Prehistory of Transylvania
The Prehistory of Transylvania describes what can be learned about the region known as Transylvania through archaeology, comparative linguistics and other allied sciences. Transylvania proper is a plateau or tableland in northwest central Romania and it is bounded and defined by the Carpathian Mountains to the east and south, and the Apuseni Mountains to the west. As a diverse and relatively protected region, the area has always been rich in wildlife, the mountains contain a large number of caves, which attracted both human and animal residents. The Peştera Urşilor, the Cave of Bears, was home to a number of cave bears whose remains were discovered when the cave was found by humans in 1975. Other caves in the area sheltered early humans, Prehistory is the longest period in the history of mankind, developing from times when the writing was still unknown. Chronologically it stretches from the Paleolithic and Bronze Age to the Iron Age, the chronological frame of the Paleolithic coincides with that of the Pleistocene, and is marked by four great glaciations, as established in the Alps.
Likewise, in the Ciurul Mare Cave in the Pǎdurea Craiului Mountains speleologists have discovered some distinctively male, female, an anthropological analysis has identified Cro-Magnon and even Neanderthal characteristics in these footprints. The economy of the Paleolithic communities consisted mainly of exploiting natural resources, fishing, as early as the Lower Paleolithic, human groups either hunted or trapped game. We can assume that in Transylvania, alongside mammoths or deer, horses were an important food source. The Lower Paleolithic in Transylvania, because data are scarce, is largely a mystery, if the discovery of an Acheulean lithic item at Căpuşu Mic and of several Pre-Mousterian lithic items at Tălmaciu are a certain fact, their precise stratigraphic position remains to be established. The Middle Paleolithic – Mousterian – covers a period much shorter than that of the prior epoch. The Mousterian period is closest to the alpine Paleolithic, both periods were characterized by the presence of numerous quartzite slivers and chips, with the bones of hunted game outnumbering the tools.
Consequently, specialists consider this Mousterian to be an Eastern Charentian”, the process of regional diversification among cultures was accelerated in the Upper Paleolithic through the middle to upper Würm. The onset of the Aurignacian culture seems to have paralleled the late Mousterian facies in the Carpathian caves, northwestern Transylvania is the site where layers of the Middle Aurignacian culture have been identified, as signaled by the presence of blade scrapers, refitted core, burins. In Banat, the settlements of Tincova, Coşova and Româneşti-Dumbrăviţa, have produced flint tools demonstrating that the Aurignacian in this area evolved closely with that in Central Europe. The Eastern Gravettian had a long evolution, featuring several stages of development as documented especially by the settlements in Moldova, the populations evolving at the onset of the Bölling oscillation and which have continued to the end of the Preboreal have been generally attributed to the Epipaleolithic.
Consequently, this period could be associated with the interval between 13,000 and about 9, 500-9,000 BP. These communities continued the lifestyles of the Upper Paleolithic, the area of Porţile de Fier is settled by a population attributed to the Late Epigravettian or Mediterranean Tardigravettian
The term was coined by John Abercromby, based on the cultures distinctive pottery drinking beakers. The Bell Beaker period marks a period of contact in Atlantic and Western Europe on a scale not seen previously. It has been suggested that the beakers were designed for the consumption of alcohol and mead content have been identified from certain examples. However, not all Beakers were drinking cups, some were used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores, others have some organic residues associated with food, and still others were employed as funerary urns. They were used as status display amongst disparate elites, there have been numerous proposals by archaeologists as to the origins of the Bell Beaker culture, and debates continued on for decades. Several regions of origin have been postulated, notably the Iberian peninsula, scholars have postulated various mechanisms of spread, including migrations of populations, smaller warrior groups, individuals, or a diffusion of ideas and object exchange.
Recent analyses have made significant inroads to understanding the Beaker phenomenon and they have concluded that the Bell Beaker phenomenon was a synthesis of elements, representing “an idea and style uniting different regions with different cultural traditions and background. An overview of all sources from southern Germany concluded that Bell Beaker was a new and independent culture in that area. The inspiration for the Maritime Bell Beaker is argued to have been the small and earlier Copoz beakers that have impressed decoration and which are found widely around the Tagus estuary in Portugal. Turek sees late Neolithic precursors in northern Africa, arguing the Maritime style emerged as a result of contacts between Iberia and Morocco in the first half of the third millennium BC. AOO and AOC Beakers appear to have evolved continually from a period in the lower Rhine and North Sea regions, at least for Northern. Furthermore, the ritual which typified Bell Beaker sites was intrusive into Western Europe.
Such an arrangement is rather derivative of Corded Ware traditions although, instead of battle-axes, the initial moves from the Tagus estuary were maritime. A northern move incorporated the southern coast of Armorica, the enclave established in southern Brittany was linked closely to the riverine and landward route, via the Loire, and across the Gâtinais valley to the Seine valley, and thence to the lower Rhine. This was a long-established route reflected in early stone axe distributions, another pulse had brought Bell Beaker to Csepel Island in Hungary by about 2500 BC. But in contrast to the early Bell Beaker preference for the dagger and bow, here Bell Beaker people assimilated local pottery forms such as the polypod cup. These common ware types of pottery spread in association with the bell beaker. From the Carpathian Basin Bell Beaker spread down the Rhine and eastwards into what is now Germany, by this time the Rhine was on the western edge of the vast Corded Ware zone
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is an educational and trade publisher in the United States. Headquartered in Bostons Back Bay, it publishes textbooks, instructional materials, reference works. The company was known as Houghton Mifflin Company but changed its name following the 2007 acquisition of Harcourt Publishing. Prior to March 2010, it was a subsidiary of Education Media and Publishing Group Limited, in 1832, William Ticknor and James Thomas Fields had gathered an impressive list of writers, including Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Henry David Thoreau. The duo formed a relationship with Riverside Press, a Boston printing company owned by Henry Oscar Houghton. Shortly after, Houghton founded a company with partner George Mifflin. The company still had debt from when it merged from Houghton and Company, in 1884, James D. Hurd, the son of Melancthon Hurd became a partner. Three people in 1888 became partners as well, James Murray Kay, Thurlow Weed Barnes, shortly thereafter the company established an Educational Department, and from 1891 to 1908 sales of educational materials increased by 500 percent.
Soon after 1916, Houghton Mifflin became involved in publishing standardized tests and testing materials, the company was the fourth-largest educational publisher in the United States in 1921. In 1961, Houghton Mifflin famously passed on Julia Childs Mastering the Art of French Cooking, giving it up to Alfred A. Knopf who published it in 1962. It went on to become a success and is considered by many to be the bible of French cooking. Houghton Mifflins strategic error was depicted in the 2009 film Julie & Julia, in 1967, Houghton Mifflin became a publicly traded company on the New York Stock Exchange under the stock symbol HTN. Under president Nader F. Darehshori Houghton Mifflin acquired in 1994 for $138 million McDougal Littell, a publisher of secondary school materials. Heath and Company, a publisher of educational resources. In 1996, the company created their Great Source Education Group to combine the supplemental material product lines of their School Division and these two companies. In 1998, HMH announced a sub-brand called LOGAL Software, which was to release a new line of interactive science software called Science Gateways, as of 2017, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt is offering the Logal Science brand as a licensing opportunity on its website.
Mergers and acquisitions activities have had effects on this company. In 2001, Houghton Mifflin was acquired by French media giant Vivendi Universal for $2.2 billion including assumed debt, on December 22,2006, it was announced that Riverdeep PLC had completed its acquisition of Houghton Mifflin
Dunan Aula, known in Scottish Gaelic as Dùnan Amhlaidh, is the site of an exposed cist, located in the parish of Craignish, in Argyll and Bute, Scotland, at grid reference NM83420697. The place-name means Olafs mound, it is said to commemorate a Viking prince so-named, Dunan Aula is situated 650 metres north-northeast of Barbreck House in Craignish parish. The cist is located on the top of a mound, north of an 18th-century burial ground. The cist is said to have been sometime before the late 18th century. The 1791–99 Statistical Account of Scotland records that when it was discovered it had covered in loose stones. The cist consists of slabs of stone and a gabled capstone. It is aligned northeast and southwest, the cist measures 4 feet by 2.7 feet by 2.9 feet, the gabled capstone measures 5.4 feet by 4.8 feet. Other stones which project from the mound may suggest that there are graves in the area. There is no trace of any cairn material, there is an upright slab located roughly 9.5 metres to the north-northwest, on the side of the knoll.
It is aligned northwest and southeast and it measures 0.6 metres by 0.4 metres at the base, and is 1 metre high. The slab has straight slides and a flat top and it is not considered to be part of the cist. A history of the parish of Craignish appears in the 1791–99 Statistical Account of Scotland, written by Rev. Lachlan MLachlan, within his account, MLachlan noted that not many years before some workmen uncovered the cist after removing some loose stones on the mound. Within the cist an urn was found, which was broken, MLachlan noted to the great disappointment to those who destroyed it, all the urn contained was ash. The tradition was that Olaus, son of the King of Denmark, was slain in the battle, and that the mound of Dunan Aula, Rev. Archibald Francis Stewart wrote the account of the parish in the 1834–45 Statistical Account of Scotland. Stewart wrote an expanded form of the tradition mentioned by MLachlan, Stewart wrote that it was said that a great battle took place in the parish, fought between the Danes under Olave, or Olaus, son of their monarch, and the natives under their king.
The battle was said to have begun at Druim Righ, in the first encounter, the natives gave way and retreated up the valley. However, once they retrieved reinforcements they rallied at a place called Sluggan, one of the Danish leaders, was slain and a grey stone was said to still mark the spot where he fell. The Danes recovered themselves and stood their ground where the battle first commenced and the Scottish king were said to have fought in single combat, in which Olave was slain
Beauly is a town in the Kilmorack Parish of the Scottish County of Inverness, on the River Beauly,10 miles west of Inverness by the Far North railway line. The town is now within the Highland council area, the land around Beauly is fertile - historically corn was grown extensively and more recently fruit has successfully been farmed. The town historically traded in coal, lime, Beauly is the site of the Beauly Priory, or the Priory Church of the Blessed Virgin and John the Baptist, founded in 1230 by John Byset of the Aird, for Valliscaulian monks. Following the Reformation, the buildings passed into the possession of Lord Lovat, Beauly is the site of Lovat Castle, which once belonged to the Bissets, but was presented by James VI, to Hugh Fraser, 5th Lord Lovat and demolished. The population of Beauly was 855 in 1901, in 1994 Simon Fraser, 15th Lord Lovat sold Beaufort castle to Ann Gloag to pay off debts. In 2002, the Beauly railway station, built in 1862, in January 2010, the Scottish government approved controversial plans for a power line upgrade that will begin in Beauly and end in Denny, Falkirk.
The new power line, part of a plan to carry electricity generated by wind farms on the Western Isles, was called the most significant grid infrastructure project in a generation by Jim Mather MSP. The 220-kilometre line will consist of a network of 600 pylons, the first part of the transmission circuit was switched on in July 2013. The extensive ruins of the church of Beauly Priory with funerary monuments are managed by Historic Scotland. The town is known for the Beauly Shinty Club, its shinty team, to the south-east of Beauly is the church of Kirkhill, Highland containing the vault of the Lovats as well as a number of septs of the Mackenzies, including Seaforth and Mackenzies of Gairloch. 3 miles south of Beauly is Beaufort Castle, the seat of the Lovats. It occupies the site of an erected in the time of Alexander II. This was replaced by several castles in succession, Simon Fraser, 11th Lord Lovat witnessed this latter conflagration of his castle from a neighbouring hill. Major Patrick Hunter Gordon FRSE CBE MC DL lived in Ballindoun House near Beauly, Beauly Firth Visit Beauly from the Beauly Marketing Group
Drizzlecombe or Thrushelcombe is an area of Dartmoor in the county of Devon, England. It is located on the side of the moor about 4 miles east of the village of Yelverton. The area contains a number of Bronze Age stone rows and menhirs, there are three principal stone rows each with an associated barrow and terminal menhir. The tallest menhir, which at 14 ft high is the largest on Dartmoor, was re-erected by Sabine Baring-Gould, R. Hansford Worth and others in 1893. Nearby is the large but damaged cairn known as Giants Basin, many of its stones were removed by warreners to build their rabbit-warrens at Ditsworthy, higher up the slope and overlooking these monuments is a village of stone hut circles, akin to the one at Grimspound. To the north-east lie the remains of Eylesbarrow tin mine. There are Neolithic kistvaens in the area
A cadaver, called corpse in medical and legal usage, or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body. Observation of the stages of decomposition can help determine how long a body has been dead. The first stage is autolysis, more known as self-digestion. However, these enzymes are released into the cells because of active processes ceasing in the cells, as a result of autolysis, liquid is created that gets between the layers of skin and makes the skin peel off. During this stage, flies start to lay eggs in the openings of the body, nostrils, ears, open wounds, hatched larvae, of blowflies, subsequently get under the skin and start to eat the body. This bloating occurs largely in the abdomen, and sometimes in the mouth and this usually happens in about the second week of decomposition. Gas accumulation and bloating will continue until the body is decomposed sufficiently for the gas to escape and it is the last and longest stage. Putrefaction is where the structures of the body break down. The digestive organs, the brain, and lungs are the first to disintegrate, under normal conditions, the organs are unidentifiable after three weeks.
