Canolo is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 70 kilometres southwest of Catanzaro and about 50 kilometres northeast of Reggio Calabria. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 901 and an area of 28.2 square kilometres. Canolo borders the following municipalities: Agnana Calabra, Gerace, San Giorgio Morgeto. Official website
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Ivangorod is a town in Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast, located on the right bank of the Narva River by the Estonia–Russia border, 159 kilometers west of St. Petersburg. Population: 9,854 . Ivangorod is a major border crossing point and a railway station by the Tallinn–St. Petersburg line, it is located just opposite to the Estonian town of Narva. The town is the site of the Ivangorod Fortress, a prominent fortification monument of the 15th and the 16th centuries; the fortress, established in 1492 during the reign of Ivan III of Moscow, took its name from that of the Tsar. Between 1581 and 1590 and from 1612 to 1704, Sweden controlled the area. Ivangorod was granted town privileges and administered as a Russian township under the Crown of Sweden until 1649, when its burghers were ordered to remove to a Narva suburb. In 1617 Russia and Sweden signed the Treaty of Stolbovo, which placed the area under Swedish sovereignty. Russia reconquered it during the Great Northern War in 1704. Despite other changes in territory and sovereignty, Ivangorod was considered an administrative part of the town of Narva from 1649 until 1945.
In 1780, together with Narva, was included into Narvsky Uyezd of St. Petersburg Governorate. In 1796, Narvsky Uyezd was merged into Yamburgsky Uyezd. During the Estonian War of Independence, the newly independent Republic of Estonia established control over the whole of Narva, including Ivangorod, in January 1919, a move which Soviet Russia recognized in the 1920 Treaty of Tartu. In January 1945 Soviet authorities defined the Narva River as the border between the Estonian SSR and Russian SFSR, as a result the administration of Ivangorod transferred from Narva to the Kingiseppsky District of Leningrad Oblast. Having grown in population, Ivangorod gained town status on October 28, 1954. After the restoration of Estonian independence in 1991, there have been some disputes about the Estonian-Russian border in the Narva area, as the new constitution of Estonia recognizes the 1920 Treaty of Tartu border to be legal; the Russian Federation, regards Estonia as a successor of the Estonian SSR and recognizes the 1945 border between two former national republics.
Estonia has no territorial claims in the area, reflected in the new Estonian-Russian border treaty, according to which Ivangorod remains a part of Russia. Although the foreign ministers of Estonia and Russia signed the treaty in 2005, due to continuing political tensions it has not been ratified. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated within Kingiseppsky District as Ivangorodskoye Settlement Municipal Formation; as a municipal division, Ivangorodskoye Settlement Municipal Formation is incorporated within Kingiseppsky Municipal District as Ivangorodskoye Urban Settlement. The town of Ivangorod is included into the border security zone, intended to protect the borders of Russia from unwanted activity. In order to visit the zone, a permit issued by the local Federal Security Service department or a valid Schengen visa is required. An EU passport with a Russian visa is valid. Ivangorod has enterprises of textile and timber industries, as well as a plant producing metallic plants and reservoirs.
The Narva Hydroelectric Station is located in the town limits as well. The railway connecting St. Petersburg with Tallinn passes through Ivangorod. There is infrequent suburban service to Baltiysky railway station of St. Petersburg, as well as passenger service to Tallinn; the A180 Highway connects Ivangorod. It coincides with the European route E20 connecting St. Petersburg via Tallinn with Shannon Airport. Ivangorod contains thirty-three cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally seven objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. All federal monuments are related to the Ivangorod Fortress; the fortress functions as a museum. Ivangorod is twinned with: Karlskoga Municipality, Sweden Narva, Estonia Kamienna Góra, Poland Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г.
«Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г.. Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №81-оз от 28 октября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Кингисеппский муниципальный район и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Областного закона №17-оз от 6 мая 2010 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы в связи с принятием федерального закона "О внесении изменени
Calabria, known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy. The capital city of Calabria is Catanzaro; the Regional Council of Calabria is based at the Palazzo Campanella in the city of Reggio Calabria. The region is bordered to the north by the Basilicata Region, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, to the east by the Ionian Sea; the region has a population of just under 2 million. The demonym of Calabria is calabrese in Calabrian in English. In ancient times the name Calabria referred, not as in modern times to the toe, but to the heel tip of Italy, from Tarentum southwards, a region nowadays known as Salento. Starting in the third century BC, the name Calabria was given to the Adriatic coast of the Salento peninsula in modern Apulia. In the late first century BC this name came to extend to the entirety of the Salento, when the Roman emperor Augustus divided Italy into regions; the whole region of Apulia received the name Regio II Calabria. By this time modern Calabria was still known as Bruttium, after the Bruttians who inhabited the region.
In the seventh century AD, the Byzantine Empire created the Duchy of Calabria from the Salento and the Ionian part of Bruttium. Though the Calabrian part of the duchy was conquered by the Longobards during the eighth and ninth centuries AD, the Byzantines continued to use the name Calabria for their remaining territory in Bruttium; the modern name Italy derives from Italia, first used as a name for the southern part of modern Calabria. Over time the Greeks started to use it for the rest of the southern Italian peninsula as well. After the Roman conquest of the region, the name was used for the entire Italian peninsula and the Alpine region too; the region is known as the “toe” of the “boot” of Italy and is a long and narrow peninsula which stretches from north to south for 248 km, with a maximum width of 110 km. Some 42% of Calabria's area, corresponding to 15,080 km2, is mountainous, 49% is hilly, while plains occupy only 9% of the region's territory, it is surrounded by the Tyrrhenian seas.
It is separated from Sicily by the Strait of Messina, where the narrowest point between Capo Peloro in Sicily and Punta Pezzo in Calabria is only 3.2 km. Three mountain ranges are present: Pollino, La Sila and Aspromonte. All three mountain ranges are unique with their own fauna; the Pollino Mountains in the north of the region are rugged and form a natural barrier separating Calabria from the rest of Italy. Parts of the area are wooded, while others are vast, wind-swept plateaus with little vegetation; these mountains are home to a rare Bosnian Pine variety and are included in the Pollino National Park. The Pollino National Park has the distinction of being the largest national park in Italy and covers about 1,925.65 square kilometres. La Sila, referred to as the "Great Wood of Italy", is a vast mountainous plateau about 1,200 metres above sea level and stretches for nearly 2,000 square kilometres along the central part of Calabria; the highest point is Botte Donato. The area boasts dense coniferous forests.
La Sila has some of the tallest trees in Italy which are called the "Giants of the Sila" and can reach up to 40 metres in height. The Sila National Park is known to have the purest air in Europe; the Aspromonte massif forms the southernmost tip of the Italian peninsula bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous structure reaches its highest point at Montalto, at 1,995 metres, is full of wide, man-made terraces that slope down towards the sea. In general, most of the lower terrain in Calabria has been agricultural for centuries, exhibits indigenous scrubland as well as introduced plants such as the prickly pear cactus; the lowest slopes are rich in citrus fruit orchards. The Diamante citron is one of the citrus fruits. Moving upwards and chestnut trees appear while in the higher regions there are dense forests of oak, pine and fir trees. Calabria's climate is influenced by mountains; the Mediterranean climate is typical of the coastal areas with considerable differences in temperature and rainfall between the seasons, with an average low of 8 °C during the winter months and an average high of 30 °C during the summer months.
Mountain areas have a typical mountainous climate with frequent snow during winter. Erratic behavior of the Tyrrhenian Sea can bring heavy rainfall on the western slopes of the region, while hot air from Africa makes the east coast of Calabria dry and warm; the mountains that run along the region influence the climate and temperature of the region. The east coast has wider temperature ranges than the west coast; the geography of the region causes more rain to fall along the west coast than that of the east coast, which occurs during winter and autumn and less during the summer months. Below are the two extremes of climate present in Calabria, both the warm mediterranean subtype on the coastline and the highland climate of Monte Scuro; when describing the geology of Calabria, it is considered as part of the "Calabrian Arc", an arc-shaped geographic domain extending from the southern part of the Basilicata Region to the northeast of Sicily, including the Peloritano Mountains. The Calabrian area shows basement of Paleozoic
Bagaladi is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 120 kilometres southwest of Catanzaro and about 15 kilometres southeast of Reggio Calabria. Bagaladi borders the following municipalities: Cardeto, Montebello Ionico, Reggio Calabria, Roccaforte del Greco, San Lorenzo. Official website
Bivongi is a comune in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region Calabria, located about 50 kilometres southwest of Catanzaro and about 80 kilometres northeast of Reggio Calabria in the Stilaro Valley, at the feet of the Monte Consolino. Attractions include the Cascata del Marmarico, a 114-metre high waterfall, the Monastery of San Giovanni Theristis. La Plata 2012 Calabrian wine Vallata dello Stilaro Allaro Ecomuseo delle ferriere e fonderie di Calabria Bivongi in Locride's site Comunità Montana Stilaro Allaro An access point to Bivongi internet resources
Bagnara Calabra is a comune in the Province of Reggio Calabria in Calabria, southern Italy. It is located in the hills facing the Tyrrhenian Sea on the southern tip of the region, about 100 kilometres southwest of Catanzaro and about 25 kilometres northeast of Reggio Calabria; the first organized village for which we have historical proof was around 1085 AD, with edification of "S. Mary's V. G. and XII Apostles Abbey Nullius" ordered by Roger I of Sicily. Other historical assumptions supported by indirect proofs allow dating much further back, to being directly connected with Mamertini, following the First Punic War. Supporting this theory, ancient coins with the likeness of Mars were discovered and documented in this area around 1800. Roman presence is proven by the ancient "Via Capua-Regium" known as Via Popilia, built in 132 BC, through Bagnara's territory. During the Roman era, the village was known as "Balnearum", at that time a thermal spring used by Romans. Others claim that Bagnara was founded by Phoenicia around the 8th century BC, but there's no archaeological proof supporting this theory.
Since 1130 AD, Bagnara was part of the Kingdom of Sicily established by Roger II. The village was completely destroyed by the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes and tsunami, it is recorded as the most powerful in the area, killing 59% of the population and collapsing the Abbey Nullius. The only evidence left of a late-eighteenth century building is Carmine's Church, rebuilt after the earthquakes. On 24 August 1860 followed by ten official Giuseppe Garibaldi fighting for Italian unification reached Bagnara where they were host by a member of the National Guard. In the past the name was just Bagnara, but after the 1861 and unification of Italy, it became Bagnara Calabra to distinguish it from Bagnara di Romagna. Bagnara was heavily hit by the 1908 Messina earthquake. During World War II Bagnara Calabra was involved in operations in southern Italy, which began the Allied invasion of Italy. Starting 21 July 1943, some parts of the village were bombed by the Allies, in order to attack Wehrmacht forces that were preparing to retreat.
Albert Kesselring and his staff strategically chose not to defend Calabria, leaving only the 29th Panzergrenadier Division's 15th Panzergrenadier Regiment, began the German retreat. On 3 September, most of this unit was in prepared positions at Bagnara, some 40 km from the landings which it had orders to hold until 6 September. On 3 September 1943 the British Eighth Army's XIII Corps, composed of the 1st Canadian and British 5th Infantry Divisions and commanded by Lieutenant-General Miles Dempsey, launched Operation Baytown under General Bernard Montgomery's direction. At 4:30 AM on 4 September 1943 the retreating Germans blew up the Caravilla Bridge. On 4 September, the British 5th Infantry Division reached Bagnara Calabra. Bagnara preserves evidence of this British presence since the rail station area of the village is known as Rione Inglese. Historical monument The Aragonese Tower or Capo Rocchi Tower, locally known as Roger's Tower, was built in the 15th and 16th centuries, it is located in the historic fishermen district known as Marinella.
In ancient times the Tower was known as the "32nd Tower of the Calabria Ulterior". It was built as a part of a military system of several watchtowers to guard against the incursions of Saracens along the Tyrrhenian coast. Bridge of Caravilla -built on 1825- is a monumental stone bridge, notably passing thrice; this Bridge is famous for a distinctive trait. It is the only one in Italy, since the same road cross the same bridge three times, it is a part of Strada statale 18 Tirrena Inferiore. After being blown up by German mines on 4 September 1943, the bridge was rebuilt in 1943 by the Allies with the cooperation of the women of Bagnara Calabra. Fonte GaribaldiA popular legend relate that Garibaldi stopped twice to drink water on the same fountain. A Palladian style fountain was edificated on 1866. Audere SemperIn the central square of the village is located a marble monument to remember Vincenzo Fondacaro, it is a marmoreal representation of the legendary "Leone di Caprera",a small 9 meter boat which on 1880-1881 Fondacaro and his crew recorded a brave endeavour crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Bagnara Calabra borders the Tyrrhenian Sea on the west. It is located by a bay, embraced by overhanging hills which extend to the cliffs down to the sea, within a Calabrian coastal area known as the "Violet Coast". Bagnara looks out across the Strait of Messina; the Aeolian Islands can be seen to the west across the Tyrrhenian Sea. The municipality of Bagnara Calabra contains territorial subdivisions boroughs and hamlets called "frazioni", such as Ceramida and Pellegrina. Bagnara Calabra borders the following municipalities: Melicuccà, Sant'Eufemia d'Aspromonte and Seminara. Bagnara is known in Calabria and Italy as the maincenter of production of a renowned torrone which it has awarded with the quality brand of "I. G. P.". But overall the village is known for the ancient and rare way of fishing for swordfish, with an ancient boat known as a feluca or felucca, where the fisherman hunts the Cavalier with a harpoon. Between 1950 and 1970 the boats were modified with engines, but - for thousands of years - the ancient fishermen used sails.
Before 1950 this kind of swordfish fishing boat was made by hand, with boats racing to chase swordfish. Bagnara has traditionally been a fishing and agriculture ce