Captain (armed forces)
The army rank of captain is a commissioned officer rank corresponding to the command of a company of soldiers. The rank is used by some air forces and marine forces. Today, a captain is either the commander or second-in-command of a company or artillery battery. In the Chinese People's Liberation Army, a captain may command a company, or be the second-in-command of a battalion. In NATO countries, the rank of captain is described by the code OF-2 and is one rank above an OF-1 and one below an OF-3; the rank of captain is considered to be the highest rank a soldier can achieve while remaining in the field. In some militaries, such as United States Army and Air Force and the British Army, captain is the entry-level rank for officer candidates possessing a professional degree, most medical professionals and lawyers. In the U. S.. Army, lawyers who are not officers at captain rank or above enter as lieutenants during training, are promoted to the rank of captain after completion of their training if they are in the active component, or after a certain amount of time one year from their date of commission as a lieutenant, for the reserve components.
The rank of captain should not be confused with the naval rank of captain or with the UK-influenced air force rank of group captain, both of which are equivalent to the army rank of colonel. The term goes back to Late Latin capitaneus meaning "chief, prominent"; the military rank of captain was in use from the 1560s, referring to an officer who commands a company. The naval sense, an officer who commands a man-of-war, is somewhat earlier, from the 1550s extended in meaning to "master or commander of any kind of vessel". A captain in the period prior to the professionalization of the armed services of European nations subsequent to the French Revolution, during the early modern period, was a nobleman who purchased the right to head a company from the previous holder of that right, he would in turn receive money from another nobleman to serve as his lieutenant. The funding to provide for the troops came from his government. If he was not, or was otherwise court-martialed, he would be dismissed, the monarch would receive money from another nobleman to command the company.
Otherwise, the only pension for the captain was selling the right to another nobleman when he was ready to retire. Many air forces, such as the United States Air Force, use a rank structure and insignia similar to those of the army. However, the United Kingdom's Royal Air Force, many other Commonwealth air forces and a few non-Commonwealth air forces use an air force-specific rank structure in which flight lieutenant is OF-2. A group captain was derived from the naval rank of captain. In the unified system of the Canadian Forces, the air force rank titles are pearl grey and increase from OF-1 to OF-5 in half strip increments. A variety of images illustrative of different forces' insignia for captain are shown below: Captain Captain Senior captain Staff captain
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. Within NATO, each member nation's corresponding military rank of corporal is combined under the NATO-standard rank scale code OR-3 or OR-4. However, there are differences in how each nation employs corporals; some militaries may instead have a Junior Sergeant. In some militaries, the rank of corporal nominally corresponds to commanding a section or squad of soldiers. However, in the United States Army, the rank of corporal is considered a "lateral promotion" from E-4 Specialist and only occurs when the soldier has been selected by a promotion board to become an E-5 Sergeant and is serving in an E-5 billet such as a fireteam leader in a rifle squad; the lateral promotion is used to make the soldier a non-commissioned officer without changing the soldier's pay. As the Table of Organization & Equipment rank of a fire team leader is sergeant and that of squad leader is staff sergeant.
In the United States Marine Corps, corporal is the Table of Organization rank for a rifle fire team leader, machine gun team leader, light mortar squad leader, assault weapon squad leader, as well as gunner on most larger crew served weapons, armored vehicles, the two assistant gunners on a howitzer. In most countries that derive their military structure from the British military system, corporal is a more senior rank than that of private. However, in several other countries, such as Canada and Norway, corporal is a junior rank, indicating a more experienced soldier than a private, on a higher pay scale, but having no particular command appointment corresponding to the rank, similar to specialist in the U. S. Army; the word is derived from the medieval Italian phrase capo corporale. It may be derived from an appointment as an officer's bodyguard being an adjective pertaining to the word "body". All three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic use two or three ranks of corporal, or cabo.
Corporals in the Argentine military are considered suboficiales subalternos, superior only to all ranks of Volunteers and Seamen. In the Argentine Army, there are two ranks of corporal and senior: Cabo and cabo primero. While the Argentine Navy has three corporal ranks, from junior to senior: Cabo segundo, Cabo primero and cabo principal, equal to the army rank of sargento; the Air Force has the same number of corporal ranks as the navy, keeps the same titles, with the exception of cabo instead of the navy's cabo segundo. The rank is used by the Argentine National Gendarmerie and the Argentine Federal Police, which use the rank in the same manner as the Army, as well as the Argentine Naval Prefecture. Corporal is the second lowest of the non-commissioned officer ranks in the Australian Army, falling between lance-corporal and sergeant. A corporal is appointed as a section commander, is in charge of 7-14 soldiers of private rank, they are assisted by a second-in-command a lance-corporal or senior private.
A Corporal within Artillery is known as a bombardier. Corporal is a rank of the Royal Australian Air Force, being equal to both the Australian Army and Royal Air Force rank of corporal; the branches of the Belgian Armed Forces use three ranks of corporal: corporal, master corporal and 1st master corporal. Corporal is equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-3, whereas master corporal and 1st master corporal are equivalent to OR-4; the rank below corporal is 1st private and the rank directly above 1st master corporal is sergeant. Units with a cavalry, artily or Logistic Corps tradition replace Corporal by “Brigadier”; the equivalent of these ranks in the Naval Component are quartermaster, chief quartermaster and 1st chief quartermaster. Corporal is the first NCO rank of the Army, Air Force and states military police forces. Soldiers who complete the corporal course may be promoted to the rank of corporal should they excel in the course. A corporal in the Brazilian Army will lead the smallest fractions of units as machine gun squads and infantry squads.
Corporal is an Air Force non-commissioned member rank of the Canadian Forces. Its Naval equivalent is leading seaman, it is senior to the rank of private and its naval equivalent able seaman, junior to master corporal and its equivalent master seaman. It is part of the cadre of junior non-commissioned officers, one of the junior ranks. In French, the rank is caporal; the rank insignia of a corporal is a two-bar chevron, point down, worn in gold thread on both upper sleeves of the service dress jacket. On army ceremonial uniforms, it is rendered in gold braid, on either both sleeves, or just the right, depending on unit custom. Corporal is the first non-commissioned officer r
21 South African Infantry Battalion
21 South African Infantry Battalion is an infantry battalion of the South African Army. The unit has its origin as 21 Battalion, an apartheid era unit used to train black South African men as soldiers. In 1973 the apartheid government decided to train black soldiers. On 21 January 1974, the Army Bantu Training Centre was established at Baviaanspoort, north of Pretoria. Sixteen recruits began basic training in March 1974 with another 38 men joining in August, now trained by the sixteen initial recruits. In April 1975, authority was given for blacks to attest in the then-Permanent Force. On December 1, 1975, the Army Bantu Training Centre became a self-accounting unit and moved to Lenz, south of Johannesburg; the centre was renamed 21 Battalion on the 21st birthday of the South African Infantry Corps in 1975. Press releases during 1977 emphasised that these black soldiers would not be trained for South African combat roles. By 1978, the Chief of the South African Army begun to implement plans to establish 21 Battalion as the training school for black soldiers of different ethnic groups.
The plan was for these recruits to serve in ethnic units in the current regional commands with their eventual adoption into the black homeland armies. The Lenz unit would train over eight years, up to eighteen black battalions, distributing them into these regional battalions. Initial units were the Zulu 121 Battalion at Jozini, Natal Command, the Swazi 111 Battalion at Amsterdam, Northern Transvaal Command, the Venda 112 Battalion at Madimbo and the Shangaan 113 Battalion at Impala near Phalaborwa; the size of the battalion ranged from 35 men in 1975, reaching over 400 to 515 men in 1979. Training started with a 10-week orientation course, used to weed out those not suited for military service and would cull at least half of the recruits; the Second Phase of Basic training took 17 weeks as opposed to 12 weeks for white recruits and was conducted by black trainers in the form of COIN training. Phase Three resulted in specialised training and was conducted by white trainers with the men being trained to be clerks, tradesmen, mechanics and drivers.
Training time for ranks of corporals and sergeants was identical to white recruits and was conducted by white trainers and resulted in the first corporals in 1977 and 21 sergeants in 1979. The January 1977 intake figures were 82 men, 260 men in 1979 and 350 by 1978; the unit expanded training to black recruits that formed units from the black homelands of the Transkei, 1 Transkei Battalion and KwaNdebele as well as 48 men from Ovamboland, 1 Ovambo Battalion and 100 men of 121 Battalion. During March 1978, 140 men in three platoons, were deployed to the Eastern Caprivi for three months with the objective of liaising with the local population and to gather intelligence from any friendships cultivated; this was followed up with a second unit in 1979. By 1986 the unit had four companies of its own troops. In July 1987 it became a operational battalion, was used as a reaction force in South Africa before being posted to South-West Africa/Namibia in 1988 during the Border War. 21 SAI was established on 1 January 1991 at Johannesburg.
In 1997 the unit was consisted of two operational battalions. By 1999, it had reverted to a reconnaissance platoon; the unit exercised its freedom of entry into Johannesburg on the 9th of November 2013 as part of the centenary celebrations of the City of Johannesburg with fixed bayonets, colours flying and drums beating
Lenasia is a racially segregated Indian township south of Soweto in Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is part of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality. Lenasia is 35 kilometres southwest of the Johannesburg central business district and 45 kilometres south of the Sandton central business district. Apartheid-era planners situated the group area for Johannesburg's Indians near the Lenz Military Base, it originates from 1958. The name "Lenasia" is thought to be a combination of the words "Lenz" and "Asia"; the Lenz in question was one Captain Lenz. Many of its early residents were forcibly removed under the Group Areas Act from Pageview and Fordsburg, non-racial areas close to the Johannesburg city centre, to Lenasia; as segregation grew it became the largest place where people of Indian extraction could live in the Transvaal Province. The township is large, divided into extensions including a major suburb south of Lenasia, called Lenasia South and referred to as Daxina by the locals.
The younger generation tend to travel out of Lenasia to work for the big corporates. The growing population of Lenasia is a huge concern, as no additional land is being zoned for suburban development. Hence properties soar to exorbitant prices, making it more and more difficult for entry level income earners to afford to live there. Many of the younger generation are now beginning to move out of the suburb because of increasing home prices, major traffic congestion en route to the city, as well as wanting to live in a more multicultural environment. Although still a predominantly Indian area, Lenasia today is a more cosmopolitan and diverse suburb, providing a place to live for local coloured and African people, as well as recent immigrants and refugees. Weather in Lenasia is 2-3 degrees cooler than central Johannesburg due to the town being situated within a valley, which means that north-facing slopes can be used for low-cost housing. Lenasia is now a thriving community; the growing suburb has shopping malls, mandirs, mosques and various industrial and commercial sectors such as Kulfi Ice-cream and DB Sweets which are familiar household business names.
It boasts takeaways such as Akhalwayas known for its famous fish and chips and Delhi Delicious for its pies. It boasts numerous other restaurants with well known franchises such as KFC,Wimpy, McDonald's and Burger King There are several prominent publications and newspapers based in Lenasia such as Lenasia Times, the Rising Sun Newspaper. Four satellite radio stations, Radio Islam, Eastwave FM,Channel Islam International and Lenz Fm broadcast from Lenasia. Lenasia embraced the digital age when in 2002 a community website lenzinfo was launched, which keeps the community informed on happenings, sports events and cultural activities and general information, it is located in Region G of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality. The community of Lenasia played a prominent role in opposing the national tri-cameral elections held in 1984 and 1989 under the apartheid era National Party government; this was an attempt to create separate legislative assemblies in South Africa for Whites and Coloureds in order to entrench racial segregation and perpetuate the disenfranchisement of the African majority in South Africa.
