This article is about Telephus the son of Heracles. The name refers to the father of Cyparissus, in Greek mythology, Telephus was the son of Heracles and Auge, daughter of king Aleus of Tegea, and the father of Eurypylus. He was intended to be king of Tegea, but instead became the king of Mysia in Asia Minor and he was wounded by the Achaeans when they were coming to sack Troy and bring back Helen to Sparta. Aleus, king in Tegea and father of Auge, had been told by an oracle that he would be overthrown by his grandson. So, according to varying myths, he forced Auge to become a priestess of Athena Alea. Although the infant Telephus was hidden in the temple, his cries revealed his presence and Aleus ordered the child exposed on Mt. Parthenion, the child was suckled by a deer through the agency of Heracles, although the Pergamon Altar depicts Telephus being suckled by a lion. Alternatively, Aleus put Auge and the baby in a crate that was set adrift on the sea, Aleus exposed Telephus and sold Auge into slavery, she was thereby given as a gift to King Teuthras.
In either case, Telephus was adopted, either by King Corycus or by King Creon, Telephus companion Parthenopaeus was destined to die at the gates of Thebes, but Telephus was destined to rule foreign lands and fight his fellow Greeks before they reached Troy. The two companions went off to Asia Minor to look for land to make their kingdom and they eventually came to Mysia, where they aided King Teuthras in a war and defeated the enemy. For this the King gave Telephus the hand of his adopted daughter Auge. Auge, who was consecrated to the memory of Heracles, privately refused her fathers decision. Telephus succeeded Teuthras as king of the Mysians, when the Greeks first assembled at Aulis and left for the Trojan War, they accidentally found themselves in Mysia, where they were opposed by some fellow Achaeans. Paris and Helen had stopped in Mysia on their way to Troy, in another version of the myth, as depicted on the interior frieze of the Pergamon Altar, Telephus was married to the Amazon Hiera.
She brought a force of Amazons to aid in the fighting, in the battle Achilles wounded Telephus, who killed Thersander the King of Thebes. This explains why in the Iliad there is no Theban King, the wound would not heal and Telephus consulted the oracle of Delphi about it. The oracle responded in a way that he that wounded shall heal. Telephus convinced Achilles to heal his wound in return for showing the Achaeans the way to Troy, thus resolving the conflict. According to reports about Euripides lost play Telephus, he went to Aulis pretending to be a beggar, there he asked Clytemnaestra, the wife of Agamemnon, what he should do to be healed
Philetaerus was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon in Anatolia. He was born in Tieium, a town which is situated in the geographical region of Pontus Euxinus on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia between Bithynia to the west and Paphlagonia to the east. His father Attalus was Greek and his mother Boa was Paphlagonian, seleucus himself was killed by Ptolemy Ceraunus, a brother of Arsinoë at Lysimachia a few months later. There are numerous records of Philetaerus as benefactor to neighboring cities and temples, including the temples at Delphi and he contributed troops and food to the city of Cyzicus for defense against the invading Gauls. As a result, Philetaerus gained prestige and goodwill for himself, Philetaerus was a eunuch, though scholars differ on the reason for his castration. Attalus I, the first Attalid king of Pergamon, explained that when Philetaerus was a baby, he was brought into a crowd where he was pressed upon and he was a eunuch, but he was well trained and proved worthy of this trust.
Philetaerus never married and, since he was a eunuch, had no children and he adopted his nephew Eumenes I, who succeeded him as ruler of Pergamon, upon his death in 263 BC. With the exception of Eumenes II, all future Attalid rulers depicted the bust of Philetaerus on their coins, New York, Cornell University Press, Cornell University Press Ltd. Kosmetatou, Elizabeth The Attalids of Pergamon, in Andrew Erskine, a Companion to the Hellenistic World. Text Junianus Justinus, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus, with Footnotes, by the Rev. John Selby Watson, Henry G. Bohn, York Street, Convent Garden. Pausanias, Description of Greece, Books I-II, translated by W. H. S. Jones, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, William Heinemann Ltd. Strabo, translated by Horace Leonard Jones, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press, William Heinemann, Books 10-12, ISBN 0-674-99233-4, Books 13-14, ISBN 0-674-99246-6
Heracles, born Alcaeus or Alcides, was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of Amphitryon and great-grandson and half-brother of Perseus. He was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of clans who claimed to be Heracleidae. In Rome and the modern West, he is known as Hercules, with whom the Roman emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian, often identified themselves. The Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works essentially unchanged, details of his cult were adapted to Rome as well. Extraordinary strength, courage and sexual prowess with both males and females were among the characteristics commonly attributed to him, together with Hermes he was the patron and protector of gymnasia and palaestrae. His iconographic attributes are the skin and the club. These qualities did not prevent him from being regarded as a figure who used games to relax from his labors. By conquering dangerous archaic forces he is said to have made the safe for mankind.
Many popular stories were told of his life, the most famous being The Twelve Labours of Heracles and his figure, which initially drew on Near Eastern motifs such as the lion-fight, was widely known. Heracles was the greatest of Hellenic chthonic heroes, but unlike other Greek heroes, the core of the story of Heracles has been identified by Walter Burkert as originating in Neolithic hunter culture and traditions of shamanistic crossings into the netherworld. Heracles role as a hero, whose death could be a subject of mythic telling, was accepted into the Olympian Pantheon during Classical times. Around him cries of the dead rang out like cries of birds scattering left, in Christian circles a Euhemerist reading of the widespread Heracles cult was attributed to a historical figure who had been offered cult status after his death. The ancient Greeks celebrated the festival of the Heracleia, which commemorated the death of Heracles, what is believed to be an Egyptian Temple of Heracles in the Bahariya Oasis dates to 21 BCE.
A reassessment of Ptolemys descriptions of the island of Malta attempted to link the site at Ras ir-Raħeb with a temple to Heracles, several ancient cities were named Heraclea in his honor. A major factor in the tragedies surrounding Heracles is the hatred that the goddess Hera. A full account of Heracles must render it clear why Heracles was so tormented by Hera, Heracles was the son of the affair Zeus had with the mortal woman Alcmene. Zeus made love to her after disguising himself as her husband, thus, Heracles very existence proved at least one of Zeus many illicit affairs, and Hera often conspired against Zeus mortal offspring as revenge for her husbands infidelities. His twin mortal brother, son of Amphitryon, was Iphicles, Hera did this knowing that while Heracles was to be born a descendant of Perseus, so too was Eurystheus
The Bosporan Kingdom was the longest surviving Roman client kingdom. The 1st and 2nd centuries BC saw a period of renewed golden age of the Bosporan state and it was a Roman province from 63 to 68 AD, under Emperor Nero. At the end of the 2nd century AD, King Sauromates II inflicted a defeat on the Scythians. The prosperity of the Bosporan Kingdom was based on the export of wheat and these include gold work, vases imported from Athens, coarse terracottas, textile fragments and specimens of carpentry and marquetry. These Greek colonies were settled by Milesians in the 7th and 6th centuries BC. Phanagoria was a colony of Teos, and the foundation of Nymphaeum may have had a connection with Athens, at least it appears to have been a member of the Delian League in the 5th century. The Bosporan Kingdom was centred around the Kerch Strait between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, known in antiquity as the Cimmerian Bosporus from where the name derived. Spartocus founded a dynasty which seems to have endured until c.110 BC, surviving material do not supply enough information to reconstruct a complete chronology of kings of the region.
Satyrus son Leucon eventually took the city and he was succeeded jointly by his two sons, Spartocus II, and Paerisades, Spartocus died in 342, allowing Paerisades to reign alone until 310. After Paerisades death, a war between his sons Satyrus and Eumelus was fought. Satyrus defeated his younger brother Eumelus at the Battle of the River Thatis in 310 BC but was killed in battle. Eumelus successor was Spartocus III and after him Paerisades II, succeeding princes repeated the family names, so it is impossible to assign them a definite order. Paerisades was killed by a Scythian named Saumacus who led a rebellion against him and they maintained close relations with Athens, their best customer for the Bosporan grain exports, Leucon I of Bosporus created privileges for Athenian ships at Bosporan ports. The Attic orators make numerous references to this, in return the Athenians granted Leucon Athenian citizenship and made decrees in honour of him and his sons. His eldest living son, regent of Cimmerian Bosporus, was unwilling to aid his father, so Mithridates had Machares killed, Mithridates ordered the conscriptions and preparations for war.
In 63 BC, the youngest son of Mithridates, led a rebellion against his father, Mithridates VI withdrew to the citadel in Panticapaeum, where he committed suicide. Pompey buried Mithridates VI in a tomb in either Sinope or Amasia. Before the death of Pharnaces II, Asander had married Pharnaces II’s daughter Dynamis and Dynamis were the ruling monarchs until Caesar commanded a paternal uncle of Dynamis, Mithridates II to declare war on the Bosporan Kingdom and claimed the kingship for himself
Philippeioi, called Alexanders, were the gold coins used in the ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedonia. They had the value of one gold stater each, in the first issuing, Apollo was depicted with long hair, but after that the design was altered permanently to one in which Apollos hair was shorter. The coins were intended primarily for large purchases outside of Macedonia, the vast majority of these were actually struck by Philips successor, Alexander the Great. The philippeioi issued by Alexander after Philips death continued to use that name officially, considered the most famous coins to be struck by king Philip II, the philippeioi continued to be highly influential even after they were no longer in circulation. Their design was widely mimicked or replicated by currencies outside of Greece, the Gaulish gold staters, whose design closely mimicked that of the philippeioi, continued to be minted up until the end of the Gallic Wars three centuries later. The coins were so widespread that in many ancient Roman texts, ancient Macedonian coins, Numismatic Museum of Athens
The coinage of the Seleucid Empire is based on the coins of Alexander the Great, which in turn were based on Athenian coinage of the Attic weight. Many mints and different issues are defined, with mainly base, the symbol of Seleucid power was the anchor, which was placed on the obverse of coins depicting Alexander posthumously but prior to the issue of coins portraying Seleukos I around 306 BCE. Bronze coinage was issued in five denominations, the weight and size varies greatly and most likely no effort was made to conform to a set standard,1 Obol and Bow and Quiver. 2 Diobol and Quiver 3 Hemidrachm,6 Drachm, Anchor 24 Tetradrachm, Elephant walking Coins with the head of Zeus on the reverse and these coins are of a lighter Phoenician standard, which were circulated in India prior to Alexander the Greats conquest. Starting from Seleukos I, these mints were most likely a continuation from before his reign, Ecbatana, Apamaea mint, Babylon, Aï Khanoum, Seleucia in Pieria, Bactria, Cyzicus, Abydus.
Coins of the Selucid Empire had many images including the King with a head dress, or Zeus on a throne with a sceptre. Bronze coins usually didnt feature the Kings image, and usually had a god or goddess or in some cases a charging bull, under Seleukos I Nicator, the first Selucid king, the coinage varieties are similar to Alexander the Greats with the kings head wearing a lion skin. After 300 BCE the head of this King is portrayed in a style to other Greek coinage. Obverses 1, Seleucos or Dionysos in helmet covered with a panther skin & adorned with bulls ears & horns,2, Head of Herakles wearing lions skin headdress. 3, Head of Apollo facing right 4, Young Heracles,5, A naked male figure seated facing left on a rock, holding an ankh in his right hand. 6, Dioskouros 7, Athena wearing an Attic helmet,8, Winged head of Medusa facing right. Reverses 1, Zeus enthroned left, holding eagle and sceptre 2, Athena advancing right, brandishing a spear & holding a shield 3, on bronze coins 4, Athena over elephant.
5, Boeotian shield between Nike & trophy 6, Forepart of a horse facing right with an anchor above. Antiochus I Soter Coins Designs are much the same as the ruler, in featuring the many Greek gods and the Kings head. Syria The Seleucid Kings SELEUCID KINGDOM - COINS Seleucos I Antiochos 1 Zeno. ru
Eumenes II of Pergamon was king of Pergamon and a member of the Attalid dynasty. He married Stratonice of Pergamon, daughter of Ariarathes IV and his wife Antiochis, since their son was still a minor, the throne was assumed by his brother Attalus II, who married Eumenes widow Stratonice. He built a stoa on the Athenian acropolis, New York, Cornell University Press, Cornell University Press Ltd. Kosmetatou, Elizabeth The Attalids of Pergamon, in Andrew Erskine, a Companion to the Hellenistic World
In the coinage of the North Indian and Central Asian Kushan Empire the main coins issued were gold, weighing 7. 9g. and base metal issues of various weights between 12g and 1. 5g. Little silver coinage was issued, but in periods the gold used was debased with silver. The coin designs usually follow the styles of the preceding Greco-Bactrian rulers in using Hellenistic styles of image, with a deity on one side. Kings may be shown as a head, a standing figure, typically officiating at a fire altar in Zoroastrian style. The artistry of the dies is generally lower than the high standards of the best coins of Greco-Bactrian rulers. Iranian influence, especially in the figures and the pantheon of deities used, is even stronger. Under Kanishka the royal title of King of kings changed from the Greek ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ to the Persian form ϷAONANOϷAO, much of what little information we have of Kushan political history derives from coins. The language of inscriptions is typically the Bactrian language, written in a derived from Greek.
Many coins show the tamga symbols as a kind of monogram for the ruler, there were several regional mints, and the evidence from coins suggests that much of the empire was semi-independent. Greek deities, with Greek names are represented on early coins, during Kanishkas reign, the language of the coinage changes to Bactrian. After Huvishka, only two appear on the coins and Oesho. Representation of entities from Greek mythology and Hellenistic syncretism are, Ηλιος, Ηφαηστος, Σαληνη, the coins of Huvishka portray the demi-god erakilo Heracles, and the Egyptian god sarapo Sarapis. This is typically a depiction of Rudra, but in the case of two coins is generally assumed to represent Shiva. The northern area, Bactria which had the largest sized coins of 12g and 1. 5g, Gandhara whose coinage weighed 9-10g for large and 2g for small, and the Indian area, where coins are 4g each. MacDowell proposed a reduction of all three issues starting with Huvishka, while Chattopadhyay proposes a rapid devaluation of the issue by Kanishka.
It seems that there were two reductions based on the coinage of the rulers just named, issues were unified into a central coinage system of weights. Vima Kadphises issued three denominations of for this metal, a two of 15.75 grammes, a one of 7.8 grammes and a quarter piece of 1.95 grammes. MacDowell, David W. Mithra, Mithras Planetary Setting in the Coinage of the Great Kushans, in Études Mithriaques, Actes Du 2e Congrès International, Téhéran, Du 1er Au 8 Septembre,1975, ed
The Attalid dynasty was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great. The Attalid kingdom was the state left after the collapse of the Lysimachian Empire. One of Lysimachus officers, took control of the city in 282 BC, the Attalids were descended from his father and they expanded the city into a kingdom. Attalus I proclaimed himself King in the 230s BC, following his victories over the Galatians, the Attalids ruled Pergamon until Attalus III bequeathed the kingdom to the Roman Republic in 133 BC to avoid a likely succession crisis. A war with Eumenes III resulted in the creation of Roman province of Asia over much of the territory, the Greek World After Alexander, 323-30 B. C. Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press, Cornell University Press Ltd, Elizabeth The Attalids of Pergamon, in Andrew Erskine, ed. A Companion to the Hellenistic World, text Media related to Attalid dynasty at Wikimedia Commons
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and this was followed by the period of Classical Greece, an era that began with the Greco-Persian Wars, lasting from the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Due to the conquests by Alexander the Great of Macedonia, Hellenistic civilization flourished from Central Asia to the end of the Mediterranean Sea. Classical Greek culture, especially philosophy, had a influence on ancient Rome. For this reason Classical Greece is generally considered to be the culture which provided the foundation of modern Western culture and is considered the cradle of Western civilization. Classical Antiquity in the Mediterranean region is considered to have begun in the 8th century BC. Classical Antiquity in Greece is preceded by the Greek Dark Ages and this period is succeeded, around the 8th century BC, by the Orientalizing Period during which a strong influence of Syro-Hittite, Assyrian and Egyptian cultures becomes apparent.
The end of the Dark Ages is dated to 776 BC. The Archaic period gives way to the Classical period around 500 BC, Ancient Periods Astronomical year numbering Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The history of Greece during Classical Antiquity may be subdivided into five major periods. The earliest of these is the Archaic period, in which artists made larger free-standing sculptures in stiff, the Archaic period is often taken to end with the overthrow of the last tyrant of Athens and the start of Athenian Democracy in 508 BC. It was followed by the Classical period, characterized by a style which was considered by observers to be exemplary, i. e. classical, as shown in the Parthenon. This period saw the Greco-Persian Wars and the Rise of Macedon, following the Classical period was the Hellenistic period, during which Greek culture and power expanded into the Near and Middle East. This period begins with the death of Alexander and ends with the Roman conquest, Herodotus is widely known as the father of history, his Histories are eponymous of the entire field.
Herodotus was succeeded by authors such as Thucydides, Demosthenes, most of these authors were either Athenian or pro-Athenian, which is why far more is known about the history and politics of Athens than those of many other cities. Their scope is limited by a focus on political and diplomatic history, ignoring economic. In the 8th century BC, Greece began to emerge from the Dark Ages which followed the fall of the Mycenaean civilization, literacy had been lost and Mycenaean script forgotten, but the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet, modifying it to create the Greek alphabet. The Lelantine War is the earliest documented war of the ancient Greek period and it was fought between the important poleis of Chalcis and Eretria over the fertile Lelantine plain of Euboea. Both cities seem to have suffered a decline as result of the long war, a mercantile class arose in the first half of the 7th century BC, shown by the introduction of coinage in about 680 BC