The muscles can be eaten by bacteria or devoured by animals, sometimes after several years, all that remains is the skeleton. In acid-rich soils, the skeleton will eventually dissolve into its base chemicals, the rate of decomposition depends on many factors including temperature and the environment. The warmer and more humid the environment, the faster the body is broken down, greek physicians Herophilus and Erasistratus were among the first on record to have dissected bodies. Andreas Vesalius, author of De humani corporis fabrica, who was able to dispel many misconceptions by dissecting human cadavers, is regarded as the father of human anatomy. The tradition of dissecting criminals was carried up into the eighteenth and nineteenth century when anatomy schools became popular in England and Scotland, at that time, a greater percentage of Christians believed in the literal raising from the dead. Because the souls of dissected bodies could not go to heaven, criminals who were executed for their crimes were used as the first cadavers.
From the 16th century until 1832, and the passage of the Anatomy Act, the demand for cadavers increased when the number of criminals being executed decreased. Since corpses were in high demand, it became commonplace to steal bodies from graves in order to keep the market supplied. The methods of preserving cadavers have changed over the last 200 years, at that time, cadavers had to be used immediately because there were no adequate methods to keep the body from quickly decaying
It is sometimes described as an eneolithic culture, due to its use of primitive copper tools. This necropolis occupies about 2000 m² and contains 34 separate tombs and it was discovered late in the year 1943, during the Allied campaign in Italy, when the construction of the Gaudo Airfield unearthed some of the tombs. The tombs were accessed by a more or less circular shaft from above, at the bottom of which was a kind of vestibule or antechamber. There is evidence that the Gaudo funeral rites would have carried out by a team of people, and after the conclusion of the rites. The Gaudo people would apparently use tombs repeatedly, perhaps for different generations of people and it has been seen that the body of the most recently deceased would always be placed at the back of his burial chamber, with the previous tenants of that chamber placed beside him. These accessories were probably symbols of rank, study of the arrangement of bones and accompanying artifacts has led researchers to believe that the Gaudo society was structured into different family groups or warrior clans of some kind.
Unfortunately, since the Gaudo people are known almost exclusively through their tombs, little is known about the other facets of their culture. Some other Gaudo sites are known throughout Campania however, such as what is thought to be a Gaudo dwelling in Taurasi, a large collection of Gaudo artifacts is on display at the National Archeological Museum of Paestum
An ossuary is a chest, building, well, or site made to serve as the final resting place of human skeletal remains. They are frequently used where space is scarce. A body is first buried in a grave, after some years the skeletal remains are removed and placed in an ossuary. The greatly reduced space taken up by a means that it is possible to store the remains of many more people in a single tomb than if the original coffins were left as is. In Persia, the Zoroastrians used a well for this function from the earliest times. There are many rituals and regulations in the Zoroastrian faith concerning the astudans, the village of Wamba in the province of Valladolid, has an impressive ossuary of over a thousand skulls inside the local church, dating from between the 12th and 18th centuries. A more recent example is the Douaumont ossuary in France, which contains the remains of more than 130,000 French, the Catacombs of Paris represents another famous ossuary. The catacombs beneath the Monastery of San Francisco in Lima, the use of ossuaries is a longstanding tradition in the Orthodox Church.
