Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as oranges, grapefruits and limes; the most recent research indicates an origin of the genus in the Himalayas. Previous research indicated an origin in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeast India and the Yunnan province of China, it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges and lemons originated. Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times. Citrus plants are native to subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, Island Southeast Asia, Near Oceania, they were first domesticated in these areas. A genomic and biogeographical analysis by Wu et al. have shown that the center of origin of the genus Citrus is the southeast foothills of the Himalayas, in a region stretching from eastern Assam, northern Myanmar, to western Yunnan. It diverged from a common ancestor with Poncirus trifoliata. A change in climate conditions during the Late Miocene resulted in a sudden speciation event.
The species resulting from this event include the citrons of South Asia. This was followed by the spread of citrus species into Taiwan and Japan in the Early Pliocene, resulting in the tachibana orange; the earliest introductions of citrus species by human migrations was during the Austronesian expansion, where Citrus hystrix, Citrus macroptera, Citrus maxima were among the canoe plants carried by Austronesian voyagers eastwards into Micronesia and Polynesia. The citron was introduced early into the Mediterranean basin from India and Southeast Asia, it was introduced via two ancient trade routes: an overland route through Persia, the Levant and the Mediterranean islands. Although the exact date of the original introduction is unknown due to the sparseness of archaeobotanical remains, the earliest evidence are seeds recovered from the Hala Sultan Tekke site of Cyprus, dated to around 1200 BCE. Other archaeobotanical evidence include pollen from Carthage dating back to the 4th century BCE; the earliest complete description of the citron was first attested from Theophrastus, c. 310 BCE.
Lemons and sour oranges are believed to have been introduced to the Mediterranean by Arab traders at around the 10th century. Mandarins were not introduced until the 19th century; this group of species has reached great importance in some of the Mediterranean countries, in the case of orange and lemon trees, they found here soil and climatic conditions which allow them to achieve a high level of fruit quality better than in the regions from where they came. The "native" oranges of Florida originated with the Spanish conquistadores; the agronomists of classical Rome made many references to the cultivation of citrus fruits within the limits of their empire. King Louis XIV of France housed citrus in orangeries, to protect the tropical fruit to be grown in the 1600s France; the generic name originated from Latin, where it referred to either the plant now known as citron or a conifer tree. It is somehow related to the ancient Greek word for cedar, κέδρος; this may be due to perceived similarities in the smell of citrus leaves and fruit with that of cedar.
Collectively, Citrus fruits and plants are known by the Romance loanword agrumes. The large citrus fruit of today evolved from small, edible berries over millions of years. Citrus plants diverged from a common ancestor about 15 million years ago, about when it diverged from the related severinia, for example the Chinese box orange. About 7 million years ago, citrus plants diverged into two groups, the main citrus genus and the ancestors of the trifoliate orange, enough related that it can still be hybridized with all other citrus; these estimates are made using genetic mapping of plant chloroplasts. A DNA study published in Nature in 2018 concludes that citrus trees originated in the foothills of the Himalayas, in the area of Assam, western Yunnan, northern Myanmar; the three ancestral species in the genus Citrus associated with modern Citrus cultivars are the mandarin orange and citron. All of the common commercially important citrus fruits are hybrids involving these three species with each other, their main progenies, other wild Citrus species within the last few thousand years.
A fossil leaf from the Pliocene of Valdarno is described as †Citrus meletensis In China, fossil leaf specimens of †Citrus linczangensis have been collected from coal-bearing strata of the Bangmai Formation in the Bangmai village, about 10 km northwest of Lincang City, Yunnan. The Bangmai Formation contains abun
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Glendora is a city in the San Gabriel Valley in Los Angeles County, California, 23 miles east of downtown Los Angeles. As of the 2010 census, the population of Glendora was 50,073. Known as the "Pride of the Foothills", Glendora is nestled in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains, its downtown area, known as the Glendora Village, has been voted as one of the best downtowns in the San Gabriel Valley. It hosts dozens of restaurants, cafes and boutiques along the main street, Glendora Avenue, with many community events scheduled throughout the year. A small town vibe combined with low crime rates and a high-ranking school district, has made the city an attractive choice for families in the region. Glendora celebrated its centennial as an incorporated city in 2011. Neighborhoods and residences in Glendora reflect the city's history and range from Queen Annes, to Folk Victorians, early 20th-century bungalows, to ranch style homes, to mid-rise Multi-family residential complexes, to modern mansions.
