Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, yet the non-oceanic borders of Europe—a concept dating back to classical antiquity—are arbitrary. Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres, or 2% of the Earths surface, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a population of about 740 million as of 2015. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast, Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the period, marked the end of ancient history. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era, from the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania.
The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to economic and social change in Western Europe. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill and it includes all states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, the EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The European Anthem is Ode to Joy and states celebrate peace, in classical Greek mythology, Europa is the name of either a Phoenician princess or of a queen of Crete. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, broad and ὤψ eye, broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it.
For the second part the divine attributes of grey-eyed Athena or ox-eyed Hera. The same naming motive according to cartographic convention appears in Greek Ανατολή, Martin Litchfield West stated that phonologically, the match between Europas name and any form of the Semitic word is very poor. Next to these there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning darkness. Most major world languages use words derived from Eurṓpē or Europa to refer to the continent, in some Turkic languages the originally Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa
Forbes is an American business magazine. Published bi-weekly, it features articles on finance, investing. Forbes reports on related subjects such as technology, science and its headquarters is located in Jersey City, New Jersey. Primary competitors in the business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek. The magazine is known for its lists and rankings, including its lists of the richest Americans. Another well-known list by the magazine is The Worlds Billionaires list, the motto of Forbes magazine is The Capitalist Tool. Its chairman and editor-in-chief is Steve Forbes, and its CEO is Mike Perlis, Forbes, a financial columnist for the Hearst papers, and his partner Walter Drey, the general manager of the Magazine of Wall Street, founded Forbes magazine on September 15,1917. Forbes provided the money and the name and Drey provided the publishing expertise, the original name of the magazine was Forbes, Devoted to Doers and Doings. Drey became vice-president of the B. C. Forbes Publishing Company, while B. C.
Forbes became editor-in-chief, B. C. Forbes was assisted in his years by his two eldest sons, Bruce Charles Forbes and Malcolm Stevenson Forbes. Bruce Forbes took over on his fathers death, and his strengths lay in streamlining operations, during his tenure, 1954–1964, the magazines circulation nearly doubled. On Malcolms death, his eldest son Malcolm Stevenson Steve Forbes Jr. became President and Chief Executive of Forbes, between 1961 and 1999 the magazine was edited by James Michaels. In 1993, under Michaels, Forbes was a finalist for the National Magazine Award. com, a 2009 New York Times report said,40 percent of the enterprise was sold. For a reported $300 million, setting the value of the enterprise at $750 million, according to Mark M. Edmiston of AdMedia Partners, Its probably not worth half of that now. The companys headquarters moved to the Newport section of downtown Jersey City. In November 2013, Forbes Media, which publishes Forbes magazine, was put up for sale and this was encouraged by Elevation Partners, of whom were minority shareholders.
Sales documents prepared by Deutsche Bank revealed that the publishers 2012 EBITDA was $15 million, Forbes reportedly sought a price of $400 million. In July 2014, Forbes sold a majority of itself to Integrated Whale Media Investments, Steve Forbes and his magazines writers offer investment advice on the weekly Fox TV show Forbes on Fox and on Forbes On Radio. Other company groups include Forbes Conference Group, Forbes Investment Advisory Group, from the 2009 Times report, Steve Forbes recently returned from opening up a Forbes magazine in India, bringing the number of foreign editions to 10
The Hirschsprung Collection is an art museum located on Stockholmsgade in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located in a setting in Østre Anlæg, near the Danish National Gallery. The emphasis is on the Danish Golden Age, from 1800 to 1850, the museum is built around the personal art collection of Heinrich Hirschsprung, a tobacco manufacturer and patron of the arts who founded his art collection in 1865. Almost four decades later, in 1902, he donated it to the Danish state and it is displayed in a purpose-built Neoclassical museum building designed by Hermann Baagøe Storck and completed in 1911. Heinrich Hirschsprung was a tobacco manufacturer, over a period of four decades, beginning in 1866, Hirschsprung built an extensive collection of Danish art from the beginning of the 18th century and up to their own day. The collection was shown to the public for the first time in 1888 at Charlottenborg and this happened in connection with the Nordic exhibition of Industry and Art which was expected to draw many foreign visitors to Copenhagen.
