The Societé Anonyme Belge d'Exploitation de la Navigation Aérienne, better known internationally by the acronym Sabena or SABENA, was the national airline of Belgium from 1923 to 2001, with its base at Brussels National Airport. After its bankruptcy in 2001, the newly formed SN Brussels Airlines took over part of Sabena's assets in February 2002, which became Brussels Airlines after a merger with Virgin Express in March 2007; the airline's corporate headquarters were located in the Sabena House on the grounds of Brussels Airport in Zaventem. Sabena began operations on 23 May 1923 as the national carrier of Belgium; the airline was created by the Belgian government after its predecessor SNETA - formed in 1919 to pioneer commercial aviation in Belgium - ceased operations. Sabena operated its first commercial flight from Brussels to London on 1 July 1923, via Ostend. Services to Rotterdam and Strasbourg were launched on 1 April 1924; the Strasbourg service was extended to Basle on 10 June 1924. Amsterdam was added on 1 September 1924, Hamburg followed on 1 May 1929 via Antwerp, Düsseldorf, Essen.
When Sabena was created, the airline was funded by Belgians in the Belgian Congo colony who lost their air service, an experimental passenger and cargo company between Léopoldville and Stanleyville a year earlier and who expected the new Belgian national airline to fill this gap. On 12 February 1925, Sabena pioneered a long haul across Africa to Leopoldville, capital of the Belgian Congo. Throughout its history, Sabena had a long tradition of service to African destinations and for a long time these were the only profitable routes served by the airline. Sabena used landplanes for its Congo operations and a program of aerodrome construction was initiated in the Congo; this was finished in 1926 and Sabena began flights within the Belgian colony, the main route being Boma-Léopoldville-Élisabethville, a 2,288 km route over dense jungle. First, flights were operated with De Havilland DH.50s, although these were replaced by the larger Handley Page W.8f which had three engines and offered ten seats.
By 1931 Sabena's fleet, including the aircraft used on the Congo network, totalled 43 aircraft. Its mainstay type was the Fokker F. VIIB with a lesser number of smaller Fokker VIIA and 14 Handley-Page types, it flew British Westland Wessex aircraft. Sabena flew to tropical Africa, Belgium's Congo colony, but these aircraft were shipped out. There was no direct flight yet between the colony; as the 1930s progressed, Sabena cooperated with Air France and Deutsche Luft Hansa, which had interests in routes to destinations across Africa. Sabena's first long-haul flight to the Congo occurred on 12 February 1935 and took five and a half days, for which Sabena used a Fokker F-VII/3m aircraft; the following year, Sabena purchased the Savoia-Marchetti SM.73 airliner. With a speed of 300 km/h, it reduced the journey time taken to only four days, the Sabena service ran on alternate weeks to an Air Afrique service. In Europe, Sabena opened services to Copenhagen and Malmö in 1931 and a route to Berlin was initiated in 1932.
The mainstay pre-war airliner that Sabena used in Europe was the successful Junkers Ju 52/3m airliner. The airline's pre-war routes covered 6,000 km within Europe. While the Brussels Haren airport was Sabena's main base, the company operated services from other Belgian airports, had a domestic network, used by businessmen who wanted to be in their coastal villas for the weekend. In 1938, the airline purchased the new Savoia-Marchetti SM.83, a development of the S. M. 73 with a speed of 435 km/h, although it flew services at a cruising speed of about 400 km/h. At the outbreak of World War II in 1939, Sabena's fleet totalled 18 aircraft, its mainstay fleet type was the Junkers Ju 52/3m airliner. Sabena had just taken delivery of two Douglas DC-3s. During the war the airline managed to maintain its Belgian Congo routes, but all European services ceased. After the war, in 1946 Sabena resumed operating a network of intra-European scheduled services; the fleet consisted of Douglas DC-3s. There were thousands of surplus Douglas C-47 Skytrains available to help airlines restart operations after the war.
The airline now flew under the name of SABENA - Belgian World Airlines. Sabena started its first transatlantic route to New York City on 4 June 1946 using unpressurised Douglas DC-4 airliners which were augmented and replaced by Douglas DC-6Bs; the DC-4s restarted the airline's traditional route to the Belgian Congo. Sabena was the first airline to introduce transatlantic schedules from the north of England, when one of its DC-6Bs inaugurated the Brussels-Manchester-New York route on 28 October 1953; the Convair 240 was introduced in 1949 to replace the DC-3s that until had flown most European services. As of 1956, improved Convair 440 "Metropolitan" twins began replacing the Convair 240 twins and were used well into the 1960s between European regional destinations. In 1957, the long-range Douglas DC-7C was introduced for long-haul routes but this plane would begin to be supplanted after only three years by the jet age, it remained in service on the transatlantic route until 1962. On 3 June 1954, a Soviet Air Force Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 attacked a Sabena-operated Douglas DC-3 on a cargo flight from the
Mexico City International Airport
Mexico City International Airport. It is Mexico Latin America's busiest airport by passenger traffic and aircraft movements; the airport sustains around 15,000 indirectly in the immediate area. The airport is owned by Grupo Aeroportuario de la Ciudad de México and operated by Aeropuertos y Servicios Auxiliares, the government-owned corporation, which operates 22 other airports throughout Mexico. In recent years Toluca Airport has become an alternate airport; this hot and high airport is served by 30 domestic and international passenger airlines and 17 cargo carriers. As the main hub for Mexico's largest airline Aeroméxico, the airport has become a SkyTeam hub, it is a hub for Aeromar, Volaris, a focus city for VivaAerobus. On a typical day, more than 100,000 passengers pass through the airport to and from more than 100 destinations on four continents. In 2018, the airport handled 47,700,547 passengers, a 6.6% increase compared to 2017. Operating near the limits of its capacity, calls for replacing the airport were announced in September 2014, with the proposed location to be built 16 kilometres north-northeast of the current airport, east of Ecatepec.
As of December 3, 2018, the airport is still under construction and work has not been cancelled on the new airport. Located at the neighbourhood of Peñón de los Baños within Venustiano Carranza, one of the sixteen boroughs into which Mexico City is divided, the airport is 5 km east from Downtown Mexico City and is surrounded by the built-up areas of Gustavo A. Madero to the north and Venustiano Carranza to the west and east; as the airport is located on the east side of Mexico City and its runways run southwest-northeast, an airliner's landing approach is directly over the conurbation of Mexico City when the wind is from the northeast. Therefore, there is an important overflying noise pollution; the original site, known as Llanos de Balbuena, had been used for aeronautical activities since 1910, when Alberto Braniff became the first to fly an aeroplane in Mexico, in Latin America. The flight was onboard of a Voisin biplane. On November 30, 1911, President Francisco I. Madero, was the first head of State in the world to fly onboard of a Deperdussin airplane piloted by Geo M. Dyott of Moisant International.
In 1915 the airport first opened as Balbuena Military Airport with five runways. Construction of a small civilian airport began in 1928; the first landing was on November 5, 1928, regular service started in 1929, but was inaugurated on May 15, 1931. On July 8, 1943, the Official Gazette of the Federation published a decree that acknowledged Mexico City's Central Airport as an international airport, capable of managing international arrivals and departures of passengers and aircraft, its first international route was to Los Angeles International Airport operated by Mexicana. Construction of Runway 05D-23I started six years as well as new facilities such as a platform, a terminal building, a control tower and offices for the authorities; the runway started its operations in 1951. On November 19, 1952, President Miguel Alemán opened the passenger terminal, which became Terminal 1. In 1956 the airport had four runways in service: 05L-23R, 05R-23L, with electric lights for night-time service. On December 2, 1963, Walter C.
Buchanan, former director of the Transport and Communications Department, changed the airport's name "Aeropuerto Central" to "Aeropuerto Internacional de la Ciudad de México". In the 1970s, president Luis Echeverría closed the two remaining shorter runways. Leaving the two parallel runways. In 1980, the terminal was expanded to double its capacity, using a single large terminal rather than multiple terminals as in other airports. Ten years in 1990, the mixed domestic/international gates were separated to increase the terminal's functionality, along with the separation of domestic and international check-in halls. On November 24, 1978, the "Mexico" Control Tower began its operations; the AICM has continually improved its infrastructure. On August 15, 1979, after about a year of remodeling works, the terminal building reopened to the public. Due to constant growth in demand of both passengers and operations, on January 13, 1994, the Official Gazette of the Federation, published a presidential decree that prohibited general aviation operations in the AICM, which were moved to Toluca International Airport in order to clear air traffic in the capital's airport.
Renovations to the AICM continued and on April 11, 1994, a new International Terminal building was ready and operational. It was built by a private contractor according to a co-investment agreement with Airports and Auxiliary Services. In 2001, in order to further improve service to passengers, construction for Module XI started; this Module permitted eight new contact positions in the Airport Terminal, capable of receiving eight regular airplanes, two wide-body, or four narrow-body aircraft. Because of the increasing traffic, president Vicente Fox annou
Société Belge des Transports par Air SA, known by its short form Sobelair, was a Belgian airline from that operated from 1946 to 2004. It was headquartered in Brussels and operated non-scheduled passenger and cargo flights out of Brussels Airport. Sobelair was founded as a charter airline on 30 July 1946 known as Société d'Etude et de Transports Aériens, abbreviated SETA; the first revenue flight using a Douglas DC-3 aircraft, which took place on 15 October of that year, was a flowers transport to Nice via Paris. In 1947, scheduled flights from Brussels to Elisabethville in Belgian Congo were launched on behalf of several companies in the Belgian colony, which held the majority of the stakes in the company. In 1949, these shares were acquired by Belgian flag carrier Sabena, which thus owned 72.29 percent in Sobelair. When Republic of the Congo was founded as an independent state in the former Belgian Congo, Sobelair ceased its African service, concentrated on offering chartered holiday flights to the Mediterranean instead, as well as domestic routes using small Cessna 310 airplanes.
Sobelair joined the jet age in 1971. Over the following years, the fleet was further modernized with Boeing 707 aircraft, which stayed until 1981. By Sobelair operated a fleet composed of smaller Boeing 737 airliners. Long haul flights were relaunched only in 1994, using a newly bought Boeing 767-300; when Swissair started an alliance with Sabena in 1995, plans were made for a co-operation of the respective charter subsidiaries. Thus, Sobelair went into negotiation with the Swiss subsidiary of Trans European Airways in 1996, which turned out to be fruitless. Instead, an agreement was signed with Crossair. In 1997, Sobelair operated chartered passenger flights from Zurich to San Francisco and Las Vegas on behalf of Swissair. In the late 1990s, a charter contract with tour operator Jetair was signed. In 2001, further agreements with ALM Antillean Airlines and Balair were secured. In October 2001, Swissair went bankrupt, followed by the demise of partner Sabena in November of the same year, which led to the future of Sobelair becoming uncertain, too.
Delta Air Transport, which the Sabena slots had been transferred to considered taking over Sobelair's 767s for the re-launch of scheduled passenger flights to Africa, German tour operator Preussag went into negotiations concerning a taking-over of the airline, which were dropped again in February 2002. After having been acquired by a group of investors in June 2002, which led to the launch of scheduled flights on the Brussels-Johannesburg route, Sobelair was passed on to SN Brussels Airlines in early 2003, for which it operated charter flights henceforth; this did not lead to an improvement of the financial situation, so that Sobelair had to declare bankruptcy in early January 2004. TUI Travel placed an offer for taking over Sobelair's aircraft in order to create a Belgian airline subsidiary, provided that creditor protection would be granted. On 19 January, this measure was rejected, so that Sobelair went out of business and its approximately 450 employees lost their jobs. Over the nearly 60 years of its existence, Sobelair operated the following aircraft types: Sobelair suffered one fatal accident, which occurred on 22 April 1960.
A Douglas C-54 Skymaster of the airline, registered OO-SBL, crashed into a mountain slope whilst approaching an airfield in Bunia Belgian Congo. All 28 passengers and the seven crew members, on the chartered flight from Cairo lost their lives. On 20 December 1970, a Sobelair Douglas DC-6 was damaged beyond repair when it ran off the runway at Málaga Airport; the cargo flight with seven occupants had had to perform an emergency landing at the airport in bad weather conditions because the left main landing gear could not be extended due to a hydraulic problem. On 29 March 1981, an engine fire occurred with a Sobelair Boeing 707 shortly after take-off from Brussels Airport; the pilots had to execute an emergency landing. As there had not been time to dump fuel, the airplane was too heavy, was deliberately steered off the runway in order not to overshoot it, during which it suffered extensive damage; the 109 passengers and eight crew members survived the accident. Official website Sobelair aircraft
Delta Air Transport
Delta Air Transport was an airline headquartered in Antwerp, operating scheduled and chartered flights on short-haul routes. It served a multitude of regional European destinations on behalf of Sabena during the 1990s and early 2000s. Delta Air Transport was founded in 1966, by Frans Van den Bergh, as a provider for air taxi and charter flight services with an initial fleet of three Cessna aircraft. DAT's first scheduled flight from Antwerp to Amsterdam on behalf of KLM took place on 19 September 1967. Operations grew when the larger Douglas DC-3 and DC-6 joined the fleet over the following years, allowing DAT to operate charter flights on behalf of KLM, Crossair and BIAS. In 1973, the majority of the airline's stake was bought by Compagnie Maritime Belge. During 1974, a Boeing 720 was leased, allowing DAT to offer worldwide charter flights, which soon turned out to be unsuccessful, though. In 1986, Sabena acquired a 49 percent stake in DAT, an increasing number of flights were operated on behalf of the Belgian national airline henceforth, using a fleet of British Aerospace 146 aircraft, in favor of which other airliners were phased out.
DAT became a member of the European Regional Airlines Association in 1993. In 1996, Sabena bought the remaining KLM stake, thus DAT became a wholly owned Sabena subsidiary, moved its headquarters from Antwerp to Brussels and was re-branded as DAT Belgian Regional Airline, offering low-cost flights; the livery of Sabena was applied to all DAT aircraft. On 1 November 2001, Sabena collapsed due to financial difficulties. DAT could re-launch its operations on 10 November with a flight to Geneva, having received all of Sabena's slots at Brussels Airport and thus being able to maintain the successful European network. Freddy Van Gaever, its former CEO, planned to merge DAT with Virgin Express and add flights to the United States using former Sabena aircraft, why the new DAT Plus branding was adopted. DAT came under the umbrella of SN Airholding in 2002, was re-organized under a new AOC as SN Brussels Airlines, which became Brussels Airlines, today's flag carrier of the country. In its early years, Delta Air Transport offered up to 4 daily scheduled flights between its base at Antwerp Airport and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol on behalf of KLM, as well as a limited number of routes to the neighboring countries.
During the 1990s and early 2000s, DAT was able to grow an extensive short-haul network, as more and more flights were operated on behalf of demising Sabena becoming the 10th largest regional airline of the continent, transporting more than 1.7 million passengers per year. During its height, the airline had nearly 800 employees, served the following cities on a scheduled basis from its hub at Brussels Airport: Over the years, Delta Air Transport operated the following aircraft types: On 4 October 1974 at 20:01 local time, the flight engineer of a DAT Douglas DC-6 decided to retract the nose gear during take-off run at London Southend Airport though the aircraft had not yet lifted off, which happened due to a communication error with the pilots; the airplane slid along the runway. 99 passengers had been on board the flight to Antwerp, one of, injured. The six crew members remained uninjured. On 2 June 1990 at 19:11 local time, a DAT Embraer EMB 120 Brasilia without any passengers collided with a Piper Aerostar during a low-pass maneuvre at Antwerp International Airport, resulting in the crash of the Piper and the death of the four people on board.
The two aircraft had been performing a close formation flight for aerial photographs of the DAT Embraer for advertising purposes. Aeronews of Belgium. Antwerpen-Deurne, Belgium: Aviation Society of Antwerp. 2010. Pp. 15, 16. ISSN 0772-6198
Oakland International Airport
Oakland International Airport is an international airport in Oakland, United States. It is located 10 miles south of Downtown Oakland and across from San Francisco, situated on the other side of the San Francisco Bay, it is owned by the Port of Oakland and features passenger services to cities in the United States and Europe with additional cargo destinations in China and Japan. In 2018, 13,594,251 people traveled through OAK. Oakland is a focus city for Allegiant Air; as of August 2015 Southwest has 120 daily departures on peak-travel days of the week making it Southwest’s largest operation in California. Alaska Airlines combined with sister-carrier Horizon Air has been the second-busiest carrier at the airport through 2013. In January 2014, Delta overtook Alaska as the airport's No. 2 carrier. The city of Oakland looked into the construction of an airport starting in 1925. In 1927 the announcement of the Dole prize for a flight from California to Hawaii provided the incentive to purchase 680 acres in April 1927 for the airport.
The 7,020-foot-long runway was the longest in the world at the time, was built in just 21 days to meet the Dole race start. The airport was dedicated by Charles Lindbergh September 17. In its early days, because of its long runway enabling safe takeoff rolls for fuel-heavy aircraft, Oakland was the departing point of several historic flights, including Charles Kingsford Smith's historic US-Australia flight in 1928, Amelia Earhart's final flight in 1937. Earhart departed from this airport when she made her final, ill-fated voyage, intending to return there after circumnavigating the globe. Boeing Air Transport began scheduled flights to Oakland in December 1927, it was joined by Trans World Airlines in 1932. In 1929, Boeing opened the Boeing School of Aeronautics on the field, which expanded in 1939 as part of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. Thousands of pilots and mechanics were trained before the facility was changed into the United Air Lines training center in 1945. In 1943, the U. S. Armed Forces temporarily opened Naval Air Station Oakland.
It was transformed into an airlift base for military flights to the Pacific islands, ordering all scheduled service to move to San Francisco International Airport. After the war, airlines returned to Oakland; the airport's first Jet Age airline terminal was designed by John Carl Warnecke & Associates and opened in 1962, part of a $20 million expansion on bay fill that included the 10,000-foot runway 11/29. The May 1963 OAG showed 15 airline flights arriving in Oakland each day, including nine from San Francisco. During the Vietnam War, World Airways shuttled thousands of military passengers through Oakland to their bases in Southeast Asia, an international arrivals facility was built, allowing the airport to handle international flights for the first time. World Airways had broken ground on the World Airways Maintenance Center at Oakland International Airport; the maintenance hangar could store four Boeing 747's. It opened in May 1973. After the war Oakland's traffic slumped, but airline deregulation prompted several low-fare carriers to begin flights.
This increase prompted the airport to build a $16.3 million second terminal, the Lionel J. Wilson Terminal 2, with seven gates for PSA and AirCal service. In 1987 an Air France Concorde visited Oakland to provide supersonic two-hour flights to the Pacific halfway to Hawaii and back to Oakland. FedEx Express opened a cargo base at OAK in 1988, now one of the busiest air freight terminals in the United States. In the 1990s, Southwest Airlines opened a crew base in Oakland, expanded its flights to become the airport's dominant passenger carrier; the airport has international arrival facilities, including U. S. Customs and Border Protection officials. Mexicana Airlines flew between cities in Mexico for many years. In the past Corsairfly flew Orly Airport to OAK to Papeete, Martinair flew to Schiphol Airport and CityBird flew to Brussels Airport in Brussels. United Airlines vacated its 300,000 sq ft Oakland Maintenance Center in May 2003 and transferred work to its base across the bay at San Francisco International Airport.
Oakland International Airport began a $300 million expansion and renovation project in 2004, including adding five gates in Terminal 2. The new concourse opened in fall 2006, was opened by spring 2007, a new baggage claim in Terminal 2 opened in summer 2006; the former Terminal 2 baggage claim has been replaced by a renovated and expanded security screening area. As part of this program, airport roadways and parking lots were renovated by the end of 2008. In 2008 Oakland saw a series of cutbacks due to high fuel costs and airline bankruptcies, more than other Bay Area airports. In just a few days, Oakland's numerous non-stops to Hawaii were eliminated following the liquidation of ATA Airlines and Aloha Airlines, although Hawaiian Airlines started a daily flight to Honolulu a month later. Skybus Airlines stopped flying to Columbus, OH when it ended operations on April 5. American Airlines and Continental Airlines both dropped Oakland on September 3, United Airlines ended service to Los Angeles on November 2, TACA ended service to San Salvador on September 1.
New air traffic control tower A groundbreaking ceremony for a new control tower took place October 15, 2010. A grant awarded to the Federal A
The Boeing 767 is a mid- to large-size, mid- to long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit; the aircraft has two turbofan engines, a conventional tail, for reduced aerodynamic drag, a supercritical wing design. Designed as a smaller wide-body airliner than earlier aircraft such as the 747, the 767 has a seating capacity for 181 to 375 people, a design range of 3,850 to 6,385 nautical miles, depending on variant. Development of the 767 occurred in tandem with a narrow-body twinjet, the 757, resulting in shared design features which allow pilots to obtain a common type rating to operate both aircraft; the 767 is produced in three fuselage lengths. The original 767-200 entered service in 1982, followed by the 767-300 in 1986 and the 767-400ER, an extended-range variant, in 2000; the extended-range 767-200ER and 767-300ER models entered service in 1984 and 1988 while a production freighter version, the 767-300F, debuted in 1995.
Conversion programs have modified passenger 767-200 and 767-300 series aircraft for cargo use, while military derivatives include the E-767 surveillance aircraft, the KC-767 and KC-46 aerial tankers, VIP transports. Engines featured on the 767 include the General Electric CF6, Pratt & Whitney JT9D and PW4000, Rolls-Royce RB211 turbofans. United Airlines first placed the 767 in commercial service in 1982; the aircraft was flown on domestic and transcontinental routes, during which it demonstrated the reliability of its twinjet design. The 767 became the first twin-engined airliner to be used on extended overseas flights in 1985; the aircraft was used to expand non-stop service on medium- to long-haul intercontinental routes. In 1986, Boeing initiated studies for a higher-capacity 767 leading to the development of the 777, a larger wide-body twinjet. In the 1990s, the 767 became the most used airliner for transatlantic flights between North America and Europe; the 767 is the first twinjet wide-body type to reach 1,000 aircraft delivered.
As of January 2019, Boeing has received 1,244 orders for the 767 from 74 customers with 1,135 delivered. A total of 742 of these aircraft were in service in July 2018; the most popular variant is the 767-300ER with 583 delivered. Delta Air Lines is the largest operator with 77 aircraft. Competitors have included the Airbus A300, A310, A330-200. Non-passenger variants of the 767 remain in production as of 2019 while the passenger variant's successor, the 787, entered service in 2011. In 1970, Boeing's 747 became the first wide-body jetliner to enter service; the 747 was the first passenger jet wide enough to feature a twin-aisle cabin. Two years the manufacturer began a development study, code-named 7X7, for a new wide-body aircraft intended to replace the 707 and other early generation narrow-body jets; the aircraft would provide twin-aisle seating, but in a smaller fuselage than the existing 747, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, Lockheed L-1011 TriStar wide-bodies. To defray the high cost of development, Boeing signed risk-sharing agreements with Italian corporation Aeritalia and the Civil Transport Development Corporation, a consortium of Japanese aerospace companies.
This marked the manufacturer's first major international joint venture, both Aeritalia and the CTDC received supply contracts in return for their early participation. The initial 7X7 was conceived as a short take-off and landing airliner intended for short-distance flights, but customers were unenthusiastic about the concept, leading to its redefinition as a mid-size, transcontinental-range airliner. At this stage the proposed aircraft featured two or three engines, with possible configurations including over-wing engines and a T-tail. By 1976, a twinjet layout, similar to the one which had debuted on the Airbus A300, became the baseline configuration; the decision to use two engines reflected increased industry confidence in the reliability and economics of new-generation jet powerplants. While airline requirements for new wide-body aircraft remained ambiguous, the 7X7 was focused on mid-size, high-density markets; as such, it was intended to transport large numbers of passengers between major cities.
Advancements in civil aerospace technology, including high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines, new flight deck systems, aerodynamic improvements, lighter construction materials were to be applied to the 7X7. Many of these features were included in a parallel development effort for a new mid-size narrow-body airliner, code-named 7N7, which would become the 757. Work on both proposals proceeded through the airline industry upturn in the late 1970s. In January 1978, Boeing announced a major extension of its Everett factory—which was dedicated to manufacturing the 747—to accommodate its new wide-body family. In February 1978, the new jetliner received the 767 model designation, three variants were planned: a 767-100 with 190 seats, a 767-200 with 210 seats, a trijet 767MR/LR version with 200 seats intended for intercontinental routes; the 767MR/LR was subsequently renamed 777 for differentiation purposes. The 767 was launched on July 14, 1978, when United Airlines ordered 30 of the 767-200 variant, followed by 50 more 767-200 orders from American Airlines and Delta Air Lines that year.
The 767-100 was not offered for sale, as its capacity was too close to the 757's seating, while the 777 trijet was dropped in favor of standardizing around the twinjet configuration. In the late 1970s, operating cost replaced capacity as the primary factor in airliner purchases; as a result, the 767's design process emphasized fuel efficiency from the outset. Bo
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines utilize aircraft to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for codeshare agreements. Airline companies are recognized with an air operating certificate or license issued by a governmental aviation body. Airlines vary in size, from small domestic airlines to full-service international airlines with double decker airplanes. Airline services can be categorized as being intercontinental, regional, or international, may be operated as scheduled services or charters; the largest airline is American Airlines Group. DELAG, Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktiengesellschaft I was the world's first airline, it was founded on November 16, 1909, with government assistance, operated airships manufactured by The Zeppelin Corporation. Its headquarters were in Frankfurt; the first fixed wing scheduled airline was started on January 1, 1914, from St. Petersburg, Florida, to Tampa, Florida.
