The Roman circus was a large open-air venue used for public events in the ancient Roman Empire. The circuses were similar to the ancient Greek hippodromes, although circuses served varying purposes and differed in design and construction. Along with theatres and amphitheatres, circuses were one of the main entertainment sites of the time. Circuses were venues for chariot races, horse races, gladiatorial combat, performances that commemorated important events of the empire were performed there. According to Edward Gibbon, in Chapter XXXI of his work The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, the Roman people, at the start of the 5th century:...still considered the Circus as their home, their temple, the seat of the republic. The performance space of the Roman circus was despite its name, an oblong rectangle of two linear sections of race track, separated by a median strip running along the length of about two thirds the track, joined at one end with a semicircular section and at the other end with an undivided section of track closed by a distinctive starting gate known as the carceres, thereby creating a circuit for the races.
The Circus of Maxentius epitomises the design. The median strip was called the spina and featured ornate columns and commemorative obelisks; the turning points on either end of the spina were marked by conical poles, called the metae. The performance surface of the circus was surrounded by ascending seating along the length of both straight sides and around the curved end, though there were sometimes interruptions in the seating to provide access to the circus or the seating, or to provide for special viewing platforms for dignitaries and officials. One circus, that at Antinoöpolis, displays a distinct gap of some 50m between the carceres and the start of the ascending seating where there is no structure; this appears to be an exception. The great majority of circuses fit the description above; those that do not display two different variations: that at Emerita Augusta, where the carceres end is substituted by a curved'straight' end joined to the straight sides of ascending seating by rounded corners of ascending seating.
These latter circuses are small, should be considered stadia. There are similar buildings, called stadia; these buildings were similar in design but smaller than circuses. An example of this type is the Stadium of Domitian. Differently from other major Roman structures circuses evolved over long periods of time from a simple track in a field, through generations of wooden seating structures, before they began to be converted to stone. Although circuses such as the Circus Maximus may have existed in some form from as early as around 500 BCE, circuses were constructed during the 400 years between 200 BCE and 200 CE; the comparative dimensions of a circus may be measured in two basic ways: by the length of the track, by the seating capacity. Other dimensions, such as the external dimensions of the structure may vary depending on the location, the site, on specific architectural characteristics; the simplest comparative measurement of a circus is its track length. This is the most measured dimension, as it only requires small excavations at either end of the centreline.
It is probable that this can be done when the circus is buried under subsequent constructions. Track lengths may vary from the 245 m of the circus to the 621 m of the Circus Maximus; the alternative comparative dimension is that of seating capacity. This is much more complex to measure as it requires that the dimensions of the original vertical and horizontal extent of the inclined seating be re-established. In many cases the full structure of the inclined seating has been destroyed beyond the point where this can be measured, or at the least would require a great deal more excavation than that required for the measurement of the track length. Seating capacity may vary from around 15,000 people to 150,000 at the Circus Maximus. Circuses do not appear to have been constructed with any special compass orientation; those that are well identified can be found with their round ends oriented around the compass. Examples include: N. Gerasa. Antinoöpolis. Circus of Maxentius. Circus Maximus. Gortyn. Circuses can be found at three distinct locations relative to the towns to which they belong: outside the city walls at anything up to 1.5 km distant, as at: Gerasa, Leptis Magna.
Within the town walls, as at: Thessalonica. Inside the walls, in the heart of the town, an integral part of the architectural power structure of the town, as at: Rome and Tarraco; the carceres, or starting gates, had a distinctive, slanted curved, plan form, designed to compensate for what would otherwise be significant differences in the distances from the individual starting gates to the start of the first section of straight track on the right hand side of the spina. The carceres were designed for the races to be run round the spina in an anticlockwise direction; the form of the carceres appears to have been standardised throughout the Ro
Gongduk or Gongdu is an endangered Sino-Tibetan language spoken by about 1,000 people in a few inaccessible villages located near the Kuri Chhu river in the Gongdue Gewog of Mongar District in eastern Bhutan. The names of the villages are Bala, Damkhar, Pam and Yangbari. Gongduk has complex verbal morphology, which Ethnologue considers a retention from Proto-Tibeto-Burman, is lexically divergent. On this basis, it is not part of any major subgroup and will have to be assigned to its own branch; the people are said to have come from hunters. George van Driem is working towards the completion of a description of Gongduk based on his work with native speakers in the Gongduk area. George van Driem proposes that the Greater Bumthang languages, including Bumthang and Kurtöp, may have a Gongduk substratum. Gongduk itself may have a non-Tibeto-Burman substrate. Gerber notes that Gongduk has had extensive contact with Black Mountain Mönpa before the arrival of East Bodish languages in Bhutan. Gongduk has many Tshangla loanwords.
The following comparative vocabulary table from Gerber compares Gongduk, Black Mountain Mönpa, Bjokapakha, a divergent Tshangla variety. Gongduk has productive suffixal morphology. <-məˀtⁿ> ‘plural suffix in human nouns’Examples: oloˀŋməˀtⁿ ‘children’ < oloˀk ‘child’ + -məˀtⁿ ŋidɤməˀtⁿ ‘people’ < ŋidɤ ‘person’ + -məˀtⁿ aroˀŋməˀtⁿ ‘friends’ < aroˀk ‘friend’ + -məˀtⁿ However, non-human plural nouns do not take on any suffixes, remain the same: kurtə ‘horse, horses’ kəitɤ ‘bird, birds’ kiŋ ‘house, houses’ <-e ~ -ðe ~ -θe> ‘ergative and possessive suffix’Examples: bɤʔlɤpə-e ‘the people of Bɤʔlɤ ’ choŋnən-ðe me ‘the seed of the maize’ nor-θe taɦ ‘meat of the cow ’ rek-θe rukɤŋ ‘head bone ’ aroʔk-te-θe ‘the friend ’ əp drəkpə-e ‘Ap Drakpa ’ θok-θe əkəm ‘egg of offering ’ lei-ti-ðe juʔmə ‘after one month’ <-gi> ‘ablative suffix’Examples: ðiŋ goŋduʔ-gi əna ‘We are from Gongduk’ nikkələŋ-gi ‘by way of the stairs’ dəkθə-gi ‘from Daksa’ kidu-gi ‘as a kidu ’ bɤʔlɤ-gi ‘from Bɤʔlɤ’ deŋkəle wɤŋ-gi ‘from Dengkalé Dale’ doʔmoŋ-gi ‘from "Black Roof" village’ phəjoŋ pəm-gi ‘from Phajong Pam’ <-gu ~ -go ~ -ku ~-ko> ‘dative / locative suffix’Examples: gərəŋ-go ‘to whom’ ohaŋ duʔ-gu ‘in that village’ rek-ko ‘to head’ ðə-go ‘to me’ jə-go ‘to India’ gaoŋ-go ‘whereto, where precisely’ pəkpək-ko ‘at times, sometimes’ thimphu-gu ‘to Thimphu’ Gongduk demonstratives precede head nouns.
Ohaŋ ‘that ’Examples: ohaŋ ŋidɤ ‘that person’ ohaŋ koŋ ‘that tree’ ohaŋ duʔgu ‘in that village’ Gongduk has the following personal pronoun paradigm. Van Driem compares the Gongduk first person singular personal pronoun ðə'I, me' to Kathmandu Newar dʑiː ~ dʑĩ-'I, me' and Tshangla dʑaŋ ~ dʑi- ~ dʑiŋ-'I, me', he compares the Gongduk first person plural personal pronoun ðiŋ'we, us' to Kathmandu Newar dʑʰai ~ dʑʰĩ-'we, us'. The Gongduk words and phrases below are from van Driem. Dzongkha Development Authority. དགོང་འདུས་རྫོང་ཁ་ཨིན་སྐད་ཤན་སྦྱར་ཚིག་མཛོད།. Thimphu: Dzongkha Development Authority. P. 115. ISBN 99936-663-1-9. Gerber, Pascal. 2019. Gongduk agreement morphology in functional and diachronic perspective. Paper presented at the Magdalen College, University of Oxford. Van Driem, George L. Dzongkha. Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region. Leiden: Research School CNWS, School of Asian and Amerindian Studies. Pp. 32–33. ISBN 90-5789-002-X. Van Driem, George L. "Endangered languages of Bhutan and Sikkim".
In Brenzinger, Matthias. Language diversity endangered. Trends in linguistics. Studies and monographs. Walter de Gruyter. Pp. 314–15. ISBN 3-11-017050-7. Van Driem, George. 2014. Gongduk Nominal Morphology and the phylogenetic position of Gongduk. Paper presented at the 20th Himalayan Languages Symposium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 16 July 2014. ELAR archive of Documentation of the flora and fauna of Gongduk
Matilda Beatrice deMille was an English-American play broker, playwright, theater actress and entrepreneur. She had a part in founding Paramount Pictures. DeMille was born in England to German-Jewish parents, she emigrated to New York with her family in 1871. She was married to Henry deMille, an aspiring actor in Brooklyn, New York, in 1876, he was a Christian. Together, Beatrice deMille and Henry deMille worked as teachers in a preparatory school, she taught elocution. However, in the vacation they were able to work as traveling actors in numerous theatrical productions. Henry became successful as the family thrived. In 1893 Henry died and deMille had to create an income, she converted her house in Pompton, New Jersey into the Henry C. deMille Preparatory School for Girls. She was able to trade a free class at that school with the President of a boy's school to get Cecil educated and William was sent to a school in Germany. At the same time she negotiated with her late husband's co-author to be the agent for their plays.
This worked out and her success led to her representing the work of other writers. In 1900, Beatrice deMille collaborated with Harriet Ford to write her first published play "The Greatest Thing in The World" - directed by Liebler & Company, performed on Broadway and in Washington DC. In 1907 the Henry C. deMille Preparatory School for Girls lost its students after it was identified as one of the schools that the scandalous Evelyn Nesbit had attended and the school as "guilty by association". Beatrice recovered by taking on more writers including her sons. Cecil B de Mille credits his mother with teaching him to direct. Beatrice was a deal maker and she introduced her son to Jesse Lasky and his production grew to be Paramount Pictures; the company would produce her son's silent epics. She moved to California in 1914 and she is credited with launching the careers of actor Victor Moore who appeared in her son's films and screenwriter Beulah Marie Dix. Over the next few years she wrote a fair number of screen plays.
She enjoyed her and her son's wealth. She had three children. DeMille in 1881 and daughter, Agnes Beatrice in 1891 who died four years of spinal meningitis. Matilda Beatrice deMille died on October 1923 in Hollywood, California; the Greatest Thing in the World Birchard, Robert S.. Cecil B. DeMille's Hollywood. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 0813138299. Pierce, David. Oct 1923-Mar 1924 ": Early Cinema, Hollywood Studio System." Screenland. Vol. 8. Chicago: Exhibitors Herald, 1918. Pg.403. Media History Digital Library. Matilda Beatrice deMille at the Internet Movie Database DeMille, Cecil Blount, Donald Hayne; the Autobiography of Cecil B. DeMille. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1959 Birchard, Robert S. Cecil B. DeMille's Hollywood. Lexington: UP of Kentucky, 2004 Beatrice deMille on IMDb Beatrice deMille at Women Film Pioneers Project at Columbia University