Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English journalist, short-story writer and novelist. He was born in India. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King", his poems include "Mandalay", "Gunga Din", "The Gods of the Copybook Headings", "The White Man's Burden", "If—". He is regarded as a major innovator in the art of the short story. Kipling was one of the most popular writers in the United Kingdom, in both prose and verse, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Henry James said: "Kipling strikes me as the most complete man of genius, as distinct from fine intelligence, that I have known." In 1907, at the age of 41, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, making him the first English-language writer to receive the prize and its youngest recipient to date. He was sounded out for the British Poet Laureateship and on several occasions for a knighthood, both of which he declined. Kipling's subsequent reputation has changed according to the political and social climate of the age and the resulting contrasting views about him continued for much of the 20th century.
George Orwell saw Kipling as "a jingo imperialist", "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting". Literary critic Douglas Kerr wrote: " is still an author who can inspire passionate disagreement and his place in literary and cultural history is far from settled, but as the age of the European empires recedes, he is recognised as an incomparable, if controversial, interpreter of how empire was experienced. That, an increasing recognition of his extraordinary narrative gifts, make him a force to be reckoned with." Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling and John Lockwood Kipling. Alice was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." Lockwood Kipling, a sculptor and pottery designer, was the Principal and Professor of Architectural Sculpture at the newly founded Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Bombay. John Lockwood and Alice had met in 1863 and courted at Rudyard Lake in Rudyard, England.
They married and moved to India in 1865. They had been so moved by the beauty of the Rudyard Lake area that when their first child was born they named him after it. Two of Alice's sisters married artists: Georgiana was married to the painter Edward Burne-Jones, her sister Agnes to Edward Poynter. Kipling's most famous relative was his first cousin, Stanley Baldwin, Conservative Prime Minister three times in the 1920s and'30s. Kipling's birth home on the campus of the J J School of Art in Bombay was for many years used as the Dean's residence. Although the cottage bears a plaque noting it as the site where Kipling was born, the original cottage may have been torn down decades ago and a new one built in its place; some historians and conservationists are of the view that the bungalow marks a site, close to the home of Kipling's birth, as the bungalow was built in 1882—about 15 years after Kipling was born. Kipling seems to have said as much to the Dean. Kipling wrote of Bombay: According to Bernice M. Murphy, "Kipling's parents considered themselves'Anglo-Indians' and so too would their son, though he spent the bulk of his life elsewhere.
Complex issues of identity and national allegiance would become prominent in his fiction."Kipling referred to such conflicts, for example: "In the afternoon heats before we took our sleep, she or Meeta would tell us stories and Indian nursery songs all unforgotten, we were sent into the dining-room after we had been dressed, with the caution'Speak English now to Papa and Mamma.' So one spoke'English', haltingly translated out of the vernacular idiom that one thought and dreamed in". Kipling's days of "strong light and darkness" in Bombay ended; as was the custom in British India, he and his three-year-old sister Alice were taken to the United Kingdom—in their case to Southsea, Portsmouth—to live with a couple who boarded children of British nationals who were serving in India. For the next six years, the children lived with the couple, Captain Pryse Agar Holloway, once an officer in the merchant navy, Sarah Holloway, at their house, Lorne Lodge, at 4 Campbell Road, Southsea. In his autobiography, published 65 years Kipling recalled the stay with horror, wondered if the combination of cruelty and neglect which he experienced there at the hands of Mrs Holloway might not have hastened the onset of his literary life: "If you cross-examine a child of seven or eight on his day's doings he will contradict himself satisfactorily.
If each contradiction be set down as a lie and retailed at breakfast, life is not easy. I have known a certain amount of bullying, but this was calculated torture—religious as well as scientific, yet it made me give attention to the lies I soon found it necessary to tell: and this, I presume, is the foundation of literary effort". Trix fared better at Lorne Lodge; the two Kipling children, did have relatives in England who
The Cat Who Walks Through Walls
The Cat Who Walks Through Walls is a science fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, published in 1985. Like many of his novels, it features Lazarus Long and Jubal Harshaw as supporting characters. A writer seated at the best restaurant of the space habitat "Golden Rule" is approached by a man who urges him that "Tolliver must die" and is himself shot before the writer's eyes; the writer—Colonel Colin Campbell, living under a number of aliases including his pen name "Richard Ames"—is joined by a beautiful and sophisticated lady, Gwendolyn Novak, who helps him flee to Luna with a bonsai maple and a would-be murderer. After escaping to the Moon, Gwen claims to have been present during the revolt described in The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. Still pursued by assassins and Novak are rescued by an organization known as the Time Corps under the leadership of Lazarus Long. After giving Campbell a new leg to replace one lost in combat years before, the Time Corps attempts to recruit Campbell for a special mission.
Accepting only on Gwen's account, Campbell agrees to assist a team to retrieve the decommissioned Mike, a sentient computer introduced in The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. Engaged in frequent time-travel, the Time Corps has been responsible for changing various events in the past, creating an alternate universe with every time-line they disrupt. Mike's assistance is needed in order to predict the conditions and following events in each of the new universes created. Campbell's frequent would-be assassins are revealed to be members of contemporary agencies engaged in time manipulation who, for unknown reasons, do not want to see Mike rescued by the Time Corps. During the mission, Gwen is grievously wounded and Campbell loses his foot again, though the Time Corps succeed in retrieving Mike; the story ends with Campbell talking into a recorder reflecting on the mission and his relationship with Gwen. The Cat Who Walks Through Walls may be regarded as part of Heinlein's multiverse series, or as a sequel to both The Number of the Beast and The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress.
During a meeting of the Council of the Time Scouts, representatives from every major time line and setting written by Heinlein appear, including Glory Road and Starship Troopers, references are made to other authors' works as well. The title of the book refers to a cat by the name of Pixel, who has an inexplicable tendency to be wherever the narrator happens to be. In one scene Pixel does, in fact, walk through a wall, it is explained that Pixel is too young to know that such behavior is impossible. Gwen Novak is revealed to be Hazel Stone, a character featured in Heinlein's The Rolling Stones and who had played a small but important role in The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress. Campbell is eventually revealed to be a son of Lazarus Long, a Heinlein character introduced in Methuselah's Children and who reappeared in Time Enough for Love, The Number of the Beast, To Sail Beyond the Sunset. Appearing are Jubal Harshaw, a major character in Stranger in a Strange Land; the Cat Who Walks Through Walls title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database The Cat Who Walks Through Walls on Open Library at the Internet Archive
The Green Hills of Earth (short story collection)
The Green Hills of Earth is a collection of science fiction short stories by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, published in 1951, including short stories published as early as 1941; the stories are part of Heinlein's Future History. The title story is the tale of an old space mariner reflecting upon his planet of birth. According to an acknowledgement at the beginning of the book, the phrase "the green hills of Earth" is derived from a story by C. L. Moore; the short stories are as follows, in the order they appear in the book: "Delilah and the Space Rigger" "Space Jockey" "The Long Watch" "Gentlemen, Be Seated!" "The Black Pits of Luna" "It's Great to Be Back!" "—We Also Walk Dogs" "Ordeal in Space" "The Green Hills of Earth" "Logic of Empire" Boucher and McComas described the collection as "an outstanding book", noting that the "slick" stories published in non-genre magazines included "classics in a new form". P. Schuyler Miller noted that most of the contents were "simple stories of human reactions".
The Green Hills of Earth title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database The Green Hills of Earth on Open Library at the Internet Archive
Time Enough for Love
Time Enough for Love is a science fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, first published in 1973; the work was nominated for the Nebula Award for Best Novel in 1973 and both the Hugo and Locus Awards in 1974. The book covers several periods from the life of Lazarus Long, the oldest living human, now more than two thousand years old; the first half of the book takes the form of several novellas connected by Lazarus's retrospective narrative. In the framing story, Lazarus has decided that life is no longer worth living, but agrees not to end his life for as long as his companion, chief executive of the Howard families, descendant Ira Weatherall, will listen to his stories; this story concerns a 20th-century United States Navy cadet named David Lamb who rises in the ranks while avoiding any semblance of real work or combat by applying himself enthusiastically to the principle of "constructive laziness". Shortly after telling the story Lazarus mistakenly calls David "Donald", intended to make the reader think the story is fallacious, while pertaining to Lazarus directly.
Lazarus tells of his visit as an interplanetary cargo trader to a planet, where he bought a pair of slaves and sister, manumitted them. Because they had no knowledge of independent living, nor any education, Lazarus teaches them "how to be human" during the voyage; the two were the result of an experiment in genetic recombination in which two parent cells were separated into complementary haploid gametes, recombined into two embryos. The resulting zygotes were implanted in a woman and gestated by her, with the result that although both have the same surrogate mother and genetic parents, they are no more related genetically than any two people taken at random, they have been prevented from sexual relations by a chastity belt. At the end of the story, he reveals that the twins looked the same age decades and expresses his belief that they were his own descendants, from an earlier period when he had been a slave on the same planet. A short scene-setter introduces a planet. Lazarus, now working as a banker and shopkeeper and keeping his true age secret, saves a young girl named Dora from a burning building and becomes her guardian.
When she grows up, he marries her, the two become founders of a new settlement where Lazarus' long life is less to be noticed. They are successful and build a thriving community; because Dora is not a descendant of the Howard Families, the source of their longevity, she dies of old age, leaving Lazarus to mourn. At the beginning of this story, Lazarus has regained his enthusiasm for life, the remainder of the book is told in a conventional linear manner. Accompanied by some of his descendants, Lazarus has now moved to a new planet and established a polyamorous family consisting of three men, three women, a larger number of children, two of whom are female clones of Lazarus. In the concluding tale, Lazarus attempts to travel backward in time to 1919 in order to experience it as an adult, but an error in calculation places Lazarus in 1916 on the eve of America's involvement in World War I. An unintentional result is. To retain her esteem and that of his grandfather, Lazarus enlists in the army.
Lazarus and his mother, consummate their mutual attraction before Lazarus leaves for the war. In the trenches of the Western Front in France, he is mortally wounded, but rescued at the last moment by his future companions from the framing story and returned to his own time. There are two "Intermission" sections, each some six or eight pages long, taking the form of lists of provocative phrases and aphorisms not related to the main narrative; these were published independently, with illustrations, as The Notebooks of Lazarus Long. What ties most of the stories together is that they are an examination and deconstruction of incest. In the context of his "tales" Heinlein examines the morality of a variety of possible incestuous situations: from unrelated "twins", to unrelated parent-child, to distant relatives, close relatives when Lazarus sleeps with his own mother. Heinlein seems to conclude. Early in the story, one of the characters presents Lazarus with a number of activities that may be new, to entice him into remaining alive and being restored to youth.
One of the suggestions is to have his memory and consciousness transplanted into a female clone of himself, at which point Lazarus remembers hearing of the events that occurred in I Will Fear No Evil. In the book, a character reports the fate of the generation ship Vanguard, from Heinlein's Orphans of the Sky: it was found derelict in space, but the survivors have adopted a hunter-gatherer lifestyle on another planet. From Methuselah's Children, Lazarus offers to recount the fate of the Jockaira, but another character cuts him off, saying, "Since that lie is in his memoirs in four conflicting versions, why should we be burdened with a fifth?". Long reports the fate of the descendants of the Howards who chose to stay on the planet of the Little People; some of the Little People alive at the time he returned to the planet harbored the memories of those Howards, including Mary Sperling.
Between Planets is a juvenile science fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein serialized in Blue Book magazine in 1951 as "Planets in Combat", it was published in hardcover that year by Scribner's as part of the Heinlein juveniles. The scientist parents of Don Harvey withdraw him from his high school in New Mexico in the middle of the term so that he can travel to their current residence on Mars; the headmaster suggests that they want him out of a potential war zone, where he would be viewed suspiciously because of doubts about his where his loyalties lie. At his parents' behest, he visits an old family friend who asks him to deliver a ring to his father, but they are both arrested by security forces. Harvey is given his ring back, after it has been examined, it is only that he realizes that all deaths can be described that way. Harvey boards a shuttle to a space station orbiting the Earth; the station doubles as a transshipment terminus and a military base, armed with missiles to keep restive nations in check.
On the trip up, he befriends one of his fellow passengers, a Venerian "dragon" named Sir Isaac Newton. Sir Isaac is a renowned physicist. Harvey gets caught up in the Venerian war of independence when the station is captured by the colonials in a surprise raid. Most of the other travelers are sent back to Earth. Harvey is in a quandary; the spaceship to Mars has been confiscated, but he remains determined to get there, by way of Venus if necessary. Because he was born in space, with one parent from Venus and the other from Earth, he claims Venerian citizenship, he is allowed to tag along, which turns out to be fortunate for Harvey. The rebels blow up the station to stir up trouble for the Earth government; when the shuttle returns to Earth with its radios disabled, the military assumes it has been booby-trapped and destroys it, killing all aboard. On his arrival on Venus, Harvey finds. A banker lends him money, telling him to pay it forward, he gets a job washing dishes for his keep for Charlie, a Chinese immigrant who runs a small restaurant.
He befriends a young woman, when he tries to send a message to his parents. However, communication with Mars has been cut due to the hostilities. Harvey settles in to wait out the war. Earth sends a force to put down the rebellion; the Venerian ships are destroyed in orbit and the ground forces are routed. Charlie is killed resisting the occupying soldiers. Harvey is rounded up and questioned by a senior security officer, eager to get his hands on Harvey's ring. Luckily, Harvey had given it to Isobel for safekeeping and he does not know where she is or whether she is alive. Before he can be interrogated with drugs, he joins the Venusian guerrilla forces. Harvey becomes an effective commando. In time, he is tracked down by the leaders of the resistance, who turn out to be looking for the ring. Isobel and her father are safe at the base where Harvey is taken; the valueless ring turns out to be carrying the secret of scientific breakthroughs resulting from archaeological studies of an extinct alien civilization on Mars.
With Sir Isaac's assistance, it is used to build an advanced spaceship, much faster than any other vessel in existence, with revolutionary weapons and defenses derived from the new technology. As the only combat veteran, Harvey is recruited for the maiden voyage of Little David, manning a dead man's switch, with strict orders to blow up the ship if it is in danger of being captured. Little David intercepts and defeats a task force of warships on their way to Mars to crush the revolt there. Like many science fiction works of its period, the novel depicts both Venus and Mars as suitable for human habitation. Since no interplanetary space probes had been launched at the time, neither the extreme pressure and temperature at the surface of Venus, nor the low atmospheric pressure at the surface of Mars, were known to science; the length of the day on Venus was not yet known. Groff Conklin reviewed the novel favorably, calling it "a magnificently real and vivid Picture of the Possible." Boucher and McComas named it among the best sf novels of 1951, characterizing it as "more mature than most'adult' science fiction.".
P. Schuyler Miller praised the novel as "very smoothly and logically put together," although he noted that it lacked the level of "elaboration of background detail" that he expected from Heinlein."Surveying Heinlein's juvenile novels, Jack Williamson characterized Between Planets as "mov the series still farther from its juvenile origins toward grownup concerns." Although describing the plot as "pretty traditional space opera," he praised the novel for its "ably drawn" characters, its "well-imagined" background, its "story told with zest." Williamson noted that Heinlein closed the novel "with a vigorous statement of his unhappiness with'the historical imperative'" leading to the loss of individual freedom as governmental organizations grew." Between Planets was serialized in Boys' Life magazine in 1978 as a monthly cartoon series. The story took some liberties — for instance, the "Dragons" of Venus were portrayed as humanoids and the planets' names were changed — but the spirit of the story was faithful.
Between Planets title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database Between Planets on Open Library at the Internet Archive
Double Star is a science fiction novel by American writer Robert A. Heinlein, first serialized in Astounding Science Fiction and published in hardcover the same year, it received the 1956 Hugo Award for Best Novel. The story, told in the first person, centers on down-and-out actor Lawrence Smith. A brilliant actor and mimic, he is down to his last coin when a spaceman hires him to double for an unspecified public figure, it is only when he is on his way to Mars that he finds out he will have to impersonate one of the most prominent politicians in the Solar System: John Joseph Bonforte. Bonforte is the leader of the Expansionist coalition out of office but with a good chance of changing that at the next general election. Bonforte has been kidnapped by his political opponents, his aides want Smith to impersonate Bonforte while they try to find him. Bonforte is rescued, but he is in poor health due to the treatment inflicted on him during his imprisonment; this forces Smith to extend his performance to becoming temporary Supreme Minister and running in an election.
The central political issue in the election is the granting of the vote to Martians in the human-dominated Solar System. Lorenzo shares the anti-Martian prejudice prevalent among large parts of Earth's population, but he is called upon to assume the persona of the most prominent advocate for Martian enfranchisement. Smith takes on some aspects of his personality. At the moment of electoral victory, Bonforte dies of the aftereffects of his kidnapping, Smith assumes the role for life. In a retrospective conclusion set twenty-five years Smith reveals that he wrote the first-person narrative as therapy. Lorenzo has become suppressing his own identity permanently, he has been successful and has carried forward Bonforte's ideals to the best of his ability. Penny says, "she never loved anyone else." The noted science-fiction writer and critic James Blish was no fan of Heinlein's treatment of his first-person protagonists in a number of his novels. Writing in 1957, Blish says that "The only first-person narrator Heinlein has created, a living independent human being is The Great Lorenzo of Double Star.
Lorenzo is complete all the way back to his childhood — the influence of his father upon what he thinks is one of the strongest motives in the story — and his growth under pressure is consistent with his character and no-one else's." Galaxy reviewer Floyd C. Gale praised the novel, finding it "an excellent example of Heinlein's ability to take one of the oldest plots in any literature... and present it as an enjoyable reading experience." Admitting "a certain reservation disappointment," Anthony Boucher concluded that Heinlein was "simply creating an agreeably entertaining light novel, in that task he succeeds admirably."At the 1957 Worldcon it received the Hugo Award for Best Novel of the previous year. In 2012, the novel was selected for inclusion in the Library of America two-volume boxed set American Science Fiction: Nine Classic Novels of the 1950s, edited by Gary K. Wolfe; the political system depicted in the book is a constitutional monarchy, with the House of Orange elevated to the role of providing an Emperor of the Solar System, while the Monarchs of other dynasties became courtiers at the Imperial court.
The Emperor reigns from a palace on the Moon, with the real power in the hands of a Supreme Minister, who must command the support of the Grand Assembly. Elections for the Assembly are held as in a Parliamentary system — there is an upper time limit between elections, but they can be called more if the Prime Minister so decides, or if he is forced to it by the loss of a vote of confidence; the United States is mentioned as having an unspecified associate status, obtaining full membership. In the system, the U. S. maintains full internal autonomy and is a powerful voice in Empire affairs. The legislative power rests with a Grand Assembly, which meets on the Moon, most members representing an area of Earth or another planet, with other members representing constituencies not tied to any geographic place; as in the British system, representatives need not live in their district or be an actual member of the non-geographical constituency. Candidates for safe seats are determined by the central party office.
At the time depicted in the novel, Venusians may vote in elections for representatives - their vote determined by subtle philosophical differences incomprehensible to humans - while Martians do not have the vote, extraterrestrials of any kind are not permitted to be members of the Assembly. Bonforte has pledged himself to remove this exclusion. An afterword makes clear that he does so, though his party subsequently loses power; the names of the two contending main parties - the Humanity Party and the Expansionist Party - were evidently chosen by Heinlein to make readers avoid jumping to hasty conclusions. At first glance, judging from the names, the Humanity Party could be expected to be the more progressive of the two. In fact, The Humanity Party is the party of human supremacists while the Expansionist Party favors expanding rights to include other intelligent species; the cover illustration for a 1970s UK edition of Dou
Robert A. Heinlein bibliography
The science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein was productive during a writing career that spanned the last 49 years of his life. Four films, two TV series, several episodes of a radio series, a board game derive more or less directly from his work, he wrote a screenplay for one of the films. Heinlein edited an anthology of other writers' SF short stories. Three non-fiction books and two poems have been published posthumously. One novel has been published posthumously and another, an unusual collaboration, was published in 2006. Four collections have been published posthumously. Heinlein's fictional works can be found in the library under PS3515. E288, or under Dewey 813.54. Known pseudonyms include Anson MacDonald, Lyle Monroe, John Riverside, Caleb Saunders, Simon York. All the works attributed to MacDonald, Saunders and York, many of the works attributed to Lyle Monroe, were reissued in various Heinlein collections and attributed to Heinlein. Novels marked with an asterisk * are the Scribner's "juvenile" series.
Rocket Ship Galileo, 1947 * Beyond This Horizon, 1948 Space Cadet, 1948 * Red Planet, 1949 * Sixth Column, 1949 Farmer in the Sky, 1950 * Between Planets, 1951 * The Puppet Masters, 1951 The Rolling Stones, 1952 * Starman Jones, 1953 * The Star Beast, 1954 * Tunnel in the Sky, 1955 * Double Star, 1956—Hugo Award, 1956 Time for the Stars, 1956 * Citizen of the Galaxy, 1957 * The Door into Summer, 1957 Have Space Suit—Will Travel, 1958—Hugo Award nominee, 1959 * Methuselah's Children, 1958 Starship Troopers, 1959—Hugo Award, 1960 Stranger in a Strange Land, 1961—Hugo Award, 1962, Podkayne of Mars, 1963 Orphans of the Sky, 1963 Glory Road, 1963—Hugo Award nominee, 1964 Farnham's Freehold, 1964 The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, 1966—Hugo Award, 1967 I Will Fear No Evil, 1970 Time Enough for Love, 1973—Nebula Award nominated, 1973. The reconstructed novel, tentatively entitled 666 was an alternative version of The Number of the Beast, with the first one-third of 666 the same as the first one-third of The Number of the Beast but the remainder of 666 deviating from The Number of the Beast, with a different story-line.
The newly reconstructed novel pays homage to Edgar Rice Burroughs and E. E. "Doc" Smith. The reconstructed novel 666 is being edited by Patrick LoBrutto. Both 666 and a new edition of The Number of the Beast are planned to be published in the fourth quarter of 2019. "Life-Line", 1939 "Let There Be Light", 1940 "Misfit", 1939 "The Roads Must Roll", 1940 "Requiem", 1940 "If This Goes On—", 1940, first novel. "Coventry", 1940 "Blowups Happen", 1940 "Universe", 1941 "—We Also Walk Dogs", 1941 "Common Sense", 1941 "Methuselah's Children", 1941 "Logic of Empire", 1941 "Space Jockey", 1947 "It's Great to Be Back!", 1947 "The Green Hills of Earth", 1947 "Ordeal in Space", 1948 "The Long Watch", 1948 "Gentlemen, Be Seated!", 1948 "The Black Pits of Luna", 1948 "Delilah and the Space Rigger", 1949 "The Man Who Sold the Moon", 1950 "The Menace From Earth", 1957 "Searchlight", 1962 All the works attributed to Anson MacDonald, Caleb Saunders, John Riverside and Simon York, many of the works attributed to Lyle Monroe, were reissued in various Heinlein collections and attributed to Heinlein.
At Heinlein's insistence, the three Lyle Monroe stories marked with the symbol'§' were never reissued in a Heinlein anthology during his lifetime. "Magic, Inc.", 1940 "Solution Unsatisfactory", 1940 "Let There Be Light", 1940 "Successful Operation" 1940 "They", 1941 "—And He Built a Crooked House—", 1941 "By His Bootstraps", 1941 "Lost Legacy", 1941 "Elsewhen", 1941 § "Beyond Doubt", 1941 "The Unpleasant Profession of Jonathan Hoag", 1942 "Waldo", 1942 § "My Object All Sublime", 1942 "Goldfish Bowl", 1942 § "Pied Piper", 1942 "Free Men", 1946 "Jerry Was a Man", 1947 "Columbus Was a Dope", 1947 "On the Slopes of Vesuvius", 1947 "Our Fair City", 1948 "Gulf", 1949 "Nothing Ever Happens on