, successful completion of exams, as well as a training period. Representation of oneself as an architect through the use of terms and titles is restricted to licensed individuals by law, although in general, derivatives such as architectural designer are not protected. To practice architecture implies the ability to practice independently of supervision; the term building design professional, by contrast, is a much broader term that includes professionals who practice independently under an alternate profession, such as engineering professionals, or those who assist in the practice architecture under the supervision of a licensed architect such as intern architects. In many places, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses and other smaller structures. In the architectural profession and environmental knowledge and construction management, an understanding of business are as important as design.
However, the design is the driving force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client; the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements. Throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, who must ensure that the work is co-ordinated to construct the design; the architect, once hired by a client, is responsible for creating a design concept that both meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. The architect must meet with, question, the client in order to ascertain all the requirements of the planned project; the full brief is not clear at the beginning: entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make early proposals to the client, which may rework the terms of the brief.
The "program" is essential to producing a project. This is a guide for the architect in creating the design concept. Design proposal are expected to be both imaginative and pragmatic. Depending on the place, finance and available crafts and technology in which the design takes place, the precise extent and nature of these expectations will vary. F oresight is a prerequisite as designing buildings is a complex and demanding undertaking. Any design concept must at a early stage in its generation take into account a great number of issues and variables which include qualities of space, the end-use and life-cycle of these proposed spaces, connections and aspects between spaces including how they are put together as well as the impact of proposals on the immediate and wider locality. Selection of appropriate materials and technology must be considered and reviewed at an early stage in the design to ensure there are no setbacks which may occur later; the site and its environs, as well as the culture and history of the place, will influence the design.
The design must countenance increasing concerns with environmental sustainability. The architect may introduce, to greater or lesser degrees, aspects of mathematics and a
Platanus is a genus consisting of a small number of tree species native to the Northern Hemisphere. They are the sole living members of the family Platanaceae. All members of Platanus are tall. All except for P. kerrii are deciduous, most are found in riparian or other wetland habitats in the wild, though proving drought-tolerant in cultivation. The hybrid London plane has proved tolerant of urban conditions, has been planted in London and elsewhere in the United Kingdom, they are known in English as planes or plane trees. Some North American species are called sycamores, although the term sycamore refers to the fig Ficus sycomorus, the plant so named, to the sycamore maple Acer pseudoplatanus; the genus name Platanus comes from Ancient Greek πλάτανος. The flowers are borne in balls. Male and female flowers are separate, but borne on the same plant; the number of heads in one cluster is indicative of the species. The male flower has 3–8 stamens. Plane trees are wind-pollinated. Male flower-heads fall off after shedding their pollen.
After being pollinated, the female flowers become achenes. The fruit is a multiple of achenes; the core of the ball is 1 cm in diameter and is covered with a net of mesh 1 mm, which can be peeled off. The ball is 2.5–4 cm in diameter and contains several hundred achenes, each of which has a single seed and is conical, with the point attached downward to the net at the surface of the ball. There is a tuft of many thin stiff yellow-green bristle fibers attached to the base of each achene; these bristles help in wind dispersion of the fruits as in the dandelion. The leaves are alternate. In the subgenus Platanus they have a palmate outline; the base of the leaf stalk is enlarged and wraps around the young stem bud in its axil. The axillary bud is exposed; the mature bark peels off or exfoliates in irregularly shaped patches, producing a mottled, scaly appearance. On old trunks, bark may not thickens and cracks instead. There are two subgenera, subgenus Castaneophyllum containing the anomalous P. kerrii, subgenus Platanus, with all the others.
Within subgenus Platanus, genetic evidence suggests that P. racemosa is more related to P. orientalis than it is to the other North American species. There are fossil records of plane trees as early as 115 million years. Despite the geographic separation between North America and Old World, species from these continents will cross resulting in fertile hybrids such as the London plane; the following are recognized species of plane trees: Planes are susceptible to plane anthracnose, a fungal disease that can defoliate the trees in some years. The most severe infections are associated with wet spring weather. P. occidentalis and the other American species are the most susceptible, with P. orientalis the most resistant. The hybrid London plane is intermediate in resistance. Ceratocystis platani, a wilt disease, has become a significant problem in recent years in much of Europe; the North American species are resistant to the disease, with which they coevolved, while the old world species are sensitive.
Other diseases such as powdery mildew occur but are of lesser importance. Platanus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Phyllonorycter platani and Setaceous Hebrew Character. In the 21st century a disease known as Massaria disease, has attacked plane trees across Europe, it is caused by the fungus Splanchnonema platani, causes large lesions on the upper sides of branches. The principal use of these trees is as ornamental trees in urban areas and by roadsides; the London plane is popular for this purpose. The American plane is cultivated sometimes for timber and investigations have been made into its use as a biomass crop; the oriental plane is used as an ornamental and has a number of minor medicinal uses. Most significant aspects of cultural history apply to Platanus orientalis in the Old World; the tree is an important part of the literary scenery of Plato's dialogue Phaedrus. Because of Plato, the tree played an important role in the scenery of Cicero's De Oratore.
The legendary Dry tree first recorded by Marco Polo was a platanus. According to the legend, it marked the site of the battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III; the German camouflage pattern Platanenmuster, designed in 1937–1942 by Johann Georg Otto Schick, was the first dotted camouflage pattern. BooksNaumann, Helmut. "Die Platane von Gortyna". In Kämmerer. Thomas Richard. Studien zu Ritual und Sozialgeschichte im Alten. Berlin, de Gruyter. Pp. 207–226. Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. Pp. 606–607. JournalsFeng, Y.. H.. S.. "Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Genus Platanus as Inferred From Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA". Systematic Botany. 30: 786–799. Doi:10.1600/036364405775097851. Nixon, K. C.. "Revision of the Mexican and Guatemalan species of Platanus". Lundellia. 6: 103–137. Doi:10.2