In Orthodox monasteries, when one of the dies, his remains are buried for one to three years, and disinterred and gathered into the monasterys charnel house. If there is reason to believe that the departed is a saint, the remains of an abbot may be placed in a separate ossuary made out of wood or metal. The use of ossuaries is found among the laity in the Greek Orthodox Church, during the time of the Second Temple, Jewish burial customs included primary burials in burial caves, followed by secondary burials in ossuaries placed in smaller niches of the burial caves. Some of the ossuaries that have been discovered, particularly around the Jerusalem area. The custom of burial in ossuaries did not persist among Jews past the Second Temple period nor appear to exist among Jews outside the land of Israel. The skeletal remains of 6 million people lie, neatly arranged, in subterranean catacombs beneath the streets of Paris, aircraft boneyard Boneyard, Arizona Catacomb Charnel house Columbarium Crypt Grave James Ossuary Mausoleum Reliquary Tomb
Corded Ware culture
Corded Ware culture encompassed a vast area, from the Rhine on the west to the Volga in the east, occupying parts of Northern Europe, Central Europe and Eastern Europe. The Corded Ware was genetically related to the Yamnaya culture. The Corded Ware culture may have disseminated the Proto-Germanic and Proto-Balto-Slavic Indo-European languages, the Corded Ware Culture shows genetic affinity with the Sintashta culture, where the proto-Indo-Iranian language originated. The term Corded Ware culture was first introduced by the German archaeologist Friedrich Klopfleisch in 1883 and he named it after cord-like impressions or ornamentation characteristic of its pottery. The term Single Grave culture comes from its burial custom, which consisted of inhumation under tumuli in a position with various artifacts. Battle Axe culture, or Boat Axe culture, is named from its characteristic grave offering to males, at the same time, they had several shared elements that are characteristic of all Corded Ware groups, such as their burial practices, pottery with cord decoration and unique stone-axes.
The contemporary Beaker culture overlapped with the extremity of this culture, west of the Elbe. The origins and dispersal of Corded Ware culture was for a time one of the pivotal unresolved issues of the Indo-European Urheimat problem. Its wide area of distribution indicates rapid expansion at the time of the dispersal of Indo-European languages. Some archaeologists believed it sprang from central Europe while others saw an influence from nomadic societies of the steppes. In favour of the first view was the fact that Corded Ware coincides considerably with the earlier north-central European Funnelbeaker culture, according to Gimbutas, the Corded Ware culture was preceded by the Globular Amphora culture, which she regarded to be an Indo-European culture. The Globular Amphora culture stretched from central Europe to the Baltic sea, however, in other regions Corded Ware appears to herald a new culture and physical type. The degree to which cultural change generally represents immigration were matter of debate, according to controversial radiocarbon dates, Corded Ware ceramic forms in single graves develop earlier in the area that is now Poland than in western and southern Central Europe.
The earliest radiocarbon dates for Corded Ware indeed come from Kujawy and Lesser Poland in central and southern Poland, whereas in the area of the present Baltic states and East Prussia, it is seen as an intrusive successor to the southwestern portion of the Narva culture. However, today Corded Ware is now seen as intrusive, though not necessarily aggressively so. A Genetic study conducted by Haak et al, about 75% of the DNA of late Neolithic Corded Ware skeletons found in Germany was a precise match to DNA from individuals of the Yamnaya culture. Haak et al. note that their results suggest that haplogroups R1b and R1a spread into Europe from the East after 3,000 BCE.5 In terms of phenotypes, Wilde et al. and Haak et al. Autosomal DNA tests indicate that the Yamnaya migration from the steppes introduced a component of ancestry referred to as Ancient North Eurasian admixture into Europe
These forms of pottery are in turn used to define the Neolithic culture which produced and spread them, mostly commonly called the Cardial culture. The alternative name impressed ware is given by archaeologists to define this culture, because impressions can be with sharp objects other than cockle shell. Impressed pottery is more widespread than the Cardial. Impressed ware is found in the zone covering Italy to the Ligurian coast as distinct from the more western Cardial extending from Provence to western Portugal. The sequence in prehistoric Europe has traditionally been supposed to start with widespread Cardial ware, however the widespread Cardial and Impressed pattern types overlap and are now considered more likely to be contemporary. The earliest impressed ware sites, dating to 6400-6200 BC, are in Epirus, settlements appear in Albania and Dalmatia on the eastern Adriatic coast dating to between 6100 and 5900 BC. The earliest date in Italy comes from Coppa Nevigata on the Adriatic coast of southern Italy, during Su Carroppu culture in Sardinia, already in its early stages early examples of cardial pottery appear.
This suggests an expansion by planting colonies along the coast. Older Neolithic cultures existed already at time in eastern Greece and Crete, apparently having arrived from the Levant. Early Neolithic impressed pottery is found in the Levant, and certain parts of Anatolia, including Mezraa-Teleilat, so the first Cardial settlers in the Adriatic may have come directly from the Levant. Of course it might well have come directly from North Africa. Along the East Mediterranean coast impressed ware has found in North Syria, Palestine. Prehistoric Italy Prehistory of Corsica Prehistoric Iberia Byblos Stone Age