Lumbar lymph trunk
The lumbar trunks are formed by the union of the efferent vessels from the lateral aortic lymph nodes. They receive the lymph from the lower limbs, from the walls and viscera of the pelvis, from the kidneys and suprarenal glands and the deep lymphatics of the greater part of the abdominal wall; the lumbar trunks empty into the cisterna chyli, a dilatation at the beginning of the thoracic duct. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 691 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Overview at uams.edu
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists and health professionals such as doctors. Anatomical terminology uses many unique terms and prefixes deriving from Ancient Greek and Latin; these terms can be confusing to those unfamiliar with them, but can be more precise, reducing ambiguity and errors. Since these anatomical terms are not used in everyday conversation, their meanings are less to change, less to be misinterpreted. To illustrate how inexact day-to-day language can be: a scar "above the wrist" could be located on the forearm two or three inches away from the hand or at the base of the hand. By using precise anatomical terminology such ambiguity is eliminated. An international standard for anatomical terminology, Terminologia Anatomica has been created. Anatomical terminology has quite regular morphology, the same prefixes and suffixes are used to add meanings to different roots; the root of a term refers to an organ or tissue. For example, the Latin names of structures such as musculus biceps brachii can be split up and refer to, musculus for muscle, biceps for "two-headed", brachii as in the brachial region of the arm.
The first word describes what is being spoken about, the second describes it, the third points to location. When describing the position of anatomical structures, structures may be described according to the anatomical landmark they are near; these landmarks may include structures, such as the umbilicus or sternum, or anatomical lines, such as the midclavicular line from the centre of the clavicle. The cephalon or cephalic region refers to the head; this area is further differentiated into the cranium, frons, auris, nasus and mentum. The neck area is called cervical region. Examples of structures named according to this include the frontalis muscle, submental lymph nodes, buccal membrane and orbicularis oculi muscle. Sometimes, unique terminology is used to reduce confusion in different parts of the body. For example, different terms are used when it comes to the skull in compliance with its embryonic origin and its tilted position compared to in other animals. Here, Rostral refers to proximity to the front of the nose, is used when describing the skull.
Different terminology is used in the arms, in part to reduce ambiguity as to what the "front", "back", "inner" and "outer" surfaces are. For this reason, the terms below are used: Radial referring to the radius bone, seen laterally in the standard anatomical position. Ulnar referring to the ulna bone, medially positioned when in the standard anatomical position. Other terms are used to describe the movement and actions of the hands and feet, other structures such as the eye. International morphological terminology is used by the colleges of medicine and dentistry and other areas of the health sciences, it facilitates communication and exchanges between scientists from different countries of the world and it is used daily in the fields of research and medical care. The international morphological terminology refers to morphological sciences as a biological sciences' branch. In this field, the form and structure are examined as well as the changes or developments in the organism, it is functional.
It covers the gross anatomy and the microscopic of living beings. It involves the anatomy of the adult, it includes comparative anatomy between different species. The vocabulary is extensive and complex, requires a systematic presentation. Within the international field, a group of experts reviews and discusses the morphological terms of the structures of the human body, forming today's Terminology Committee from the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, it deals with the anatomical and embryologic terminology. In the Latin American field, there are meetings called Iberian Latin American Symposium Terminology, where a group of experts of the Pan American Association of Anatomy that speak Spanish and Portuguese and studies the international morphological terminology; the current international standard for human anatomical terminology is based on the Terminologia Anatomica. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and was released in 1998.
It supersedes Nomina Anatomica. Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross anatomical structures. For microanatomy, known as histology, a similar standard exists in Terminologia Histologica, for embryology, the study of development, a standard exists in Terminologia Embryologica; these standards specify accepted names that can be used to refer to histological and embryological structures in journal articles and other areas. As of September 2016, two sections of the Terminologia Anatomica, including central nervous system and peripheral nervous system, were merged to form the Terminologia Neuroanatomica; the Terminologia Anatomica has been perceived with a considerable criticism regarding its content including coverage and spelling mistakes and errors. Anatomical terminology is chosen to highlight the relative location of body structures. For instance, an anatomist might describe one band of tissue as "inferior to" another or a physician might describe a tumor as "superficial to" a deeper body structure.
Anatomical terms used to describe location
An organ system is a group of organs that work together as a biological system to perform one or more functions. Each organ system does a particular job in the body, is made up of certain tissues; these specific systems are studied in anatomy. They are present in many types of animals. Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, bronchi and diaphragm. Digestive system: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, stomach, gallbladder, intestines and anus. Cardiovascular system: and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart and blood vessels. Urinary system: kidneys, ureters and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine. Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails. Skeletally system: structural support and protection with bones, cartilage and tendons. Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid and adrenal glands.