Lenasia played a role in the creation and activities of the United Democratic Front, the mass democratic movement that opposed apartheid in the 1980s and early 1990s before the unbanning of the African National Congress. Many of Lenasia's residents played a prominent role in the UDF structures and the broader anti-apartheid movement; some of these activists became senior political figures after the first national democratic elections in 1994. One of many annual community events occurring at Lenasia's Rose Park in September 2012; this is a popular venue amongst Lenasia residents for public events and for family relaxation on weekends. The park, which consists of aesthetically pleasant rose bushes and a fountain has a special stimulation and play area for children with disabilities, it featured as a fan park during the Fifa 2010 soccer world cup. The GM LPL is a prominent annual Twenty20-styled cricket tournament played during September, it commenced in 2010. Feroza Adam, political activist Candice Morgan and Miss Deaf World Ahmed Kathrada, ANC activist Mahatma Gandhi, led protests against colonial British rule at Lenasia Train Station Bash Hoosein - singer and fundraiser http://www.lenasianfo.co.za/ http://www.lenzinfo.org.za/ Lenasia Times Newspaper https://web.archive.org/web/20081003085734/http://lenzwatch.co.za/ Lenasia Crime Alert Lenasia News & Events Publication https://web.archive.org/web/20140517225726/http://lenasiainfo.com/ Sporting history of Lenasia Lakshmi Narayan Temple, Ramakrishna Vedanta Society
Military history of South Africa
The military history of South Africa chronicles a vast time period and complex events from the dawn of history until the present time. It covers civil wars and wars of aggression and of self-defence both within South Africa and against it, it includes the history of battles fought in the territories of modern South Africa in neighbouring territories, in both world wars and in modern international conflicts. The arrival of the permanent settlements of the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652 brought them face to face with the local people, such as the Khoikhoi, the San and some Bantu peoples of South Africa. While the Dutch traded with the Khoikhoi serious disputes broke out over land ownership and livestock; this resulted in attacks and counter-attacks by both sides which were known as the Khoikhoi-Dutch Wars. The First Khoikhoi-Dutch War took place in 1659, the second in 1673 and the third in 1674–1677. During 1664, tensions between England and the Netherlands rose with rumours of war being imminent – that same year, Commander Zacharius Wagenaer was instructed to build a pentagonal castle out of stone at 33.925806°S 18.427758°E / -33.925806.
On 26 April 1679, the five bastions were built. The Castle of Good Hope is a fortification, built on the original coastline of Table Bay and now, because of land reclamation, seems nearer the centre of Cape Town, South Africa. Built by the VOC between 1666 and 1679, the Castle is the oldest building in South Africa; the Castle acted as local headquarters for the South African Army in the Western Cape, but today houses the Castle Military Museum and ceremonial facilities for the traditional Cape Regiments. The Battle of Muizenberg was a small but significant battle for the future destiny of South Africa which took place at Muizenberg, South Africa in 1795. A fleet of seven Royal Navy ships – five third-rates, Victorious, Arrogant and Stately, with the 16-gun sloops Echo and Rattlesnake – under Vice-Admiral Elphinstone anchored in Simon's Bay at the Cape of Good Hope in June 1795, having left England on 1 March, their commander suggested to the Dutch governor that he place the Cape Colony under the protection of the British monarch – in effect, that he hand the colony over to Britain –, refused.
Simon's Town was occupied on 14 June by a force of 350 Royal Marines and 450 men of the 78th Highlanders, before the defenders could burn the town. Following skirmishes on 1 and 2 September, a final general attempt to recapture the camp was prepared by the Dutch for the 3rd, but at this point the British reinforcements arrived and the Dutch withdrew. A British advance on Cape Town, with the new reinforcements, began on the 14th; the British assumed control of the Cape of Good Hope for the next seven years. The Cape was returned to the restored Dutch government in 1804. In 1806 the British returned and after again defeating the Dutch at the Battle of Blaauwberg, stayed in control for more than 100 years; the Xhosa Wars were a series of nine wars between parts of the Xhosa people, European settlers with their Xhosa allies, from 1779 and 1879 in what is now the Eastern Cape in South Africa. The wars were responsible for the Xhosa people's loss of most of their land, the incorporation of its people into European-controlled territories.
The Ndwandwe-Zulu War of 1817–1819 was a war fought between the expanding Zulu kingdom and the Ndwandwe tribe in South Africa. Shaka revolutionised traditional ways of fighting by introducing the assegai, a spear with a short shaft and broad blade, used as a close-quarters stabbing weapon, he organised warriors into disciplined units known as Impis that fought in close formation behind large cowhide shields. In the Battle of Gqokli Hill in 1819, his troops and tactics prevailed over the superior numbers of the Ndwandwe people, who failed to destroy the Zulu in their first encounter; the Ndwandwe and the Zulus met again in combat at the Battle of Mhlatuze River in 1820. The Zulu tactics again prevailed, pressing their attack when the Ndwandwe army was divided during the crossing of the Mhlatuze River. Zulu warriors arrived at the Ndwande King Zwide's headquarters near present-day Nongoma before news of the defeat, approached the camp singing Ndwandwe victory songs to gain entry. Zwide fled with some of his offspring including Madzanga.
Most of the Ndwandwe migrated north and eastward. This was the start of the Mfecane, a catastrophic, bloody migration of many different tribes in the area escaping the Zulus, but themselves causing their own havoc after adopting Zulu tactics in war. Shaka was the ultimate victor, his descendants still live today throughout Zululand, with customs and a way of life that can be traced to Shaka's day. Mfecane known as the Difaqane or Lifaqane, is an African expression which means something like "the crushing" or "scattering", it describes a period of widespread chaos and disturbance in southern Africa during the period between 1815 and about 1835. The Mfecane resulted from the rise to power of Shaka, the Zulu king and military leader who conquered the Nguni peoples between the Tugela and Pongola rivers in the beginning of the 19th century, created a militaristic kingdom in the region; the Mfecane led to the formation and consolidation of other groups – such as the Matabele, the Mfengu and the Makololo – and the creation of states such as the mod
Independence Medal (Ciskei)
The Independence Medal was instituted by the President of the Republic of Ciskei in 1981, for award to all serving members of the Ciskei Defence Force on 4 December 1981 to commemorate the independence of Ciskei. The Ciskei Defence Force was established upon that country's independence on 4 December 1981; the Republic of Ciskei ceased to exist on 27 April 1994 and the Ciskei Defence Force was amalgamated with six other military forces into the South African National Defence Force. The Independence Medal was instituted by the President of Ciskei in 1981; the medal was awarded to all members serving in the Ciskei Defence Force on 4 December 1981, to commemorate the independence of Ciskei. Since the Independence Medal was authorised for wear by one of the statutory forces which came to be part of the South African National Defence Force on 27 April 1994, it was accorded a position in the official South African order of precedence on that date. Ciskei Defence Force until 26 April 1994 Official CDF order of precedence: Preceded by the Ciskei Defence Medal.
Succeeded by the Medal for Long Service, Bronze. Ciskei official national order of precedence: Preceded by the Ciskei Defence Medal. Succeeded by the Police Insignia for Merit. South African National Defence Force from 27 April 1994 Official SANDF order of precedence: Preceded by the Independence Medal of the Republic of Venda. Succeeded by the Military Rule Medal of the Republic of Transkei. Official national order of precedence: Preceded by the Police Establishment Medal of the Gazankulu Homeland. Succeeded by the Police Foundation Medal of the Qwaqwa Homeland; the position of the Independence Medal in the official order of precedence was revised twice after 1994, to accommodate the inclusion or institution of new decorations and medals, first in April 1996 when decorations and medals were belatedly instituted for the two former non-statutory forces, the Azanian People's Liberation Army and Umkhonto we Sizwe, again upon the institution of a new set of honours on 27 April 2003. It remained unchanged on both occasions.
ObverseThe Independence Medal is a disk struck in copper, 38 millimetres in diameter, displaying a blue crane on a crossed spear and knobkierie, framed inside a double circle, inscribed "IXKULULEKO" at left, "CISKEI" at the top, "INDEPENDENCE" at right and "4 DISEMBA 1981" below. RibbonThe ribbon is 32 millimetres wide, with a 4 millimetres wide brown band, a 4 millimetres wide green band and a 4 millimetres wide blue band, repeated in reverse order and separated by an 8 millimetres wide white band in the centre. Conferment of the Independence Medal was discontinued in 1981
Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander
The Britten-Norman BN-2 Islander is a British light utility aircraft and regional airliner designed and manufactured by Britten-Norman of the United Kingdom. Still in production, the Islander is one of the best-selling commercial aircraft types produced in Europe. Although designed in the 1960s, over 750 are still in service with commercial operators around the world; the aircraft is used by the British Army and police forces in the United Kingdom and is a light transport with over 30 military aviation operators around the world. Initial aircraft were manufactured at Britten-Norman's factory in Bembridge, Isle of Wight, UK. After Fairey Aviation acquired the Britten-Norman company, its Islanders and Trislander aircraft were built in Romania shipped to Avions Fairey in Belgium for finishing before being flown to the UK for flight certification; the Islander has been in production for more than 50 years. In 1953, Britten-Norman was formed for the purpose of converting and operating agricultural aircraft, amongst other vehicles such as the Cushioncraft hovercraft.
In 1963, the firm initiated development work upon what would become the Islander, having sensed a demand for a single and inexpensive twin-piston engine aircraft. The founders, John Britten and Desmond Norman, had observed the rapid growth of the commuter airline sector, concluded that capacity was of a higher value to these operators than either range or cruising speed, thus the Islander emphasized payload over either of these attributes. Through the use of low wing- and span-loading to generate greater effectiveness than conventional counterparts, the Islander could lift heavier payloads than the typical aircraft in its power, weight or cost classes. To reduce manufacturing costs, both the wings and tail surfaces maintain a constant chord and thickness, while the ribs within the aircraft's wing are all identical; the type was intended to use a fabric-and-steel design. A light alloy monocoque approach was adopted instead; the structure is designed to give rise to and experience low levels of stress, has an infinite fatigue life without testing.
On 13 June 1965, the first prototype BN-2 Islander conducted its maiden flight, powered by a pair of Rolls-Royce/Continental IO-360B piston engines. The IO-360B engines were replaced by more powerful Lycoming O-540-E engines, which were located further outboard on the wings, for superior single-engine climb performance. On 20 August 1966, a second BN-2 prototype performed its first flight; these prototype aircraft, while resembling subsequent production models for the most part, were outfitted with different, less powerful engines. On 24 April 1967, the first production Islander performed its first flight. Initial production of the Islander started at the Britten-Norman factory at Bembridge on the Isle of Wight. To expand production, a contract was placed with Intreprinderea de Reparatii Material Aeronautic of Romania to assemble kit-form aircraft, which were sent to the UK for completion. In August 1969, the first Romanian-assembled Islander performed its first flight. IRMA proved successful at economically producing the aircraft, producing 30-40 aircraft per year at times, became the primary manufacturing site for the Islander.
In 1977, IRMA received a contract for the production of a further 100 Islanders. More than 500 of the type were manufactured in Romania. In 1970, a military version of the Islander, marketed as the Defender, conducted its first flight. Modifications included the addition of underwing hardpoints for armaments/equipment, the main cabin area being fitted out for light troop transport and support aircraft duties; the Defender capitalised on the aircraft's rugged structure, making it suitable for long-term operations in developing countries. Purchases from police and military customers have been for use in surveillance and counter-terrorism operations; the Maritime Defender is another military version of the Islander, intended for search and rescue, coastal patrol and fishery protection. Despite the relative success of the Islander, Britten-Norman experienced wider financial difficulties during the late 1960s resulting in the company entering receivership in October 1971. In August 1972, Britten-Norman was purchased by the Fairey Aviation Group, forming the Fairey Britten-Norman company.
Completed aircraft were flown to Bembridge for final customer preparation prior to delivery. Fairey Aviation set about the development of a more powerful model, the Turbo Islander, equipped with a pair of Lycoming LTP101 turboprop engines. However, testing revealed. However, Fairey itself encountered financial difficulty, resulting in the Fairey Britten-Norman company entering receivership and the firm's acquisition by Oerlikon Buerle of Switzerland, leading to the formation of Pilatus Britten-Norman, at which point some production activity was transferred back to Bembridge. In 1969, an improved version, the BN-2A Islander, condu