Cisgender is a term for people whose gender identity matches the sex that they were assigned at birth. For example, someone who identifies as a woman and was assigned female at birth is a cisgender woman; the term cisgender is the opposite of the word transgender. Related terms include cisnormativity. German sexologist Volkmar Sigusch used the neologism cissexual in a peer-reviewed publication. In his 1998 essay "The Neosexual Revolution", he cites his two-part 1991 article "Die Transsexuellen und unser nosomorpher Blick" as the origin of the term. Cisgender has its origin in the Latin-derived prefix cis-, meaning "on this side of", the opposite of trans-, meaning "across from" or "on the other side of"; this usage can be seen in the cis–trans distinction in chemistry, the cis–trans or complementation test in genetics, in Ciscaucasia, in the ancient Roman term Cisalpine Gaul and Transkei, more Cisjordan, as distinguished from Transjordan. In the case of gender, cis- describes the alignment of gender identity with assigned sex.
Sociologists Kristen Schilt and Laurel Westbrook define cisgender as a label for "individuals who have a match between the gender they were assigned at birth, their bodies, their personal identity". A number of derivatives of the terms cisgender and cissexual include cis male for "male assigned male at birth", cis female for "female assigned female at birth", analogously cis man and cis woman, cissexism and cissexual assumption. In addition, one study published in the Journal of the International AIDS Society used the term cisnormativity, akin to sexual diversity studies' heteronormativity. A related adjective is gender-normative because, as Eli R. Green writes, "'cisgendered' is used to refer to people who do not identify with a gender diverse experience, without enforcing existence of a normative gender expression". In this way, cisgender is preferable because, unlike the term gender-normative, it does not imply that transgender identities are abnormal. Julia Serano has defined cissexual as "people who are not transsexual and who have only experienced their mental and physical sexes as being aligned", while cisgender is a narrower term for those who do not identify as transgender.
For Jessica Cadwallader, cissexual is "a way of drawing attention to the unmarked norm, against which trans is identified, in which a person feels that their gender identity matches their body/sex". The terms cisgender and cissexual were used in a 2006 article in the Journal of Lesbian Studies and Serano's 2007 book Whipping Girl, after which the term gained some popularity among English-speaking activists and scholars. Jillana Enteen wrote in 2009 that cissexual is "meant to show that there are embedded assumptions encoded in expecting this seamless conformity". Serano uses the related term cissexism, "which is the belief that transsexuals' identified genders are inferior to, or less authentic than, those of cissexuals". In 2010, the term cisgender privilege appeared in academic literature, defined as the "set of unearned advantages that individuals who identify as the gender they were assigned at birth accrue due to having a cisgender identity". While some believe that the term cisgender is politically correct, medical academics use the term and have recognized its importance in transgender studies since the 1990s.
In February 2014, Facebook began offering "custom" gender options, allowing users to identify with one or more gender-related terms from a selected list, including cis and others. Cisgender was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2013, defined as "designating a person whose sense of personal identity corresponds to the sex and gender assigned to him or her at birth". Perspectives on History has stated that since this inclusion, the term cisgender has become common usage. Krista Scott-Dixon wrote in 2009: "I prefer the term non-trans to other options such as cissexual/cisgendered." She holds this view because she believes the term "non-trans" is clearer to average people and will help normalize transgender individuals. Women's and Gender Studies scholar Mimi Marinucci writes that some consider the "cisgender–transgender" binary to be just as dangerous or self-defeating as the masculine–feminine gender binary, because it lumps together people who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual arbitrarily and over-simplistically with a heteronormative class of people as opposed to with transgender people.
Characterizing LGB individuals together with heterosexual, non-trans people may problematically suggest that LGB individuals, unlike transgender individuals, "experience no mismatch between their own gender identity and gender expression and cultural expectations regarding gender identity and expression". Intersex people are born with atypical physical sex characteristics that can complicate initial sex assignment and lead to involuntary or coerced medical treatment; the term cisgender "can get confusing" in relation to people with intersex conditions though some intersex people use the term, according to the Interact Advocates for Intersex Youth Inter/Act project. Hida Viloria of Intersex Campaign for Equality notes that, as a person born with an intersex body who has a non-binary sense of gender identity that "matches" his/her body, s/he is both cisgender and gender non-conforming opposites according to cisgender's definition, that this evidences the term's basis on a binary sex model that d
Vadim Gutzeit is a Ukrainian sabre fencer, team Olympic champion in 1992, won a bronze medal in the 1991 World Fencing Championships. He has been an international referee for the FIE since 2002, he was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the FIE in 2013. Gutzeit took up fencing at the age of ten, he won the Ukrainian national championship when he was 15. In 1988 he became USSR Junior Champion, he earned a gold medal in the Junior World Championships in 1989 and 1990. A year he won a silver medal in the same event, as well as an individual bronze medal and a team silver medal in the senior World Championships, he took part in the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona for the Unified Team at the age of 20, won the gold medal with them. He competed in the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, finishing 6th in the individual sabre event after being defeated 14–15 in the quarter-finals by Russia's Stanislav Pozdnyakov, who won the competition. Gutzeit took part in his third Olympiads at the 2000 Sydney Games. Seeded No.
13, he lost 10–15 in the table of 16 to Domonkos Ferjancsik of Hungary. In the team competition, Ukraine finished 6th. In 1999, he came in 11th at the 1999 World Fencing Championships. Gutzeit, Jewish, took part in the 2001 Maccabiah Games and won the silver medal in the individual sabre, he was defeated in the gold medal final by Sergey Sharikov of Russia. Gutzeit won the gold medal at the 2005 Maccabiah Games, reaping revenge over Sharikov of Russia, as Ukraine won the team sabre gold medal. Gutzeit became in 2002 an international referee in foil and sabre for the International Fencing Federation, he has since officiated including the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. He has been vice-president of the Ukrainian Fencing Federation since 2000, a member of the executive committee of the National Olympic Committee of Ukraine since 2004, he was inducted into the Hall of Fame of the FIE in 2013. On 9 June 2019 Gutzeit announced he would take part in the July 2019 Ukrainian parliamentary election with the party Servant of the People.
Nora Ricci was an Italian actress. Born in Viareggio, Ricci was the daughter of actors Renzo Ricci and Margherita Bagni, the nephew of actor Ermete Zacconi. At 17 years old, she moved to Rome to enroll in the Academy of Dramatic Arts, where she knew Vittorio Gassman, who became her husband in 1944 and from whom she separated shortly after the birth of her only child, actress Paola Gassman, divorcing Vittorio in 1952 so he could marry Shelley Winters. Ricci made her professional debut in the theatrical company led by Laura Adani. During her career she was active on stage, television and in films, notably working with Luchino Visconti, Pietro Germi, Liliana Cavani, she died after a long illness, aged 51. 1951: Bellissima - Laundry Worker 1954: The Doctor of the Mad - La figlia di Amalia 1955: Eighteen Year Olds - Una assistente del collegio 1955: Il motivo in maschera 1962: A Very Private Affair - 1963: The Shortest Day - Una donna in attesa alla stazione 1966: The Birds, the Bees and the Italians - Gilda Bisigato 1967: The Witches - Gloria's secretary 1968: The Girl Who Couldn't Say No 1968: The Damned - Mimi's Mother 1969: Metti, una sera a cena - 1st Actress 1969: The Libertine - Governess 1971: Death in Venice - Governess 1971: Roma Bene - donna Serena 1972: Paulina 1880 - Priscilla 1973: Ludwig - Countess Ida Ferenczy 1974: The Night Porter - The Neighbor Nora Ricci on IMDb