Lymphatic system: the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream. Includes the functions of immune responses and the development of antibodies. Our bodies consist of a number of biological systems that carry out specific functions necessary for everyday living; the job of the circulatory system is to move blood, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, around the body. It consists of the heart, blood vessels and veins. Immune system: protects the organism from foreign bodies. Nervous system: collecting and processing information with brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system and sense organs. Sensory systems: visual system, auditory system, olfactory system, gustatory system, somatosensory system, vestibular system. Muscular system: allows for manipulation of the environment, provides locomotion, maintains posture, produces heat. Includes skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscle. Reproductive system: the sex organs, such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, mammary glands, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles and prostate
Chyle is a milky bodily fluid consisting of lymph and emulsified fats, or free fatty acids. It is formed in the small intestine during digestion of fatty foods, taken up by lymph vessels known as lacteals; the lipids in the chyle are colloidally suspended in chylomicrons. A chyle fistula occurs when defect of lymphatic vessel result in leakage of lymphatic fluid accumulating in the thoracic or abdominal cavities, leading to a chylous pleural effusion or chylous ascites, respectively. Diagnosis of a chyle fistula may be accomplished by analysis of pleural/peritoneal fluid. Identifying the source is challenging, but may be accomplished with lymphangiography, associated with a serendipitous therapeutic effect, thought to be secondary to a sclerosant effect of the lymphangiography contrast. Due to the extreme friability of the lymphatic vessels, direct repair of defects is impractical. Therefore, treatment of chyle fistulae relies upon either decreased production of lymphatic fluid to allow for healing of lymphatic defect or permanent diversion of lymphatic fluid away from lymphatic defect.
Decreased production of lymphatic fluid may be accomplished by dietary restriction, as well as by the medications octreotide and orlistat. Permanent diversion of lymphatic fluid may be accomplished by thoracic duct embolization or by thoracic duct ligation. Chyme
Anatomical terms of location
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. All vertebrates have the same basic body plan – they are bilaterally symmetrical in early embryonic stages and bilaterally symmetrical in adulthood; that is, they have mirror-image left and right halves if divided down the middle. For these reasons, the basic directional terms can be considered to be those used in vertebrates. By extension, the same terms are used for many other organisms as well. While these terms are standardized within specific fields of biology, there are unavoidable, sometimes dramatic, differences between some disciplines. For example, differences in terminology remain a problem that, to some extent, still separates the terminology of human anatomy from that used in the study of various other zoological categories. Standardized anatomical and zoological terms of location have been developed based on Latin and Greek words, to enable all biological and medical scientists to delineate and communicate information about animal bodies and their component organs though the meaning of some of the terms is context-sensitive.
The vertebrates and Craniata share a substantial heritage and common structure, so many of the same terms are used for location. To avoid ambiguities this terminology is based on the anatomy of each animal in a standard way. For humans, one type of vertebrate, anatomical terms may differ from other forms of vertebrates. For one reason, this is because humans have a different neuraxis and, unlike animals that rest on four limbs, humans are considered when describing anatomy as being in the standard anatomical position, thus what is on "top" of a human is the head, whereas the "top" of a dog may be its back, the "top" of a flounder could refer to either its left or its right side. For invertebrates, standard application of locational terminology becomes difficult or debatable at best when the differences in morphology are so radical that common concepts are not homologous and do not refer to common concepts. For example, many species are not bilaterally symmetrical. In these species, terminology depends on their type of symmetry.
Because animals can change orientation with respect to their environment, because appendages like limbs and tentacles can change position with respect to the main body, positional descriptive terms need to refer to the animal as in its standard anatomical position. All descriptions are with respect to the organism in its standard anatomical position when the organism in question has appendages in another position; this helps avoid confusion in terminology. In humans, this refers to the body in a standing position with arms at the side and palms facing forward. While the universal vertebrate terminology used in veterinary medicine would work in human medicine, the human terms are thought to be too well established to be worth changing. Many anatomical terms can be combined, either to indicate a position in two axes or to indicate the direction of a movement relative to the body. For example, "anterolateral" indicates a position, both anterior and lateral to the body axis. In radiology, an X-ray image may be said to be "anteroposterior", indicating that the beam of X-rays pass from their source to patient's anterior body wall through the body to exit through posterior body wall.
There is no definite limit to the contexts in which terms may be modified to qualify each other in such combinations. The modifier term is truncated and an "o" or an "i" is added in prefixing it to the qualified term. For example, a view of an animal from an aspect at once dorsal and lateral might be called a "dorsolateral" view. Again, in describing the morphology of an organ or habitus of an animal such as many of the Platyhelminthes, one might speak of it as "dorsiventrally" flattened as opposed to bilaterally flattened animals such as ocean sunfish. Where desirable three or more terms may be agglutinated or concatenated, as in "anteriodorsolateral"; such terms sometimes used to be hyphenated. There is however little basis for any strict rule to interfere with choice of convenience in such usage. Three basic reference planes are used to describe location; the sagittal plane is a plane parallel to the sagittal suture. All other sagittal planes are parallel to it, it is known as a "longitudinal plane".
