Lincoln County, Nevada
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,345, its county seat is Pioche. Lincoln County was established in 1866 after Congress enlarged Nevada by moving its state line eastward and southward at the expense of Utah and Arizona territories, it is named after the 16th President of the United States. Original legislation called for the creation of a "Stewart County", after Nevada Senator William M. Stewart, but this was changed in a substitute bill. Crystal Springs was the county's first seat in 1866, followed by Hiko in 1867, Pioche in 1871. Lincoln County included a ranch village and railroad siding named Las Vegas; however the future city was separated from Lincoln County upon the founding of Clark County effective July 1, 1909, by act of the Nevada Legislature. Area 51 is in the county sheriff acts in proxy for the perimeter security forces. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 10,637 square miles, of which 10,633 square miles is land and 3.8 square miles is water.
While only the third largest county by area in the state of Nevada, it is the seventh-largest county in area in the United States, not including boroughs and census areas in Alaska. The south cliff of Mount Rummel, the summit of, just north of the county line in by this places side: White Pine County, contains the highest point in Lincoln County at 10,640 feet; the highest independent mountain within Lincoln County is Shingle Peak, while the county's most topographically prominent peak is Mormon Peak. Desert National Wildlife Refuge Humboldt National Forest Pahranagat National Wildlife RefugeThere are 16 official wilderness areas in Lincoln County that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. All are managed by the Bureau of Land Management. Several extend into neighboring counties. Big Rocks Wilderness Clover Mountains Wilderness Delamar Mountains Wilderness Far South Egans Wilderness Fortification Range Wilderness Meadow Valley Range Wilderness Mormon Mountains Wilderness Mount Grafton Wilderness Mount Irish Wilderness Parsnip Peak Wilderness South Egan Range Wilderness South Pahroc Range Wilderness Tunnel Spring Wilderness Weepah Spring Wilderness White Rock Range Wilderness Worthington Mountains Wilderness As of the census of 2000, there were 4,165 people, 1,540 households, 1,010 families residing in the county.
The population density was less than one person per square mile. There were 2,178 housing units at an average density of 0 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.50% White, 1.78% Black or African American, 1.75% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 2.69% from other races, 1.92% from two or more races. 5.31% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the 2000 census the five largest ancestry groups in Lincoln County are English, Irish and Italian. There were 1,540 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.40% were non-families. 31.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 30.10% under the age of 18, 6.00% from 18 to 24, 21.90% from 25 to 44, 25.90% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 107.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,979, the median income for a family was $45,588. Males had a median income of $40,048 versus $23,571 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,326. About 11.50% of families and 16.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.60% of those under age 18 and 17.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,345 people, 1,988 households, 1,282 families residing in the county; the population density was 0.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,730 housing units at an average density of 0.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 91.1% white, 2.3% black or African American, 1.1% American Indian, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% Pacific islander, 2.2% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 6.2% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 39.8% were English, 19.5% were German, 12.4% were Irish, 6.1% were Danish, 5.9% were Dutch, 1.8% were American. Of the 1,988 households, 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.5% were non-families, 30.4% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.16. The median age was 39.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $44,695 and the median income for a family was $56,167. Males had a median income of $51,475 versus $26,366 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,148. About 7.5% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.5% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. Public schools in Lincoln County are under the L
Nevada is a state in the Western United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U. S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. Nevada's capital, however, is Carson City. Nevada is known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy, it is known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War. Nevada is desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U. S. federal government, both civilian and military.
Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute and Washoe tribes inhabited the land, now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish, they called the region Nevada because of the snow. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821; the United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War. Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century.
Nevada is the only U. S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County, Washoe County and Carson City. The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world; the name "Nevada" comes from meaning "snow-covered", after the Sierra Nevada. Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel. Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate pronunciation of Nevada, though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote; the Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation, available as a license plate design.
Nevada is entirely within the Basin and Range Province, is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin. Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; the state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F in Laughlin on June 29, 1994. The coldest recorded temperature was −52 °F set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state; the Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin.
Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada. The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet, harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species; the valleys are no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet, while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet. The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert; the area is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is lower below 4,000 feet, creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights. Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line as a state boundary at just over 400 miles; this line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly
Basin and Range National Monument
Basin and Range National Monument is a national monument of the United States spanning 704,000 acres of remote, undeveloped mountains and valleys in Lincoln and Nye counties in southeastern Nevada. It is described as "one of the emptiest spaces in a state famous for its emptiness." The national monument was created by a proclamation issued on July 10, 2015 by President Barack Obama under the Antiquities Act. Obama signed proclamations creating two other national monuments the same day. Basin and Range was the second national monument to be created in Nevada in less than eight months. Senator Harry Reid and Representative Dina Titus, both Democrats of Nevada, were major proponents of protecting the Basin and Range area; the campaign to designate Basin and Range as a national monument had the support of Nevada's largest employer, MGM Resorts International, as well as Wynn Resorts, Barrick Gold Corporation, Rockwood Lithium North America, the Las Vegas Metro Chamber of Commerce, the Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority.
Some members of the local population opposed the designation and complained of limited public involvement. The creation of the national monument was applauded by Reid and Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewell; the Sierra Club praised the designation, stating that the area was "a fitting addition to our protected public lands" because it is "one of the best examples of the spectacular basins framed by Nevada’s breathtaking mountain ranges, a resting place for historic artifacts critical to understanding our nation's Native American cultural history, home to unique plants and animals, some found only in Nevada and this region." Conversely, three Republican U. S. Representatives from Nevada, Mark Amodei, Joe Heck, Cresent Hardy, condemned the new monument, Republican U. S. Representative Rob Bishop, the chairman of the House Committee on Natural Resources, called it a "surreptitious land grab" by the Obama administration; the creation of the national monument was a setback for long-controversial plans to open a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.
A U. S. Department of Energy study had looked at possible railroad routes to carry radioactive waste to Yucca Mountain and had proposed a Caliente-to-Yucca Mountain route, of which 300 miles would run through an area designated at Basin and Range National Monument. Robert Halstead, the executive director of the Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects, said the proclamation of the Basin and Range National Monument was the "final nail in the coffin" of the railroad project and would "really complicate life" for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; the Basin and Range National Monument area has geological, cultural, paleoecological, seismological and paleoclimatological significance. The area is located in a transitional region between the Mojave Desert and the Sagebrush Steppe of the Great Basin. Major features within the national monument include: Garden Coal Valley. Native American rock art at the site is about 4,000 years old; the national monument consists of existing federal lands, managed by Bureau of Land Management of the United States Department of the Interior both before and after the national monument's creation.
Within the monument boundary there are owned lands including Michael Heizer's City, a massive earth art piece similar in size to the National Mall in Washington. At the time of the monument's creation, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art held a conservation easement over the area of the still-incomplete artwork; the proclamation allows for continued historic uses of the area under preexisting regulations. The proclamation does not affect grazing operations within the monument; the proclamation does not affect U. S. military uses of monument. Fauna of significance in the national monument include desert bighorn sheep, golden eagle, many species of bat and snake. Basin and Range Province Basin and range topography BLM−Bureau of Land Management.gov: official website BLM.gov: Map of Basin and Range National Monument LA Times: Five things to know about Nevada's Basin and Range National Monument — with photos Friends of Basin and Range National Monument
Harry Mason Reid is a retired American politician who served as a United States Senator from Nevada from 1987 to 2017. He led the Senate's Democratic Conference from 2005 to 2017 and was the Senate Majority Leader from 2007 to 2015. Reid began his public career as the city attorney for Henderson, Nevada before winning election to the Nevada Assembly in 1968. Reid's former boxing coach, Mike O'Callaghan, chose Reid as his running mate in the 1970 Nevada gubernatorial election, Reid served as Lieutenant Governor of Nevada from 1971 to 1975. After being defeated in races for the United States Senate and the position of mayor of Las Vegas, Reid served as chairman of the Nevada Gaming Commission from 1977 to 1981. From 1983 to 1987, Reid represented Nevada's 1st district in the United States House of Representatives. Reid won election to the United States Senate in 1986 and served in the Senate from 1987 to 2017, he served as the Senate Democratic Whip from 1999 to 2005 before succeeding Tom Daschle as Senate Minority Leader.
The Democrats won control of the Senate after the 2006 United States Senate elections, Reid became the Senate Majority Leader in 2007. He held that position for the last two years of George W. Bush's presidency and the first six years of Barack Obama's presidency; as Majority Leader, Reid helped pass major legislation such as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Act, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Republicans took control of the Senate following the 2014 United States Senate elections, Reid served as Senate Minority Leader from 2015 to his retirement in 2017. Reid was succeeded as the Senate Democratic leader by Chuck Schumer, whose leadership bid had been endorsed by Reid. Along with Alben W. Barkley and Mike Mansfield, Reid is one of only three Senators to serve at least eight years as Majority Leader. Reid was born in Searchlight, the third of four sons of Harry Vincent Reid, a miner, Inez Orena Reid, a laundress. At the time, Searchlight was a small impoverished town.
His father died by suicide at age 58, when Harry was 32 years old. His paternal grandmother was an English immigrant from Staffordshire. Reid's boyhood home was a shack with no hot water, or telephone. Since Searchlight had no high school, Reid boarded with relatives 40 miles away in Henderson, Nevada to attend Basic High School, where he played football, was an amateur boxer. While at Basic High, he met future Nevada governor Mike O'Callaghan, a teacher there and served as Reid's boxing coach. Reid attended Southern Utah University, graduated from Utah State University where he double majored in political science and history, he minored in economics at Utah State's School of Business Administration. He went to George Washington University Law School earning a J. D. while working as a police officer for the United States Capitol Police. Reid returned to Nevada after law school and served as Henderson city attorney before being elected to the Nevada Assembly for the multi-member fourth district of Clark County in 1968.
In 1970, at age 30, Reid was chosen by O'Callaghan as his running mate for Lieutenant Governor of Nevada. Reid and O'Callaghan won their respective races, Reid served as lieutenant governor from 1971 until 1974, when he ran for the U. S. Senate seat being vacated by Alan Bible, he lost by fewer than 700 votes to former governor Paul Laxalt. In 1975, Reid lost to Bill Briare. Reid served as chairman of the Nevada Gaming Commission from 1977 to 1981; when Jack Gordon, La Toya Jackson's future agent and husband, offered Reid a $12,000 bribe to get approval of new games for casinos, Reid brought in the FBI to tape Gordon's bribery attempt and arrest him. After FBI agents interrupted the transaction, as prearranged, Reid lost his temper and attempted to choke Gordon, saying "You son of a bitch, you tried to bribe me!" before agents stopped him. Gordon was sentenced to six months in prison. In 1981, Reid's wife found a bomb attached to the family station wagon. Prior to the 1980 Census, Nevada had only a single at-large member in the United States House of Representatives, but population growth in the 1970s resulted in the state picking up a second district.
Reid won the Democratic nomination for the 1st district, based in Las Vegas, in 1982, won the general election. He served two terms in the House, from 1983 to 1987. In 1986, Reid won the Democratic nomination for the seat of retiring two-term incumbent Republican Senator Paul Laxalt. Reid defeated former at-large Congressman Jim Santini, a Democrat who had turned Republican, in the November election. Reid ran for reelection in 1992. In 1998 he narrowly defeated 1st District Congressman John Ensign in the midst of a statewide Republican sweep. In 2004, Reid won reelection with 61 percent of the vote, defeating Richard Ziser, gaining the endorsement of several Republicans. Ensign was elected to Nevada's other Senate seat in 2000. Ensign and Reid had a good relationship despite their bitter contest in 1998; the two worked together on Nevada issues until Ensign was forced to resign from his Senate seat, due to an ethics scandal. Reid won the Democratic nomination with 75% of the vote in the June 8 primary.
He faced a competitive general election for the Senate in Nevada in 2010. Reid engaged in a $1 million media campaign to "reintroduce himself" to the state's voters, he defeated Republican challenger Sharron Angle in the November election, 50.3% to 44.6%, despite losing 14 of Nevada's 17 counties. In January, 2015, Reid suffered severe injuries in
Michael Heizer is a contemporary artist specializing in large-scale and site-specific sculptures. Working outside the confines of the traditional art spaces of galleries and museums, Heizer has redefined sculpture in terms of size, mass and process. A pioneer of 20th century Land Art, he is recognized for sculptures and earthworks made with earth-moving equipment, which he began creating in the American West in 1967, he lives and works in Hiko and New York City. Heizer began his artistic career in New York in 1966 with a series of geometric canvases painted with PVA latex; the paintings that would follow, characterized by non-traditionally shaped shaped canvases, demonstrate Heizer's early exploration of positive and negative forms. In Trapezoid Painting and Track Painting, he emphasizes the perimeters of raw canvases by painting them black, while the white interiors are perceived as negative spaces; these hard-edged "displacement paintings" parallel the immense geometries he achieves when moving earth.
The slate grey contours of U Painting, for example, anticipate the shapes of the depressions and angular mounds that appear in his forthcoming project City. In the late 1960s, Heizer left New York City for the deserts of California and Nevada, where he began making his first "negative" sculptures; these works were created by removing earth to shape subterranean negative forms directly into desert floor. Completed in 1967, East, West, consisted of several geometrically-shaped holes dug in the Sierra Nevada; the following year Heizer completed "Nine Nevada Depressions", a series of large negative sculptures located on dry lakes throughout the state, Jean Dry Lake, Black Rock Desert and Massacre Dry Lake, near Vya, Nevada among them. In 1969, Heizer made the series Primitive Dye Paintings, in which white lime powder and concentrated aniline dyes were spread over the dry desert landscape, covering large areas that, when viewed from the air, formed amorphous, organic shapes; the culmination of this critical early period was the creation of Double Negative in 1969 and 1970, a project for which he displaced 240,000 tons of rock in the Nevada desert, cutting two enormous trenches—each one 50-feet-deep and 30-feet-wide and together spanning 1,500 feet—at the eastern edge of Mormon Mesa near Overton, Nevada.
Heizer has since continued his exploration of the dynamics between positive forms and negative space. His Adjacent, Upon juxtaposes three large granite slabs in different relationships to cast concrete forms. For "Displaced/Replaced Mass" installed outside the Marina del Rey, home of Roy and Carol Doumani, he planted four granite boulders of different sizes from the High Sierra into lid-less concrete boxes in the earth so that the tops of the rocks are level with the ground. For a 1982 work at the former IBM Building in New York, Heizer sheared off the top of a large rock and cut grooves into the surface before setting it on supports hidden within a stainless steel structure. Designed as a fountain, the boulder appears to float over running water, he called it a title he would use again in future. Commissioned by the president of the Ottawa Silica Company, the Effigy Tumuli earthwork in Illinois is composed of five abstract animal earthworks reclaiming the site of an abandoned surface coal mine along the Illinois River.
In 2012, Heizer completed Levitated Mass. On permanent installation at Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, Levitated Mass is a massive white, diorite boulder that sits atop a 456-foot-long sloped walkway, allowing viewers to experience the weight of the rock as they walk through the empty space below, it took eleven nights, from February 28 to March 10, 2012, to move the 340-ton rock from Jurupa Valley to the museum. The installation is situated in a field of polished concrete slices, set at a slight angle between the Resnick Pavilion and Sixth Street. Heizer opened the exhibit on June 24, 2012. A feature documentary named Levitated Mass, was directed and edited by the filmmaker Doug Pray, it details the making of the sculpture as it relates to Heizer's career, while portraying the boulder's 105-mile journey through Los Angeles and the public’s reaction to its installation. The film premiered at the Los Angeles Film Festival in June 2013 and opened theatrically at the Landmark's Nuart Theater in Los Angeles, CA on September 5, 2014.
Heizer's most recent work is Tangential Circular Negative Line in Mauvoisin, commissioned by Fondation Air&Art directed by Jean Maurice Varone. In the early 1970s, Heizer began work on City, an enormous complex in the rural desert of Lincoln County, Nevada, his work on the project continues to this day, supported by the Dia Art Foundation through a grant from the Lannan Foundation. City is not yet available to the public. A campaign to have the Basin and Range area around City designated as a national monument to protect it from development took place, a group of American museums, including the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the Institute of Contemporary Art and the Walker Art Center, have joined together to draw public attention to a petition urging preservation of the area. In July 2015, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation creating the Basin and Range Nat
In visual arts and other mediums, minimalism is an art movement that began in post–World War II Western art, most with American visual arts in the 1960s and early 1970s. Prominent artists associated with minimalism include Donald Judd, John McCracken, Agnes Martin, Dan Flavin, Robert Morris, Anne Truitt, Frank Stella, it derives from the reductive aspects of modernism and is interpreted as a reaction against abstract expressionism and a bridge to postminimal art practices. Minimalism in music features repetition and gradual variation, such as the works of La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass, Julius Eastman, John Adams; the term minimalist colloquially refers to anything, spare or stripped to its essentials. It has accordingly been used to describe the plays and novels of Samuel Beckett, the films of Robert Bresson, the stories of Raymond Carver, the automobile designs of Colin Chapman. Minimalism in visual art referred to as "minimal art", "literalist art" and "ABC Art" emerged in New York in the early 1960s as new and older artists moved toward geometric abstraction.
Judd's sculpture was showcased in 1964 at Green Gallery in Manhattan, as were Flavin's first fluorescent light works, while other leading Manhattan galleries like Leo Castelli Gallery and Pace Gallery began to showcase artists focused on geometric abstraction. In addition there were two seminal and influential museum exhibitions: Primary Structures: Younger American and British Sculpture shown from April 27 – June 12, 1966 at the Jewish Museum in New York, organized by the museum's Curator of Painting and Sculpture, Kynaston McShine and Systemic Painting, at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum curated by Lawrence Alloway in 1966 that showcased Geometric abstraction in the American art world via Shaped canvas, Color Field, Hard-edge painting. In the wake of those exhibitions and a few others the art movement called. In a more broad and general sense, one finds European roots of minimalism in the geometric abstractions of painters associated with the Bauhaus, in the works of Kazimir Malevich, Piet Mondrian and other artists associated with the De Stijl movement, the Russian Constructivist movement, in the work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brâncuși.
In France between 1947 and 1948, Yves Klein conceived his Monotone Symphony that consisted of a single 20-minute sustained chord followed by a 20-minute silence – a precedent to both La Monte Young's drone music and John Cage's 4′33″. Klein had painted monochromes as early as 1949, held the first private exhibition of this work in 1950—but his first public showing was the publication of the Artist's book Yves: Peintures in November 1954. Minimal art is inspired in part by the paintings of Barnett Newman, Ad Reinhardt, Josef Albers, the works of artists as diverse as Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Giorgio Morandi, others. Minimalism was a reaction against the painterly subjectivity of Abstract Expressionism, dominant in the New York School during the 1940s and 1950s. Artist and critic Thomas Lawson noted in his 1981 Artforum essay Last Exit: Painting, minimalism did not reject Clement Greenberg's claims about modernist painting's reduction to surface and materials so much as take his claims literally.
According to Lawson, minimalism was the result though the term "minimalism" was not embraced by the artists associated with it, many practitioners of art designated minimalist by critics did not identify it as a movement as such. Taking exception to this claim was Clement Greenberg himself; the philosopher or art historian who can envision me—or anyone at all—arriving at aesthetic judgments in this way reads shockingly more into himself or herself than into my article. In contrast to the previous decade's more subjective Abstract Expressionists, with the exceptions of Barnett Newman and Ad Reinhardt, they explicitly stated that their art was not about self-expression, unlike the previous decade's more subjective philosophy about art making theirs was'objective'. In general, minimalism's features included geometric cubic forms purged of much metaphor, equality of parts, neutral surfaces, industrial materials. Robert Morris, a theorist and artist, wrote a three part essay, "Notes on Sculpture 1–3" published across three issues of Artforum in 1966.
In these essays, Morris attempted to define a conceptual framework and formal elements for himself and one that would embrace the practices of his contemporaries. These essays paid great attention to the idea of the gestalt – "parts... bound together in such a way that they create a maximum resistance to perceptual separation." Morris described an art represented by a "marked lateral spread and no regularized units or symmetrical intervals..." in "Notes on Sculpture 4: Beyond O
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, painting, photography, illustrated books and artist's books and electronic media; the MoMA Library includes 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of contemporary art; the idea for the Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and two of her friends, Lillie P. Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan, they became known variously as "the Ladies", "the daring ladies" and "the adamantine ladies". They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, it opened to the public on November 7, 1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash.
Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the former president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York, to become president of the new museum. Abby became treasurer. At the time, it was America's premier museum devoted to modern art, the first of its kind in Manhattan to exhibit European modernism. One of Abby's early recruits for the museum staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami, who served the museum as its official documentary photographer from 1930 until 1968. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees. Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, Jr. a promising young protege. Under Barr's guidance, the museum's holdings expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing, its first successful loan exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne, Seurat.
First housed in six rooms of galleries and offices on the twelfth floor of Manhattan's Heckscher Building, on the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street, the museum moved into three more temporary locations within the next ten years. Abby's husband was adamantly opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture, which had to be obtained from other sources and resulted in the frequent shifts of location, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time, thus became in effect one of its greatest benefactors. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, such as the lone Vincent van Gogh exhibition on November 4, 1935. Containing an unprecedented sixty-six oils and fifty drawings from the Netherlands, as well as poignant excerpts from the artist's letters, it was a major public success due to Barr's arrangement of the exhibit, became "a precursor to the hold van Gogh has to this day on the contemporary imagination"; the museum gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago.
In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars and historians. This was wholly masterminded by Barr, a Picasso enthusiast, the exhibition lionized Picasso as the greatest artist of the time, setting the model for all the museum's retrospectives that were to follow. Boy Leading a Horse was contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the ground-breaking exhibition, Indian Art of the United States, that changed the way American Indian arts were viewed by the public and exhibited in art museums; when Abby Rockefeller's son Nelson was selected by the board of trustees to become its flamboyant president in 1939, at the age of thirty, he became the prime instigator and funder of its publicity and subsequent expansion into new headquarters on 53rd Street. His brother, David Rockefeller joined the museum's board of trustees in 1948 and took over the presidency when Nelson was elected Governor of New York in 1958.
David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the museum garden and name it in honor of his mother, the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden. He and the Rockefeller family in general have retained a close association with the museum throughout its history, with the Rockefeller Brothers Fund funding the institution since 1947. Both David Rockefeller, Jr. and Sharon Percy Rockefeller sit on the board of trustees. In 1937, MoMA had shifted to offices and basement galleries in the Time-Life Building in Rockefeller Center, its permanent and current home, now renovated, designed in the International Style by the modernist architects Philip L. Goodwin and Edward Durell Stone, opened to the public on May 10, 1939, attended by an illustrious company of 6,000 people, with an opening address via radio from the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. On April 15, 1958, a fire on the second floor destroyed an 18 foot long Monet Water Lilies painting (the current Mone