Glendora's most expensive neighborhoods contain many large, estate homes with sweeping views across the San Gabriel Valley to Downtown Los Angeles. These neighborhoods include Morgan Ranch, Gordon Highlands, Bluebird Hill, Silent Ranch, Oak Tree Rancho, Hidden Springs, Oakhart Estates, Easley Canyon Estates. Glendora is home to the exclusive Glendora Country Club, which includes a Robert Trent Jones Sr. 18-hole golf course, played by many professional golfers. Glendora is bordered by Azusa to the west, San Dimas to the east and south and the unincorporated community of Charter Oak to the south, the San Gabriel Mountains range to the north. Ygnacio Palomares received the 22,340-acre land grant Rancho San Jose from Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1837; the land included the present day cities of Pomona, Claremont, La Verne, San Dimas, Glendora. Like so many cities in the San Gabriel Valley, Glendora was established on remote agricultural land when the area became connected to the outside world upon the completion of the Santa Fe Railway's main transcontinental line from Los Angeles to Chicago in May 1887.
Located at the foot of the San Gabriel Mountains, Glendora was started on 300 acres that were subdivided and sold by George D. Whitcomb in late March 1887. On the first day of sale, 300 lots were sold. Whitcomb was the founder of the Whitcomb Locomotive Works in Chicago and Rochelle and had moved to California in the early 1880s, he devised the name Glendora by combining the name of his wife, Leadora Bennett Whitcomb, with the location of his home in a glen of the San Gabriel Mountains. In December 1907, the development of Glendora got a boost when passenger service opened on a new extension of the Pacific Electric Railway's Monrovia-Glendora line which provided service from downtown Glendora to the Pacific Electric Building at Sixth and Main in Downtown Los Angeles. Prior to its 1911 incorporation, Glendora's administrator occupied the office of President of Glendora; the downtown area as it appears now is the product of years of renovation and maintenance by the city. There once stood a movie theatre, various banks, playhouses but all were converted into more modern commercial buildings.
The original layout can be read about on the Downtown Glendora Historical Walk, by reading placards placed along Glendora Avenue. The original townsite was bounded by Sierra Madre Avenue on the north, Minnesota Avenue on the east, Ada Avenue and the railroad on the south, Pennsylvania Avenue on the west. Glendora used to be home to several military academies, which have since been converted into either churches or private school facilities; these academies included Brown Military Academy, now St. Lucy's Priory High School and Church of the Open Door on Sierra Madre, Harding Military Academy, whose property is now home to North Glendora Private, a prestigious private community adjacent to Easley Canyon atop Glendora Avenue. From 1960 to 1978, Glendora was home to Clokey Productions which produced 85 episodes of Gumby and 65 episodes of Davey and Goliath in town. In celebration of this history, Glendora hosted the first Gumby Fest in 2014 which brought thousands of people from around the country and Canada.
In 2015 the 2nd GumbyFest was held at Citrus College over an entire weekend. Several wildfires have affected the city in recent years, the most notable being the Colby Fire, which displaced hundreds of Glendora residents. A relief concert titled "Glendora Band Aid" was held shortly after the fire to help raise funds to assist the homeowners who lost their homes in the fire. Glendora has an active Chamber of Commerce, established in 1903; the mission of the Glendora Chamber is to provide tools and resources to assist the business community in prospering and adapting to the economic climate, while growing membership and promoting local purchasing. Glendora is located at 34°7′51″N 117°51′15″W; the city lies in the eastern end of the San Gabriel Valley between the San Gabriel Mountains range to the north and the South Hills to the south. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.6 square miles, of which 19.4 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles, or 0.84%, is water.