The exhibition catalogue included 313 items, representing some 60 Danish artists, about half were paintings while the rest were drawings, watercolours and some sculptures. In 1900, Pauline and Heinrich Hirschsprung decided to donate their art collection to the Danish state and they had a deed of gift drawn up, which was deposited with the Danish Ministry of Cultural Affairs. However, the donation was not made public two years later, in 1902, when the collection was once again exhibited at Charlottenborg. At the same event, the art historian Emil Hannover was put in charge of cataloging the collection, the exhibition at Charlottenborg included renderings of the planned museum building, which had been designed by the architect Hermann Baagøe Storck. Under the terms of the deed of gift, the Danish state and the City of Copenhagen, on their side, were required to make a site and a building available for its exhibition. This scheme was similar to the one which had agreed upon in connection with Carl Jacobsens foundation of the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek.
Still Hirschsprungs demand for an independent building gave rise to a debate on arts politics which went on for several years. A number of individuals promised to donate works to the collection once it passed into public ownership while others were purchased by Hirschsprung conditional on the same event. In less than a year, Hirschsprung managed to collect the majority of the 180 sculptures included in the 1902 catalogue. The collection represents 20 Danish sculptors,1907 finally saw a successful conclusion to negotiations and a start could be made on building Storcks project from 1902. The site which was chosen was in Østre Anlæg, a park which had been laid out on the grounds of the citys former fortifications. Heinrich Hirschsprung died the year, in 1908, and thus never saw his museum materialize
National Gallery of Denmark
National Gallery of Denmark is the Danish national gallery located in the centre of Copenhagen. The museum collects, maintains and handles Danish, the major part of the museums older collections comes from the art chambers of Danish kings. The display of European Art 1300–1800 is a collection of art over the 500-year period, featuring works by Mantegna, Titian, Rubens. The art is spread over thirteen rooms, and is the oldest art collection in Denmark, with a emphasis on Danish, Flemish, French, Spanish. Danish and Nordic Art 1750-1900 charts Scandinavian art from the beginnings of Danish painting through the ‘Golden Age’ to the birth of Modernism and it displays over 400 works through 24 galleries. It features work by Abildgaard, Eckersberg, Købke, Ring, SMK gained its modern French art collection in 1928 when it was donated by the late collector Johannes Rump. This collection features some of the museum’s most famous pieces from artists such as Matisse, Picasso and Braque. The collection was first offered to the SMK by Rump in 1923, housed in the museum’s 1993 extension, this 20th and 21st century collection is predominantly focused on the most important examples of modern Danish art.
A long corridor of paintings looking onto Østre Anlæg park works as an overview of the work from this period. The beginnings of this collection were made around the time of Christian II, in his diary from 1521 the German painter Albrecht Dürer says he has given the King the best pieces of all my prints. In 1843 the various works, which had so far been the private collection, were displayed to the public. It was moved into the Statens Museum for Kunst when the first building was completed in 1896, along with The Royal Collection of Paintings, although the papers contain a great number of foreign works, Danish art constitutes the main part of the collection. This collection is open to the public through the Print Room, the Royal Cast Collection is held at the West India Warehouse, Toldbodgade 40, between The Little Mermaid and Nyhavn in Copenhagen. It consists of over 2,000 naked plaster casts of statues and reliefs from collections, temples, the Royal Cast Collection is only open for special events.
At the start of the Second World War the art of antiquity became increasingly unfashionable, associated with an archaic artistic tradition. In 1966, as abstract art became popular, the Royal Cast Collection was removed to a barn outside Copenhagen for storage. The collections of the Danish National Gallery originate in the Art Chamber of the Danish monarchs, when the German Gerhard Morell became Keeper of Frederick Vs Art Chamber about 1750, he suggested that the king create a separate collection of paintings. To ensure that the collection was not inferior to those of other European royal houses and local counts, the collection became particularly well provided with Flemish and Dutch art
Ordrupgaard is a state-owned art museum situated near Jægersborg Dyrehave, north of Copenhagen, Denmark. The museum houses one of Northern Europe’s most considerable collections of Danish and French art from the 19th, Ordrupgaard was founded 1916–1918 by former Hafnia managing director, titular Councillor of State Wilhelm Hansen and his wife Henny Hansen. Wilhelm Hansen established his collection of Danish art covering the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century during the period of 1892 to 1916. The Danish Golden Age is comprehensively represented by works by, amongst others, Christoffer Wilhelm Eckersberg, Christen Købke, Johan Thomas Lundbye, during World War I, Wilhelm Hansen focused his interest on French art. From 1916 to 1918 he purchased French paintings, pastels and sculptures and it was Wilhelm Hansen’s great wish to acquaint the Danes with French 19th-century art. His first purchases were paintings by Alfred Sisley, Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet, Wilhelm Hansen’s main focus was on French Impressionism.
In order, however, to put Impressionism into perspective, his collection comprised the genres immediately preceding and following, Ordrupgaard is able to show Eugène Delacroix, representing Romanticism, Théodore Rousseau, Gustave Courbet, Édouard Manet, and Paul Gauguin. When purchasing French art, Wilhelm Hansen often took advice from the French art critic Théodore Duret, parallel to Wilhelm Hansen’s interest in Danish and French art was his interest for furniture and handicrafts. He was especially interested in ceramics and furniture executed by Thorvald Bindesbøll and this consortium, founded in 1918 by Wilhelm Hansen together with the collector Herman Heilbuth and art dealers Winkel & Magnussen, was of great importance to the French purchases. Their declared goal was Buying and selling works of art with the purpose of bringing good, for this reason they bought several collections en bloc in Paris. Wilhelm and Henny Hansen bought a piece of land by Ordrup Krat, near Jægersborg Dyrehave, north of Copenhagen.
Between 1916 and 1918 they built their stately home Ordrupgaard, designed by architect Gotfred Tvede, at the same time an extensive park was laid out by landscape gardener Valdemar Fabricius Hansen. Ordrupgaard was inaugurated on 14 September 1918, in his opening speech Wilhelm Hansen declared that the collection would be left to the Danish State. Ordrupgaard was originally built as a three-winged trellised country mansion in the neo-classical style, the gallery which houses the French collection is connected to the main building by a small conservatory. Additionally a porter’s lodge, a residence and a coach house were erected. A shed and a small half-timbered summerhouse comprise the rest of the buildings on the estate. The Park at Ordrupgaard is laid out in the English style with a smaller French-inspired rose garden, the Park at Ordrupgaard originally functioned as a kitchen garden as well as a flower garden. The extensive produce and the fruit trees sustained the family with fresh fruit and vegetables throughout the year while the rest of the grounds were used for leisure
Lightvessel Gedser Rev
XVII Gedser Rev is a decommissioned lightvessel built in 1895, now serving as a museum ship in the Nyhavn Canal in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is owned by the National Museum and takes its name after Gedser Rev south of Falster where it was stationed most of its working life, denmarks first lightvessel was built at Jacob Holms shipyard at Christianshavn in 1829. Hansens shipyard in Odense in 1895, the ship now moored at Nyhavn was number seventeen in the line of Danish lightvessels and it was first stationed at Lappegrund in shallow waters at the entrance to the Øresund. It was powered by two engines which were replaced by a 16-hp kerosene engine in 1918. In 1921, a new three-cylinder Voelund 135-hp propulsion engine was installed, the ship was involved in a number of collisions during her years in operation. The most serious of these occurred in 1954 when she sank within a few minutes, the seaman on duty was thrown overboard and drowned while the rest of the crew were saved. During the Cold War and after the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, many East Germans chose to escape by water, although most failed and many died in the attempt, at least 50 were rescued by the Gedser Rev.
As the Southernmost limit of Danish territory and as an obviously recognisable target, one notable escapee was Manfred Burmeister in 1969, who escaped by aid of a petrol-driven submersible scooter. XVII was decommissioned in 1972 and put up for sale at the warehouse at Holmen in Copenhagen. A donation from the A. P. Møller Foundation enabled the National Museum to purchase it, the A. P. Møller Foundation sponsored the ships restoration which was carried out at Hvide Sande Shipyard from January 2001 until November 2003. The lightvessel is open to the public every Saturday from 11 am to 3 pm from June through August and it is maintained by a group of volunteers. On 27 May 2009 Bank of Denmark issued a new 20 krone coin with lightvessel XVII, as depicted by the artist Karin Lorentzen, list of lighthouses and lightvessels in Denmark
Nivaagaard is a historic property in Nivå in the northern outskirts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is now home to an art gallery and the park is open to the public, the estate was founded in 1767 by Adam von Lüttichau when he purchased Nivaa Havnegård from the Crown. The property was from the associated with the Galley Harbour at Nivaa which was planned in 1753. The name Nivaagaard was introduced in 1793, the estate was acquired by Alfred Hage in 1862. The main building was damaged in a fire in 1873. The architect Ferdinand Vilhelm Jensen designed a new house which was completed in 1881, Nivaagaard was a dominating factor in Nivaas development over the next decades. The first brickyard on the estate was established by Queen Louise in 1701, by 1720 it produced brick for the royal buildings in Copenhagen and the northern part of Zealand. These activities increased and were modernized in the 1840s, in 1857 the brickyard was one of the first in Denmark to introduce a steam engine in the production chain.
In 1870, eight years after Alfred Hage had acquired the estate, the oven remained in use for 97 years up until 1967. The brickyard closed in 1980 and re-opened as a museum, the ring oven, which is now listed, is the earliest of Hoffmanns designs which still exist today. The art collection was founded by Johannes Hage between 1895 and 1905 and it covered European Renaissance and Baroque painting and Danish Golden Age art. A small museum building in temple style designed by Johan Schrøder was built near the house in 1903. On 30 September 1908 Hage turned his collection into an institution which made it available to the public. He chaired the board until his death in 1923, the management of the museum was professionalized in 1981 and it arranged its first special exhibition in 1983. In 1988 the museum building was expanded with support from the Velux Foundation, the new wing was designed by royal building inspector David Bretton-Meyer. The European collection contains works by Giovanni Bellini, Claude Lorrain, the Danish collection contains works by some of the leading artists of the Danish Golden Age, including C. W.
Eckersberg, Christen Købke, Johan Lundbye, Wilhelm Marstrand, Martinus Rørbye and P. C. The original park was designed by Edvard Glæsel and laid out in 1901–02, a large rhododendron garden was established in 2007. Official website Calendar and exhibitions at Nivaagaard
Kronborg is a castle and stronghold in the town of Helsingør, Denmark. Immortalized as Elsinore in William Shakespeares play Hamlet, Kronborg is one of the most important Renaissance castles in Northern Europe and has added to UNESCOs World Heritage Sites list. The castle is situated on the northeastern tip of the island of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Øresund. In this part, the sound is only 4 kilometres wide, the castles story dates back to a stronghold, built by King Eric VII in the 1420s. Along with the fortress Kärnan, Helsingborg on the opposite coast of Øresund, from 1574 to 1585 King Frederick II had the medieval fortress radically transformed into a magnificent Renaissance castle. The main architects were the Flemings Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and Anthonis van Obbergen, in 1629 a fire destroyed much of the castle, but King Christian IV subsequently had it rebuilt. The castle has a church within its walls, in 1658 Kronborg was besieged and captured by the Swedes who took many of its valuable art treasures as war booty.
In 1785 the castle ceased to be a residence and was converted into barracks for the army. The army left the castle in 1923, and after a renovation it was opened to the public. The castles story dates back to a fortress, built in the 1420s by the Danish king, Eric of Pomerania. At the time, the Kingdom of Denmark extended across both sides of the Sound, and on the shore the Helsingborg Castle had been in existence since the Middle Ages. With the two castles and guard ships it was possible to all navigation through the Sound. The castle was built on Ørekrog, a tongue of land stretching into the sea from the coast of Zealand towards the coast of Scania. The castle consisted of a curtain wall with a number of stone buildings inside. The stone building in the northeastern corner contained the kings residence, the building in the southwestern corner contained a large arched banquet hall. The building in the southeastern corner possibly served as the chapel, large portions of the walls of Krogen are contained within the present-day Kronborg Castle.
King Christian III had the corners of the curtain wall supplemented with bastions in 1558-59, from 1574 to 1585 Frederick II had the medieval fortress rebuilt into a magnificent Renaissance castle, unique in its appearance and size throughout Europe. After the conclusion of the Northern Seven Years War in 1570, the main architect was the Flemish architect Hans Hendrik van Paesschen and the fortification works were completed in 1577
Brede House is a late 18th-century country house in Kongens Lyngby north of Copenhagen, Denmark. Originally built for the owner of the adjacent Brede Works, it is now owned by the National Museum of Denmark, Brede House was built for Peter van Hemert, the owner of Brede Works. It is believed that the architect was Andreas Kirkerup while Interior Designer to the Danish Court, joseph Christian Lillie was entrusted with interior designs and probably furnishing the house. Peter van Hemert went bankrupt in 1805 and both his house and industrial plant were sold by auction, the National Museum acquired the house in 1959 and put it through a comprehensive restoration which was not completed until 1974. The Neoclassical house now serves as a house museum which showcases a typical upper-class home of the 1790s. The house is now furnished with period furniture based on the detailed inventory lists which were prepared for each room in connection with the 1805 auction. The park at Brede House is situated to the rear of the building, with Brede Works to the right and a terraced slope with fruit trees to the left as seen from the main building.
It was laid out in the English romantic style in connection with the construction of the house, the pavilion in Chinese style which is today seen in the garden is not native to the site but gifted to the National Museum in 1971. It may originally have stood in Frédéric de Conincks romantic garden at Dronninggård and it is likely that it was designed by Kirkerup since he is the architect behind several other pavilions in Chinese style from the time, including the one in Frederiksberg Gardens. A vegetable garden and nursery used to supply the household with fresh produce, a vegetable garden with original crops is still maintained at the far end of the park. It is situated next to the house and a small cluster of outbuildings and glasshouses, including the Grape House, the Tomato House, the Apple Celler, the Orangery
Rudolph Tegner Museum
Rudolph Tegner acquired the central portion of the area in 1916. He initially mounted the group sculpture King Oedipus and Antigone and later, in 1924, followed the group sculpture The Enigma of Lone, the museum building was built to Tegners own design with the assistance of the architect Mogens Lassen. Construction began in 1937 and it was inaugurated in 1938, a renovation was completed in 2003. The museum is built in concrete to an unusual bunker-like Modernist design, the building needed large dimensions to embrace Tegners works many of which are of very large proportions. The core of the museum is a large gallery with ceilings 11 metres high. The original intention was to build lower galleries on all of its sides, the museum has been built without picture windows to avoid distracting the visitor with views of the scenic surroundings. Except for a window in the gable, all natural light comes from skylights. Concrete as a material was chosen for reasons of fire safety, the difference in scale between the entrance section and the main gallery is designed to create an overwhelming experience for those entering the museum and to enhance its character of a treasury.
The facade bears reference to Antique architecture, the museum exhibits some 250 of Tegners sculptures as well as models in plaster, clay and marble. It consists of undulating heath with scattered trees and juniper vegetation