The four oldest non-dirigible airlines that still exist are Netherlands' KLM, Colombia's Avianca, Australia's Qantas, the Czech Republic's Czech Airlines. The earliest fixed wing airline in Europe was Aircraft Transport and Travel, formed by George Holt Thomas in 1916. Using a fleet of former military Airco DH.4A biplanes, modified to carry two passengers in the fuselage, it operated relief flights between Folkestone and Ghent. On 15 July 1919, the company flew a proving flight across the English Channel, despite a lack of support from the British government. Flown by Lt. H Shaw in an Airco DH.9 between RAF Hendon and Paris – Le Bourget Airport, the flight took 2 hours and 30 minutes at £21 per passenger. On 25 August 1919, the company used DH.16s to pioneer a regular service from Hounslow Heath Aerodrome to Le Bourget, the first regular international service in the world. The airline soon gained a reputation for reliability, despite problems with bad weather, began to attract European competition.
In November 1919, it won the first British civil airmail contract. Six Royal Air Force Airco DH.9A aircraft were lent to the company, to operate the airmail service between Hawkinge and Cologne. In 1920, they were returned to the Royal Air Force. Other British competitors were quick to follow – Handley Page Transport was established in 1919 and used the company's converted wartime Type O/400 bombers with a capacity for 12 passengers, to run a London-Paris passenger service; the first French airline was Société des lignes Latécoère known as Aéropostale, which started its first service in late 1918 to Spain. The Société Générale des Transports Aériens was created in late 1919, by the Farman brothers and the Farman F.60 Goliath plane flew scheduled services from Toussus-le-Noble to Kenley, near Croydon, England. Another early French airline was the Compagnie des Messageries Aériennes, established in 1919 by Louis-Charles Breguet, offering a mail and freight service between Le Bourget Airport and Lesquin Airport, Lille.
The first German airline to use heavier than air aircraft was Deutsche Luft-Reederei established in 1917 which started operating in February 1919. In its first year, the D. L. R. Operated scheduled flights on routes with a combined length of nearly 1000 miles. By 1921 the D. L. R. Network was more than 3000 km long, included destinations in the Netherlands and the Baltic Republics. Another important German airline was Junkers Luftverkehr, which began operations in 1921, it was a division of the aircraft manufacturer Junkers, which became a separate company in 1924. It operated joint-venture airlines in Austria, Estonia, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Switzerland; the Dutch airline KLM made its first flight in 1920, is the oldest continuously operating airline in the world. Established by aviator Albert Plesman, it was awarded a "Royal" predicate from Queen Wilhelmina, its first flight was from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam, using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel DH-16, carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers.
In 1921, KLM started scheduled services. In Finland, the charter establishing Aero O/Y was signed in the city of Helsinki on September 12, 1923. Junkers F.13 D-335 became the first aircraft of the company, when Aero took delivery of it on March 14, 1924. The first flight was between Helsinki and Tallinn, capital of Estonia, it took place on March 20, 1924, one week later. In the Soviet Union, the Chief Administration of the Civil Air Fleet was established in 1921. One of its first acts was to help found Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. a German-Russian joint venture to provide air transport from Russia to the West. Domestic air service began around the same time, when Dobrolyot started operations on 15 July 1923 between Moscow and Nizhni Novgorod. Since 1932 all operations had been carried under the name Aeroflot. Early European airlines tended to favor comfort – the passenger cabins were spacious with luxurious interiors – over speed and efficiency; the basic navigational capabilities of pilots at the time meant that delays due to the weather were commonplace.
By the early 1920s, small airlines were struggling to compete, there was a movement towards increased rationalization and consolidation. In 1924, Imperial Airways was formed from the merger of Instone Air Line Company, British Marine Air Navigation, Daimler Airway and Handley Page Transport Co Ltd. to allow British airlines to compete with stiff competition from French and German airlines that were enjoying heavy government subsidies. The ai