As of the census of 2010, there were 50,073 people, 16,819 households, 12,866 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,581.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,145 housing units at an average density of 895.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.1% White, 1.9% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 8.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.2% from other races
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
Azusa is a city in the San Gabriel Valley, at the foot of the San Gabriel Mountains in Los Angeles County, United States. The A on the San Gabriel Mountains represents the city of Azusa, can be seen within a 30-mile radius; the population was 46,361 at the 2010 census, up from 44,712 at the 2000 census. Azusa is located along historic Route 66, which passes through the city on Foothill Boulevard and Alosta Avenue. "Azusa stands for everything from A to Z in the U. S. A." has been a phrase used to promote the town by organisations such as the Chamber of Commerce for many years. The place name "Azusa" dates to the Mexican Alta California era in the 19th century when Azusa was used to refer to the San Gabriel Valley and the San Gabriel River, it appears to have been derived from the Tongva place name Asuksagna. The area was part of the Tongva peoples homeland since at least 55 BC; the first Mexican settlement in Azusa was at the Rancho el Susa in 1841, a Mexican land grant from the Alta California Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado to Luis Arenas.
In 1844 Arenas sold the rancho's land to Henry Dalton, an English immigrant and wealthy merchant from the Pueblo of Los Angeles, for $7,000. He renamed it Rancho Azusa de Dalton, had built a winery, vinegar house, meat smokehouse, flour mill. A vineyard was planted. Dalton built a house here on a place known as Dalton Hill, near 6th Street and Cerritos Avenue in Azusa. Dalton was the owner of the adjacent and large Rancho San Francisquito and Rancho Santa Anita properties. In the end Dalton owned an unbroken expanse of land from the present day San Dimas to the eastern edge of Pasadena. A portion of Azusa west of the San Gabriel River was within adjacent Rancho Azusa de Duarte With the cession of California to the United States following the Mexican–American War, the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo provided that the land grants would be honored; as required by the Land Act of 1851, a claim for Rancho San Francisquito was filed with the Public Land Commission in 1852, confirmed by the Commission in 1853, but rejected by the US District Court in 1855, on the grounds that Henry Dalton was not, at the time of the grant, a citizen of Mexico.
The decree was reversed by the US Supreme Court, the grant was patented to Henry Dalton in 1867. Azusa was listed in the 1860 census as a township with a population of 363; the 1870 US Census listed the area as the township of Azusa – El Monte Township and 1880 US Census listed the area as the township of San Jose and Azusa. There were a few corrections to cross out the San Jose name on most of the census pages, but this was done sporadically and there remain many index errors in the online census due to these errors. Dalton had borrowed money from Los Angeles banker Jonathan S. Slauson to fund 24 years of litigation, had to sign the land over to him in 1880. Slauson laid out the plan for the city in 1887 and the city was incorporated in 1898; the completion of the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley Railroad in January 1887 sold to the Santa Fe railroad, brought new people looking for homes and investment opportunities in Azusa. The Gold Line Foothill light rail line is being built on the old rail right-of-way.
Part of this land boom was the short lived town of Gladstone, now part of Azusa. The city is located at the entrance to the San Gabriel Canyon, giving the city its nickname "The Canyon City." It is on the east side of the San Gabriel River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.7 square miles, over 99% of it is land. Azusa is located at 34°7′50″N 117°54′25″W. Sister citiesAzusa has one sister city: State of Zacatecas, Mexico; this region experiences warm, dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Azusa has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Azusa had a population of 46,361. The population density was 4,794.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Azusa was 26,715 White, 1,499 African American, 562 Native American, 4,054 Asian, 87 Pacific Islander, 11,270 from other races, 2,174 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31,328 persons. The Census reported that 43,559 people lived in households, 2,691 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 111 were institutionalized. There were 12,716 households, out of which 5,955 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 6,310 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,275 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,014 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 891 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 104 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,238 households were made up of individuals and 761 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.43. There were 9,599 families; the population was spread out with 12,407 people under the age of 18, 7,724 people aged 18 to 24, 13,185 people aged 25 to 44, 9,469 people aged 45 to 64, 3,576 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males.
There were 13,386 housing units at an average density of 1,384.4 per square mile, of which 6,802 were owner-occupied, 5,914
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti