Jacksonville Sheriff's Office
The Jacksonville Sheriff's Office is a joint city-county law enforcement agency, which has primary responsibility for law enforcement and corrections within the consolidated City of Jacksonville and Duval County, United States. Duval County includes the incorporated cities of Jacksonville, Atlantic Beach, Jacksonville Beach, Neptune Beach; the sheriff's office performs the corrections duties for the county. The current sheriff is Michael Williams, in office since July 1, 2015. Sheriff John T. Rutherford retired on June 30, 2015 and had been Sheriff since July 1, 2003; the JSO is one of the largest departments in the Southeastern United States, with 3,832 employees. Its headquarters is 501 E. Bay Street Jacksonville, Florida 32202. According to the Sheriff's Office, its Mission is "To serve and protect in partnership with our community." The Vision of the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office is "A crime-free environment, driven by partnerships with empowered citizens, fostering a vibrant community and the success of all individuals."
The Core Values of the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office are: "Always Improving. The first sheriff to be appointed in Jacksonville was James Dell in 1822 when Duval County was incorporated. A town ordinance in 1845 required all free males living in Jacksonville to participate in evening patrol duty. From 1865 to 1869 law enforcement was enforced by the continued occupation of the Union Army and their provost marshal and guard. A civilian Marshal was appointed as head of the department in 1871 along with the creation of the Captain of Police rank; the mayor appointed the captain who would be confirmed by the city council. In 1887 the captain of police became known as chief of police. A new charter was established in 1887 creating a board of police commissioners; the department was composed of African Americans. House Bill No. 4 was passed by the Florida State Legislature allowing the Governor to abolish all offices in Jacksonville and to make new appointments to fill the vacancies. The police force in 1889 consisted of three officers and 24 patrolmen.
The first patrol wagon, pulled by two horses, was used in 1895. In 1904, as the automobile became more popular, the speed limit was set at 6 miles per hour; the first automobile patrol car was established in 1911. In 1967 a mandate was given by residents of Jacksonville and Duval County with 65 percent of the votes cast in favor of consolidating the city and county governments. On October 1, 1968, the two governmental bodies were replaced with "a single unified government", the new organization, the Office of the Sheriff - Jacksonville Police, paralleled the name of the new jurisdiction; the four other municipalities within Duval County retained their own police departments. However, the Baldwin city council voted to disband their police department by 2007. Starting in the late 1980's, the agency adopted the Glock 17 9x19mm pistol as the new sidearm. Police Officer's now carry the Glock 22.40 caliber. 1903-1904 John Price 1913-1915 W. H. "Ham" Dowling 1924-1928 W. B. Cahoon 1932-1957 Rex Sweat 1957-1958 William Alpheus "Al" Cahill 1958-1986 Dale George Carson 1986-1996 Jim McMillan 1996-2004 Nat Glover 2004–2015 John Rutherford 2015–Present Mike Williams The JSO is headed by the sheriff, a Florida constitutional officer elected to a four-year term.
The sheriff appoints his own senior staff from Undersheriff to Assistant Chiefs. All sworn members of the JSO are sworn in by the sheriff and are considered under the Florida constitution as his/her deputies. All sworn members of the JSO are Law Enforcement Officers or Correctional Officers with all powers allowed by state law to carry firearms and make arrest. JSO employs Community Service Officers, who are unsworn personnel that respond to traffic-related incidents not requiring the full police powers of a sworn officer; the Sheriff's Office is divided into five departments, each sub-divided into divisions, units and squads. Each department is commanded by a director with the rank director of a department; each division is commanded by a chief. The department and its sections are as follows. There are three divisions in this department, is headed by the director of patrol and enforcement Commanded by the chief of Patrol East. Zone 1-assistant chief/zone commander Zone 2-assistant chief/zone commander Zone 3-assistant chief/zone commander Commanded by the chief of Patrol West.
Zone 4-assistant chief/zone commander Zone 5-assistant chief/zone commander Zone 6-assistant chief/zone commander Commanded by the chief. Community Affairs-assistant chief Special Events-assistant chief There are three divisions in this department, the director holds the title of director of the Department of Investigations & Homeland Security; the Detective Division is under the direction of the chief of detectives, responsible for the overall operation of the division. The Detective Division comprises a Crimes Against Property Section and a Crimes Against Persons Section, both under the command of an assistant chief. Crimes against property Burglary Unit - The Burglary Unit investigates all business and residential burglaries as well as thefts over a certain dollar amount; these squads are assigned to the geographic patrol zones. Polygraph Unit - The Polygraph Unit is staffed by polygraphists who administer polygraph examinations to suspects and witnesses involved in criminal investigations.
They administer polygraph examinat
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. Places of natural beauty such as beaches, tropical island resorts, national parks, mountains and forests, are examples of traditional tourist attractions which people may visit. Cultural tourist attractions can include historical places, ancient temples, aquaria and art galleries, botanical gardens and structures, theme parks and carnivals, living history museums, public art, ethnic enclave communities, historic trains and cultural events. Factory tours, industrial heritage, creative art and crafts workshops are the object of cultural niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. Many tourist attractions are landmarks. Tourist attractions are created to capitalise on legends such as a supposed UFO crash site near Roswell, New Mexico and the alleged Loch Ness monster sightings in Scotland.
Ghost sightings make tourist attractions. Ethnic communities may become tourist attractions, such as Chinatowns in the United States and the black British neighbourhood of Brixton in London, England. In the United States and marketers of attractions advertise tourist attractions on billboards along the sides of highways and roadways in remote areas. Tourist attractions distribute free promotional brochures to be displayed in rest areas, information centers, fast food restaurants, motel rooms or lobbies. While some tourist attractions provide visitors a memorable experience for a reasonable admission charge or for free, others may be of low quality and overprice their goods and services in order to profit excessively from tourists; such places are known as tourist traps. Within cities, rides on boats and sightseeing buses are sometimes popular. Novelty attractions are oddities such as the "biggest ball of twine" in Cawker City, the Corn Palace in Mitchell, South Dakota, or Carhenge in Alliance, where old cars serve in the place of stones in a replica of Stonehenge.
Novelty attractions are part of Midwestern culture. A tourist destination is a city, town, or other area, dependent to a significant extent on revenues from tourism, or "a country, region, city, or town, marketed or markets itself as a place for tourists to visit", it may contain one or more tourist attractions and some "tourist traps". Fátima town, for example, is a popular tourist destination in Portugal. Siem Reap town is a popular tourist destination in Cambodia owing to its proximity to the Angkor temples; the Loire valley, the third tourist destination in France, is a good example of a region marketed and branded as a place for tourists to visit known for its Châteaux of the Loire valley. A tropical island resort is an island or archipelago that depends on tourism as its source of revenue; the Bahamas in the Caribbean, Bali in Indonesia, Phuket in Thailand, Hawaii in the United States, Palawan in the Philippines, Fiji in the Pacific, Santorini and Ibiza in the Mediterranean are examples of popular island resorts.
France, the United States, Spain were the three most popular international destinations in 2017. The total number of international travelers arriving in those countries was about 234 million, contributing 8.9%, 7.7%, 14.9% to the total GDP of those countries. From the tourism industry supply perspective a destination is defined by a geo-political boundary, destination marketing is most funded by governments. From the traveler perspective, a destination might be perceived quite differently; the tourism industry generates substantial economic benefits for both host countries and tourists' home countries. In developing countries, one of the primary motivations for a region to promote itself as a tourism destination is the expected economic benefit. According to the World Tourism Organization, 698 million people travelled to a foreign country in 2000, spending more than US$478 billion. International tourism receipts combined with passenger transport total more than US$575 billion – making tourism the world's number one export earner, ahead of automotive products, chemicals and food.
Tourist attractions can: Contribute to government revenues.
Jacksonville Public Library
The Jacksonville Public Library is the public library system of Jacksonville, Florida. It serves Jacksonville and Duval County, is used by the neighboring Baker, Clay, St. Johns Counties, it is one of the largest library systems in Florida, with a collection of over three million items. A division of the city government, the library has the third largest group of city employees after the city's Fire Department and Sheriff's Office. There are a Main Library in the system. Located downtown near City Hall and Hemming Plaza, the Main Library opened in November 2005, replacing the Haydon Burns Library. Designed by Robert A. M. Stern Architects, the new library is three times the size of the Haydon Burns building; the North Laura facility is 300,000 square feet with the capacity to hold one million books. A 600-space parking garage across from the library building on Duval Street makes the Main Library accessible. State-of-the-art technology offers 250 public computers and video conferencing capabilities with infrastructure to support future technologies.
On April 18, 2012, the AIA Florida Chapter placed the Jacksonville Public Library – Main Library on its list of Florida Architecture: 100 Years. 100 Places. In addition to the Library and the Conference Center, the Library building hosts a bookstore and a cafe; the BOOKtique bookstore, run by the Friends of the Library, opened concurrently with the Library. In 2013, the BOOKtique was closed to make way for The Lounge @ 303 North. After a year and a half of legal wrangling and construction, on May 14, 2007, Shelby's Café opened inside the concession space in the Main Library; the concession stand closed in 2011. Highlands – Dunn Avenue, serving the Northside. Pablo Creek – Beach Blvd between Hodges and Kernan serving the Southside. Southeast – Deerwood Park Blvd serving the Southside. Charles D. Webb Wesconnett – 103rd Street serving the Westside. Argyle – Near the Argyle Forest subdivision serving the Westside. Beaches – A1A in Neptune Beach. Bradham*Brooks Northwest – Edgewood Avenue serving the Northside.
Brentwood – Pearl St serving the urban core. Dallas A. James Graham – Myrtle Avenue serving the urban core. Mandarin – Kori Road serving the Mandarin area. Maxville – Maxville Blvd serving the Maxville area. Murray Hill – Edgewood Avenue South serving the urban core. Raiford A. Brown Eastside – Harrison St serving the urban core. Regency Square – Regency Square Blvd serving the Arlington/Regency area. San Marco – The San Marco Branch on LaSalle Street serves the San Marco neighborhood South Mandarin – San Jose Blvd near the St. John's County border. University Park – University Blvd North serving the Arlington area including Jacksonville University. West – Chaffee Road serving the Westside. Westbrook – Commonwealth Avenue serving the urban core. Willowbranch – Park St serving the Riverside and Avondale areas. Jacksonville was the first library in Florida to offer a mobile library service, established in 1928. For over 75 years, the Jacksonville Public Library continued this service of providing accessible materials to rural residents and areas where a branch had not been established.
However, due to funding cuts, the bookmobile was discontinued as of October 2005. After the discontinuation of the bookmobile service, the library looked for ways to continue servicing the area where the mobile branch had been operating. In 2012, the library opened the Oceanway Express location to provide limited service to customers who have no geographically-close library branch; the pickup/drop-off service is located near the Oceanway Community Center in northwest Jacksonville. As a branch of the city government, the system is funded by local taxes; the system receives aid supplemental funds from various grants. The Jacksonville Public Library is one of the few departments of the City Government to be administered by an independent board; the eleven members of the Library Board of Trustees are appointed by the Mayor of Jacksonville and approved by the City Council. Board members serve for four years, may serve a second consecutive term if reappointed; the Library Board approves library policies, submits an annual budget request, oversees the operation of the system and hires the library director.
Barbara A. B. Gubbin served as director from 2005 to June 30, 2017, she is succeeded by Tim Rogers who will begin serving as director on January 29, 2018. Patrons of the Jacksonville Public Library may borrow books, most magazines,'zines', videos and audio materials. Patrons may check out 50 items at 10 of these being DVDs. Most items, except for express DVDs are a three-week checkout period. Overdue materials collect fines, except on days. Fees totaling $10 or more will result in a block to the user's account. A fine balance of $9.99 or less is considered a library account in good standing. All materials borrowed from the library can be returned to any branch, regardless of where they were borrowed. Patrons can place up to 25 holds on library materials; these materials will be held for patrons for 7 days after the patron is notified of their availability. Jacksonville Public Library cards are free for residents of Duval County, including Baldwin and the Beaches communities, non-residents employed by a city/county agency or who own businesses or property in the county.
Other non-residents may apply for a card, at $25 for three months, $50 for six months, or $100 for one year. Hardship waivers are available upon request. Lost cards may be replaced by paying a small, $2 fee. Children under the age of 18 can apply for a card with parental permission. Parents are responsible for all items checked out on th
Transportation in Jacksonville, Florida
The Jacksonville transportation network includes ground and sea options for passenger and freight transit. The Jacksonville Port Authority operates the Port of Jacksonville, which includes container shipping facilities at Blount Island Marine Terminal, the Talleyrand Marine Terminal and the Dames Point Marine Terminal. Jacksonville Aviation Authority managers Jacksonville International Airport in Northside, as well as several smaller airports; the Jacksonville Transportation Authority operates bus, people mover, park-n-ride services throughout the city and region. A major bus terminal at the intermodal Rosa Parks Transit Station serves as JTA's main transit hub. Various intercity bus companies terminate near Central Station. Amtrak operates passenger rail service to and from major cities throughout North America; the city is bisected by major highways, I-95 and I-10, I-295 creates a full beltway around the city. Along with bus services, Jacksonville offers fixed routes operated by the Jacksonville Transportation Authority.
The Skyway is a people mover system located in Downtown Jacksonville. Its two lines and eight stations connect the Northbank and Lavilla districts. JTA is in the process of securing funding for an extension into Brooklyn, a neighborhood just south of Lavilla. Jacksonville is a sprawling city making cohesive bicycling options difficult. Cycling still remains popular in some central urban areas for both commuting; the city manages to sustain a low amount of traffic congestion for a city of its population, this is related to the vast 767 square miles area the city covers, an area much larger than most cities with a population over 800,000. Jacksonville's low population density might be the reason the city has yet to further develop its mass transit bus system or a heavy or light rail network. Among urbanized areas with a population of 1 million or greater in the United States, Jacksonville ranked tenth in freeway lane miles per 1,000 population and eighth in freeway-equivalent miles per 1,000 population.
As the 12th-largest city in the U. S. Jacksonville has been ranked below 40th in mass transit availability; as a result, the city is not well known for its walkability. Jacksonville once had a large streetcar system. On February 24, 1893, Jacksonville began service with its first streetcar line. By the late 1920s, Jacksonville had what was Florida's largest streetcar system, run by multiple different companies. However, by the early 1930s, buses replaced streetcars, the streetcars perished; the last year of service was 1936. Mobility issues include: Bus-only city mass transit system. Undue emphasis on automobile travel in city planning. Excessive automobile usage resulting in environmental degradation, as evidenced by the city's history of poor air quality Lack of cross-town bus routes, forcing bus riders to travel downtown to cross from one side of the city to another doubling or tripling what the trip distance would have been with a direct route. "Lack of vision" in building a transportation network based on non-renewable resources and old technology Paucity of scheduled bus routes forcing riders to choose between arriving at a destination early, or late.
Lack of night bus services, which forces those who work late shifts to find other ways to get around. These can be much more expensive. Fiscal costs of building and replacing roadsThere are other concerns over a lack of safe walking paths in many areas of the city. Many suburbs which were incorporated in the consolidation of 1968 don’t have sidewalks; this forces pedestrians to navigate a narrow road shoulder near high-speed automobile traffic. Interstate highways: Interstate 10 routes west to Houston Interstate 95 routes north to Washington, D. C. and runs south to Miami. Interstate 295 serves as a beltway routing around the city and connects to all of the interstate highways. Interstate Highways 10 and 95 intersect in Jacksonville, creating the busiest intersection in the region with 200,000 vehicles each day. Interstate 10 ends at this intersection. A $152 million project to create a high-speed interchange at the intersection of Interstates 10 and 95 began in February 2005, after the conclusion of Super Bowl XXXIX.
Construction was expected to take nearly six years with multiple lane flyovers and the requirement that the interchange remain open throughout the project. The previous configuration utilized single lane, low speed, curved ramps which created backups during rush hours and contributed to accidents. Major arterial highways: US 1 The primary north-south local access roadway through downtown Jacksonville. US 17 Roosevelt Boulevard is a major north-south connector from downtown Jacksonville to Clay County. US 23 Kings Road, is another major north-south connector that terminates in downtown Jacksonville as Union Street going southeast and State Street going northwest. Most of the road is either multiplexed with US 1 or US 17. US 90 Beach Boulevard is a major east-west connector from downtown Jacksonville to the beaches. State Road 202 J. Turner Butler Boulevard is a major connector from Jacksonville to the beaches. State Road 10 Atlantic Boulevard is the north connector to the beaches. State Road 115 Southside Boulevard is a southeast residential connector.
State Road A1A Scenic two-lane road. Regular bus service - JTA's fleet has 180 vehicles that travel 8.5 million miles per year on 56 routes.
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Timeline of Jacksonville, Florida
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Jacksonville, Florida, USA. 1564 - French Fort Caroline established by René Goulaine de Laudonnière. 1565 - Spanish forces take Fort Caroline. 1822 Settlement named "Jacksonville" to honor Andrew Jackson. Town grid laid out. Jacksonville becomes seat of newly formed Duval County. 1832 Town incorporated. William J. Mills becomes mayor. 1838 - Bethel Baptist Church established. 1845 - Florida becomes part of the United States. 1846 - October 12: Gale. 1857 - City Park created. 1858 - Florida, Atlantic & Gulf Central Railroad begins operating. 1862 - Town occupied by Union forces. 1869 - St. James Hotel built. 1871 - Furchgott, Benedict & Co. dry goods store in business. 1872 - Cookman Institute established. 1873 - Florida Circulating Library active. 1875 - Windsor Hotel built. 1876 Duval High School established. Union Congregational Church built. 1877 - Board of Health established. 1878 - Library and Literary Association formed. 1881 - Florida Daily Times begins publication.
1882 Synagogue dedicated. Florida Baptist Academy established. 1884 - Board of Trade organized. 1885 - Park Opera House in business. 1886 - Boylan Industrial Home and school established. 1887 Yellow fever epidemic. The Metropolis newspaper begins publication. St. Andrew's Episcopal Church built. 1888 - Subtropical Exposition held. 1890 - Population: 17,201. 1892 - Edward Waters College active. 1893 - Streetcars began operating. 1897 - Woman's Club founded. 1900 - "Lift Every Voice and Sing" song first performed. 1901 May 3: Great Fire of 1901. Brewster Hospital established. Continental Hotel opens. 1903 Mason Park opens. Florida Automobile Association organized. 1904 Lincoln Park opens. First Baptist Church built. 1905 Jacksonville Free Public Library opens. Protestant Union Revival held. 1907 Manhattan Beach opens. Dixieland Amusement Park opens in South Jacksonville. South Jacksonville chartered as a city. 1908 - Filmmaker Kalem Studios active. 1909 - YMCA building constructed. 1910 Atlantic Boulevard laid out.
Population: 57,699. 1912 St. James Building constructed. City Rotary Club formed. 1914 - Jacksonville Zoological Park established. 1917 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Jacksonville chapter established. John W. Martin becomes mayor. 1920 – Population: 91,558. 1921 - St. Johns River Bridge opens. 1923 - John T. Alsop becomes mayor. 1925 Negro Welfare League organized. WJAX radio begins broadcasting. 1926 - Carling Hotel opens. 1927 - Florida Theatre and 5 Points Theatre built. 1928 - Gator Bowl Stadium built. 1929 - Jacksonville Historical Society founded. 1930 – Population: 129,549. 1934 Jacksonville Junior College established. WMBR radio begins broadcasting. 1938 WJHP radio begins broadcasting. Theatre Jacksonville built. 1940 U. S. military Naval Air Station Jacksonville commissioned. Population: 173,065. 1946 - Annual Gator Bowl college football game begins. 1947 Jacksonville Urban League formed. Hanna Park created. 1949 WJXT begins broadcasting. W. Haydon Burns becomes mayor. 1950 - Population: 204,517.
1953 - Mathews Bridge opens. 1955 - Jacksonville Expressway Authority established. 1957 - WFGA-TV begins broadcasting. 1960 August: "Ax Handle Saturday" racial unrest. Population: 201,030. 1962 - Civic Auditorium opens. 1963 - December- Hotel Roosevelt fire 1964 - Hurricane Dora occurs. 1967 Hart Bridge opens. "Mary Singleton and Sallye Mathis became the first female African Americans elected to the City Council." 1968 Consolidation of city and Duval County governments. Hans Tanzler becomes mayor. 1970 - Population: 528,865. 1973 - Florida Municipal Home Rule Powers Act ratified. 1979 - Jake Godbold becomes mayor. 1980 Foreign trade zone established. Population: 540,920. 1984 - Jacksonville Bulls football team formed. 1989 - The Jacksonville Skyway begins operating 1990 - Population: 635,230. 1993 - Corrine Brown becomes U. S. representative for Florida's 3rd congressional district. 1995 Jacksonville Jaguars football team formed. Jacksonville Municipal Stadium opens. John Delaney becomes mayor. 1998 - City website online.
2000 "Better Jacksonville Plan" for urban growth approved. Population: 735,617. 2001 - Emilie Fazio and Ben Easton were born 2001 - Ander Crenshaw becomes U. S. representative for Florida's 4th congressional district. 2003 - May 13: Jacksonville mayoral election, 2003 held. 2010 - Population: 821,784. 2011 - March 22: Jacksonville mayoral election, 2011 held. He was the city's first elected African-American mayor. 2013 - Corrine Brown becomes U. S. representative for Florida's 3rd congressional district again. 2015 - Lenny Curry becomes mayor. History of Jacksonville, Florida List of mayors of Jacksonville, Florida National Register of Historic Places listings in Duval County, Florida Timelines of other cities in the North Florida area of Florida: Gainesville, Tallahassee "Florida Collection". Special Collections. Jacksonville Public Library. Digital Public Library of America. Items related to Jacksonville, various dates
History of Jacksonville, Florida
The city of Jacksonville, Florida began to grow in the late 18th century as Cow Ford, settled by British colonists. Its major development occurred in the late nineteenth century, when it became a winter vacation destination for tourists from the North and Midwest, its development was halted or slowed by the Great Fire of 1901, the Florida Land Bust of the 1920s, the economic woes of the 1960s and 70s. Since the late 20th century, the city has experienced steady growth, with a new federal building constructed in downtown in 2003. Since 1940, Jacksonville has been a major port for the United States Navy; the city is a thriving metropolis with over a million citizens. Due to its consolidated city-county government structure, it has the largest municipal population among Florida cities, as well as the largest land area of any city in the contiguous United States. Archaeological evidence indicates 6,000 years of human habitation in the area. Pottery has been found dating to 2500 BC, nearly the oldest in the United States and second to artifacts of the Savannah River area.
In the 16th century, the beginning of the historical record period, the area was inhabited by the Mocama, a coastal subgroup of the Timucua indigenous Native Americans. At the time of contact with Europeans, most Mocama villages in present-day Jacksonville were part of the powerful chiefdom known as the Saturiwa, centered on Fort George Island near the mouth of the St. Johns River, they had a complex society, well-adapted to the environmental conditions of the area. In 1513, Spanish explorers claimed their discovery for Spain; the first Europeans to visit the area were Spanish explorers from this period. In February 1562, French naval officer Jean Ribault and a 150 settlers arrived seeking land for a safe haven for the French Huguenots, Protestants suffering religious persecution in France. Ribault explored the mouth of the St. Johns River before moving north and establishing the colony of Charlesfort on what is now Parris Island, South Carolina. Ribault returned to France for supplies, but tensions from French Wars of Religion had broken out during his absence.
His return to Florida was delayed as a result. Without leadership or provisions, the colonists abandoned Charlesfort. In 1564 Ribault's former lieutenant, René Goulaine de Laudonnière, launched a new expedition to found a colony on the St. Johns River. On June 22, 1564, the settlers established Fort Caroline atop the St. Johns Bluff. Laudonnière made an alliance with the local tribe of the Saturiwa, he forged friendly relations with their competitors, the Utina tribe, who lived upriver to the south. Ribault was again delayed; as a result, the colony faced famine, three mutinies, warfare with the Utina. Ribault reached the fort with a relief expedition in the summer, assumed command of the settlement. In the meantime, the Spanish admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés had established the colony of St. Augustine 35 miles to the south, with the express mission to displace the French; when he arrived, Ribault launched a naval expedition of 200 sailors and 400 soldiers to dislodge the Spanish, but a storm at sea incapacitated them for several days and caused numerous deaths.
On September 20, 1565, Menéndez marched his men overland to Fort Caroline, defended by 200 or 250 people, killed everyone except for 50 women and children and 26 men who escaped. The Spanish picked up the survivors of Ribault's fleet, summarily executed all but 20; the Spanish took over Fort Caroline. In 1568 the French and Spanish confronted each other again here, when Dominique de Gourgues burned it to the ground; the Spanish rebuilt the fort, but abandoned it in 1569. The Spanish next built. "San Nicolas" served as their name for the Jacksonville area, a placename which survives in the neighborhood of St. Nicholas; the fort was located on the east side of the St. Johns; the fort was abandoned in the late 17th century. France and Spain were defeated by the British in the French and Indian War. During the war the British had defeated the Spanish in Cuba and occupied the island, whereas Florida had hardly seen any fighting; as part of the negotiations between the two nations in the aftermath of the war, Spain would cede Florida to Great Britain in exchange for the return of Cuba.
The British agreed and Florida was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1763. The British soon constructed the King's Road connecting St. Augustine to Georgia; the road crossed the St. Johns River at a narrow point, which the Seminole called Wacca Pilatka and the British named the "Cow Ford", both names ostensibly reflecting the fact that cattle were brought across the river there; the British divided Florida into the two colonies of British West Florida. The British government gave land grants to officers and soldiers who had fought in the French and Indian War in order to encourage settlement. In order to induce settlers to move to the two new colonies reports of Florida's natural wealth were published in England. A large number of British colonists who were "energetic and of good character" moved to Florida coming from South Carolina and England though there was a group of settlers who came from the colony of Bermuda; this would be the first permanent English-speaking population in what is now Duval County, Baker County, St. Johns County and Nassau County.
The British built good public roads and introduced the cultivation of sugar cane and fruits as well the export of lumber. As a result of these i