The plane is perpendicular to the ground. The median plane or midsagittal plane is in the midline of the body, divides the body into left and right portions; this passes through the head, spinal cord, and, in many animals, the tail. The term "median plane" can refer to the midsagittal plane of other structures, such as a digit; the frontal plane or coronal plane divides the body into ventral portions. For post-embryonic humans a coronal plane is vertical and a transverse plane is horizontal, but for embryos and quadrupeds a coronal plane is horizontal and a transverse plane is vertical. A longitudinal plane is any plane perpendicular to the transverse plane; the coronal plane and the sagittal plane are examples of longitudinal planes. A transverse plane known as a cross-section, divides the body into cranial and caudal portions. In human anatomy: A transverse plane is an X-Z plane, parallel to the ground, which s
Lymph is the fluid that flows through the lymphatic system, a system composed of lymph vessels and intervening lymph nodes whose function, like the venous system, is to return fluid from the tissues to the central circulation. Interstitial fluid - the fluid, between the cells in all body tissues - enters the lymph capillaries; this lymphatic fluid is transported via progressively larger lymphatic vessels through lymph nodes, where substances are removed by tissue lymphocytes and circulating lymphocytes are added to the fluid, before emptying into the right or the left subclavian vein, where it mixes with central venous blood. Since the lymph is derived from the interstitial fluid, its composition continually changes as the blood and the surrounding cells continually exchange substances with the interstitial fluid, it is similar to blood plasma, the fluid component of blood. Lymph returns excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream. Lymph transports fats from the digestive system to the blood via chylomicrons.
Bacteria may be transported to lymph nodes, where they are destroyed. Metastatic cancer cells can be transported via lymph; the word lymph is derived from the name of the ancient Roman deity of Lympha. Lymph has a not identical to that of blood plasma. Lymph that leaves a lymph node is richer in lymphocytes; the lymph formed in the human digestive system called chyle is rich in triglycerides, looks milky white because of its lipid content. Blood supplies nutrients and important metabolites to the cells of a tissue and collects back the waste products they produce, which requires exchange of respective constituents between the blood and tissue cells; this exchange is not direct, but instead occurs through an intermediary called interstitial fluid, which occupies the spaces between cells. As the blood and the surrounding cells continually add and remove substances from the interstitial fluid, its composition continually changes. Water and solutes can pass between the interstitial fluid and blood via diffusion across gaps in capillary walls called intercellular clefts.
Interstitial fluid forms at the arterial end of capillaries because of the higher pressure of blood compared to veins, most of it returns to its venous ends and venules. Thus, lymph when formed is a watery clear liquid with the same composition as the interstitial fluid. However, as it flows through the lymph nodes it comes in contact with blood, tends to accumulate more cells and proteins. Lymph returns excess interstitial fluid to the bloodstream. Lymph may bring them to lymph nodes, where they are destroyed. Metastatic cancer cells can be transported via lymph. Lymph transports fats from the digestive system to the blood via chylomicrons. Tubular vessels transport lymph back to the blood replacing the volume lost during the formation of the interstitial fluid; these channels are the lymphatic channels, or lymphatics. Unlike the cardiovascular system, the lymphatic system is not closed and has no central pump, or lymph heart. Lymph transport, therefore, is sporadic. Despite low pressure, lymph movement occurs due to peristalsis and compression during contraction of adjacent skeletal muscle and arterial pulsation.
Lymph that enters the lymph vessels from the interstitial spaces does not flow backwards along the vessels because of the presence of valves. If excessive hydrostatic pressure develops within the lymph vessels, some fluid can leak back into the interstitial spaces and contribute to formation of oedema. Flow of the lymph in the thoracic duct in an average resting person approximates 100ml per hour. Accompanied by another ~25ml per hour in other lymph vessels, total lymph flow in the body is about 4 to 5 liters per day; this can be elevated several fold while exercising. It is estimated. In 1907 the zoologist Ross Granville Harrison demonstrated the growth of frog nerve cell processes in a medium of clotted lymph, it is made up of lymph vessels. In 1913, E. Steinhardt, C. Israeli, R. A. Lambert grew vaccinia virus in fragments of tissue culture from guinea pig corneal grown in lymph
Facial lymph nodes
The facial lymph nodes comprise three groups: infraorbital or maxillary, scattered over the infraorbital region from the groove between the nose and cheek to the zygomatic arch. Their afferent vessels drain the eyelids, the conjunctiva, the skin and mucous membrane of the nose and cheek; this article incorporates text in the public domain from page 694 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy