click links in text for more info


The cithara or kithara was an ancient Greek musical instrument in the yoke lutes family. In modern Greek the word kithara has come to mean "guitar", a word which etymologically stems from kithara; the kithara was a professional version of the four-stringed lyre. As opposed to the simpler lyre, a folk-instrument, the kithara was used by professional musicians, called kitharodes; the kithara's origins are Anatolian. The barbiton was a bass version of the kithara popular in ancient Anatolia. In the Middle Ages, cythara was used generically for stringed instruments including lyres, but including lute-like instruments; the use of the name throughout the Middle Ages looked back to the original Greek kithara, its abilities to sway people's emotions. The kithara had a deep, wooden sounding box composed of two resonating tables, either flat or arched, connected by ribs or sides of equal width. At the top, its strings were knotted around the crossbar or yoke or to rings threaded over the bar, or wound around pegs.

The other end of the strings was secured to a tail-piece after passing over a flat bridge, or the tail-piece and bridge were combined. Most vase paintings show kitharas with seven strings, in agreement with ancient authors, but these mention that a skillful kitharode would use more than the conventional seven strings, it was played with a rigid plectrum held in the right hand, with elbow outstretched and palm bent inwards, while the strings with undesired notes were damped with the straightened fingers of the left hand. The kithara was the virtuoso's instrument known as requiring a great deal of skill; the kithara was played to accompany dance, epic recitations, rhapsodies and lyric songs. It was played solo at the receptions, national games, trials of skill; the music from this instrument was said to be the lyre for drinking parties and is considered an invention of Terpander. Aristotle said that these string instruments were not for educational purposes but for pleasure only; the cithara is said to have been the god of music.

Apollo is seen playing a cithara instead of a lyre. Kitharoidos, or Citharoedus is an epithet given to Apollo, which means "lyre-singer" or "one who sings to the lyre". An Apollo Citharoedus or Apollo Citharede, is a statue or other image of Apollo with a cithara. Among the best-known examples is the Apollo Citharoedus of the Vatican Museums, a 2nd-century AD colossal marble statue by an unknown Roman sculptor. Sappho is associated with music string instruments like the kithara and the barbitos, she was a woman of high social composed songs that focused on the emotions. A Greek mythology story goes that she ascended the steep slopes of Mount Parnassus where she was welcomed by the Muses, she wandered through the laurel grove and came upon the cave of Apollo, where she bathed in the Castalian Spring and took Phoebus' plectrum to play skilful music. The sacred nymphs danced while she stroked the strings with much talent to bring forth sweet musical melodies from the resonant kithara; the cithara is mentioned a number of times in the Bible.

Psalm 42 in the Latin Vulgate, says, "Confitebor tibi in cithara, Deus meus,", translated in the Douay-Rheims version as "To thee, O God my God, I will give praise upon the harp." The King James version renders this verse as "Yea, upon the harp will I praise thee, O God my God." The cithara is mentioned in other places in the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible, including Genesis 4:21, 1 Kings 16:16, 1 Paralipomenon 25:3, Job 30:31, Psalms 32:2, Psalms 56:9, Psalms 70:22, Psalms 80:3, Psalms 91:4, Psalms 97:5, Psalms 107:3, Psalms 146:7, Psalms 150:3, Isaiah 5:12, Isaiah 16:11, 1 Machabees 3:45, 1 Corinthians 14:7. Barbiton Cythara Citharede Gittern, instrument with etymological connection to Kithara Guitar Harp Kinnor Lyre Phorminx Pandura Zither Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Music of ancient Greece Maas, Martha. Stringed Instruments of Ancient Greece. New Haven: Yale University Press. Bundrick, Sheramy D.. Music and Image in Classical Athens. New York: Cambridge University Press. Schlesinger, Kathleen.

"Cithara". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 395–397. "The Kithara in Ancient Greece | Thematic Essay". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History; the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2016-10-25. Hagel, Stefan. "Ancient Greek Music". Vienna, Austria: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Retrieved 2016-10-25. Peter Pringle demonstrates how a kithara worked "Ensemble Kérylos". A music group directed by scholar Annie Bélis, dedicated to the recreation of ancient Greek and Roman music and playing instruments rebuilt on archaeological reference. In its recording D'Euripide aux premiers chretiens: musique de l'antiquité grecque et romaine, the band plays both Roman and Greek Kitharas. Pictures of its instruments can be seen on their website: Ensemble Kérylos. "Photos"

Night Prowler (song)

"Night Prowler" is the final track on AC/DC's album Highway to Hell. The track has two breaths in quick succession at the start of the song, intended to create a tone of fear and loathing, it is known among other AC/DC songs for its slow blues rhythm, ominous lyrics, as well as its controversy stemming from its association with the Richard Ramirez serial killings in 1985. At the end of the song, lead singer Bon Scott mutters, "Shazbot! Nanu nanu!", two phrases used by Robin Williams in his character of Mork on the popular sitcom Mork and Mindy. In June 1985, a publicized murder case began revolving around Richard Ramírez, responsible for more than 15 brutal murders as well as rapes and attempted murders in Los Angeles. Nicknamed the "Night Stalker", Ramírez was a fan of AC/DC the song "Night Prowler". Police claimed that Ramírez was wearing an AC/DC shirt and left an AC/DC hat at one of his crime scenes. During the trial, Ramírez shouted "Hail Satan!" and showed off the pentagram carved into his palm.

The incident brought bad publicity to the band, whose concerts and albums were campaigned against by parents in Los Angeles County. On VH1's Behind the Music on AC/DC, the band claimed that while the song had taken on a murderous connotation by Ramírez, it is about a boy sneaking into his girlfriend's bedroom at night. Bon Scott – lead vocals Angus Young – lead guitar Malcolm Young – rhythm guitar, backing vocals Cliff Williamsbass guitar, backing vocals Phil Rudddrums

Takau Lutua

Takau Lutua is a Tongan former rugby union player who played as prop. Lutua started first his career in 1985 as member of the first Toloa Old Boys team who won the Tongan Secondary Schools Premiership, he played for Police, where he played alongside his former Toloa team mates Tevita Vaʻenuku, ‘Eukaliti ‘Aukafolau, Tevita Palenapa and ‘Esafe Taufa. Lutua was first capped against Korea in Tokyo, on 15 April, he was called up in the Ikale Tahi squad for the 1995 Rugby World Cup, where he only played the match against Ivory Coast in Rustenburg, his last cap. After working 22 years as Policeman, in 2007 he received his pension, he has five children. His son, Nalesoni Lutua is the prop for the Grade 3 team. Takau Lutua international statistics

Venezuela at the 1999 Pan American Games

The 13th Pan American Games were held in Winnipeg, Canada from July 23 to August 8, 1999. Men's Kumite: Ricardo Pérez Women's Kumite: María Wayow Women's Singles: Alicia Marcano Men's Bantamweight: Nehomar Cermeno Men's Kata: José Antonio Díaz Men's Kumite: Jaime Noguera Men's Lightweight: Patrick López Men's Welterweight: Charlie Navarro Men's Middleweight: Jim Rodriguez Men's Kumite: Eduardo Noguera Men's Kumite: Jean Carlos Peña Women's Kata: Ana Martínez Venezuela at the 2000 Summer Olympics

Fort Clinch

Fort Clinch is a 19th-century masonry coastal fortification, built as part of the Third System of seacoast defense conceived by the United States. It is located on a peninsula near the northernmost point of Amelia Island in Florida; the fort lies to the northeast of Fernandina Beach at the entrance to the Cumberland Sound, in the northeast part of the state. Today it is included within the boundaries of Fort Clinch State Park; this site was first fortified in 1736 by the Spanish. From 1736, various nations to control the territory have garrisoned and fortified this site to protect the entrance to the St. Marys River and Cumberland Sound. After the end of the Second Seminole War, the United States started construction of a fort named Fort Clinch, in 1847, it was part of its Third System of coastal defenses conceived earlier in the century, which guided fortifications throughout this period. The fortified compound is pentagonal in shape, with both inner and outer walls, consists of five million bricks.

There are corner bastions and embrasures in the outer walls and several structures in the interior courtyards, including a two-story barracks. The fort was named in honor of General Duncan Lamont Clinch after his death in 1849. General Clinch fought in the War of 1812 and was an important figure in the First and Second Seminole Wars. Confederate forces seized the fort in early 1861, it was used as a safe haven for Confederate blockade runners during the first year of the Civil War. However, changes in technology the development of rifled cannon, had improved weaponry to the point that the fort's brick walls were vulnerable to attacks and thus obsolete. In March 1862 General Robert E. Lee ordered abandonment of the fort in order to use scarce troops in other areas. Federal troops re-occupied the fort in early 1862, taking control of the adjacent Georgia and Florida coasts, they used the fort as the base of Union operations in the area throughout the Civil War. The fort was placed on caretaker status in 1869.

In September of that year, the Army abandoned it again. The fort deteriorated. During the Great Depression, workers of the Civilian Conservation Corps began restoration of the fort during the 1930s, it was restored to the Civil War era. In 1935, the State of Florida bought 256 acres that included the then-abandoned fort and the surrounding area. Fort Clinch State Park including the fort, opened to the public in 1938; the fort was closed to the public during World War II and used as a communications and security post. It was re-opened to public visits; the fort was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972. It is interpreted in terms of its use as a base of Union operations during the American Civil War. State Park personnel reenact military life at the fort, open from 8:00am until sundown, year-round. Media related to Fort Clinch State Park at Wikimedia Commons Nassau County listings at National Register of Historic Places Nassau County listings at Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs Florida Historic Places - Fort Clinch at The National Park Service - Links to the Past Exploring Florida - Fort Clinch Photo Gallery at The Florida Center for Instructional Technology

Marcus Thigpen

Marcus Arnette Thigpen is an American professional Canadian football running back and kick returner for the Toronto Argonauts of the Canadian Football League. He played college football at Indiana University and signed with the Philadelphia Eagles as an undrafted free agent in 2009. Thigpen has been a member of the Denver Broncos, Hamilton Tiger-Cats, Miami Dolphins, New England Patriots, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Buffalo Bills, Indianapolis Colts, Oakland Raiders, Saskatchewan Roughriders. Thigpen attended Mumford High School in Detroit and was a letterman in football and track. During his high school career, he was one of the top sprinters in the state of Michigan. During his senior year, he won the MHSAA Division I 100-meter dash with a time of 10.82 and led Mumford to its third consecutive outdoor state track and field title in as many years. He led the Detroit Public School League with 1,785 yards and twenty touchdowns. In 2011, Mumford won its 11th state field championship in the school's history.

After high school, Thigpen was redshirted his freshman year. During his four years of competition, he finished his career as the third best kick returner in the school's history, he ranks third in all-purpose yards with 4,655 and scored 21 touchdowns. He was the first IU player to get more than 1,000 yards in rushing and kick returning, he was selected as one of the team's captains as a fifth-year senior and was named IU's offensive player of the year in 2008. He graduated in 2009 with a major in criminal justice. Thigpen led the Hoosiers with a 2006 season-best time of 10.65 in the 100 meters, which he clocked at the Big Ten Outdoor Championships, good for sixth place. He ran the first leg of IU's 4 x 100 meter relay team that clocked 40.13 seconds, the third fastest time in IU history at the NCAA Mideast Regional Championship. In 2006, he took seventh in the 60 meters, with a time of 6.89 seconds and sixth in the 200 meters, with a time of 21.94 seconds at the Big Ten indoor meet, he placed seventh in the 100 meters at the Big Ten outdoor meet, with a time of 10.75 seconds.

His personal bests are 6.77 seconds in the 60 meters, 10.34 seconds in the 100 meters and 21.27 seconds in the 200 meters. After going undrafted in the 2009 NFL Draft, Thigpen was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Philadelphia Eagles on April 27, 2009, he was waived on August 4. Thigpen signed with the Denver Broncos on August 16, 2009, he was waived on August 26. Thigpen signed a practice roster agreement with the Saskatchewan Roughriders on October 2, 2009, he was removed from the practice roster and signed to the active roster on November 7. He was part of the final cuts following the 2010 training camp. Thigpen was signed to the Hamilton Tiger-Cats' active roster on June 26, 2010, he returned the team's first kickoff of the 2010 season for a touchdown against the Winnipeg Blue Bombers and was named the CFL Special Teams Player of Week 1. In week 2, he caught a touchdown pass. On August 13, 2010, after rushing for a touchdown, Thigpen became the first player in CFL history to score a touchdown five different ways in one season.

In total, he had scored on a kickoff return, punt return, missed field goal return, a running play and a reception. Thigpen was signed to a reserve/future contract by the Dolphins on January 12, 2012. On September 9, 2012, Thigpen returned a punt 72 yards for a touchdown in his first NFL game versus the Houston Texans; this was the first punt return touchdown by the Miami Dolphins since 2007, when Ted Ginn, Jr returned a punt for a TD versus the Philadelphia Eagles. On November 15, 2012, Thigpen returned a kickoff 96 yards for a touchdown against the Buffalo Bills. On December 15, 2013, he caught a 14-yard touchdown strike from Ryan Tannehill with 1:15 left in the 4th quarter to provide the winning margin over the New England Patriots, which put an end to the Patriots' string of three come-from-behind victories in 2013 and snapped the Dolphins' seven-game losing streak to New England. Thigpen was released by Miami during their final cuts on August 30, 2014. On September 3, 2014, Thigpen was signed by the New England Patriots to their practice squad and released a week on September 10, 2014.

On September 23, 2014, Thigpen was re-signed by the Miami Dolphins to their practice squad. His position was changed from running back to wide receiver, he changed from uniform number 34 to 19. Thigpen signed with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers practice squad on October 21, 2014, he was promoted to the active roster on October 2014, after Trindon Holliday was waived/injured. Due to an injury to starter Leodis McKelvin, Thigpen was claimed off waivers by the Buffalo Bills on November 26, 2014. In the Bills game against the Green Bay Packers, Thigpen took a Tim Masthay punt at the Buffalo 25, sprinted to the left hash mark and to the left sideline for a 75-yard touchdown; this play was vital to the 21-13 Buffalo win. It earned Thigpen Peter King's MMQB Special Teams Player of the Week Award. Thigpen was released from the Bills on October 7 in favor of wide receiver Denarius Moore. Thigpen signed with Indianapolis Colts on October 12, 2015, but was released several days on October 17, never playing a game with the team.

Thigpen signed with the Oakland Raiders on November 4, 2015. Thigpen was waived by the Raiders on November 14, 2015. On November 25, 2015, Thigpen re-signed with the Buffalo Bills. On December 22, 2015, the Bills waived Thigpen. On September 12, 2017, the Saskatchewan Roughriders announced that they had signed Thigpen to their practice roster as a kick returner