Trigger was a 15.3 hands palomino horse made famous in American Western films with his owner and rider, cowboy star Roy Rogers. Trigger was born in California. Though mistaken for a Tennessee Walking Horse, his sire was a Thoroughbred and his dam a grade mare who, like Trigger, was a palomino. Movie director William Witney, who directed Roy and Trigger in many of their movies, claimed a different lineage, that his sire was a "registered" Palomino stallion, though no known Palomino registry existed at the time of Trigger's birth, his dam was by a Thoroughbred and out of a "cold-blood" mare. Horses other than Golden Cloud portrayed "Trigger" over the years, none of, related to Golden Cloud, the two most prominent of which were palominos known as "Little Trigger" and "Trigger Jr.". Though Trigger remained a stallion his entire life, he has no descendants. On the other hand, Roy Rogers used "Trigger Jr."/"Allen's Golden Zephyr" at stud for many years, the horse named "Triggerson" that actor Val Kilmer led on stage as a tribute to Rogers and his cowboy peers during the Academy Awards show in March 1999 was a grandson of "Trigger Jr."
Golden Cloud made an early appearance as the mount of Maid Marian, played by Olivia de Havilland in The Adventures of Robin Hood. A short while when Roy Rogers was preparing to make his first movie in a starring role, he was offered a choice of five rented "movie" horses to ride and chose Golden Cloud. Rogers bought him in 1943 and renamed him Trigger for his quickness of both foot and mind. Trigger could walk 50 feet on his hind legs, they were said to have run out of places to cue Trigger. Trigger became such a ham that as soon as he heard applause he would start bowing and ruin that trick, he could sit in a chair, sign his name "X" with a pencil, lie down for a nap and cover himself with a blanket. Roger's most guarded trade secret was to get Trigger housebroken. "Spending as much time as he does in hotels and hospitals, this ability comes in might handy and it's conceded by most trainers to be Trigger's greatest accomplishment." —Glenn Randall, wrangler with Hudkins Stables. His horse was so important to Rogers that when he purchased a "Best Wishes for the New Year" advertisement in Variety, he signed it "Roy Rogers and Trigger".
Trigger was ridden by Rogers in many of his motion pictures, becoming much loved by the youthful audience that saw him on film and in Rogers' 1950s television series with his wife Dale Evans, who rode her trusty buckskin Quarter Horse Buttermilk. Trigger became the most famous horse in film entertainment having his own Dell comic book recounting his exploits. Roy Rogers made many personal appearances with Trigger in tow. More than once Rogers escorted Trigger up 3-4 flights of stairs at hospitals to visit with sick children, according to his autobiography "Happy Trails." After the original Trigger died in 1965 at Rogers' new ranch in Apple Valley, Rogers arranged for Everett Wilkensen of Bischoff's Taxidermy in Los Angeles to preserve/mount the horse. The hide was professionally stretched over a foam likeness of Trigger, the resulting mount was put on display in the Roy Rogers and Dale Evans Museum when it opened in Apple Valley, California in 1967; the mount was moved with the museum to first Victorville, California in 1976, to Branson, Missouri in 2003.
At some point, a 24-foot replica of a rearing Trigger was produced to sit atop the Roy Rogers Museum in Victorville. The 1,300-pound replica could be seen from the freeway and served as a landmark until the museum closed and moved to Branson; when the fiberglass replica of Trigger was being made, Rogers was approached by the owners of the Denver Broncos. Rogers allowed another statue to be made and broke the mold. "Bucky the Bronco", Trigger's twin, stands above the south scoreboard of the Denver Broncos stadium. After the closing of the Victorville museum in 2009, its contents were placed at public auction on July 14–15, 2010, at Christie's auction house in New York City. Trigger's preserved taxidermy remains sold for $266,500 to television channel RFD-TV, which plans to start a Western museum. Bob Tinsley, a Victorville developer who had built Roy Rogers' home in nearby Apple Valley, bought the fiberglass replica in April 2010. Tinsley's plan is to make the statue a part of historic Apple Valley Village.
He explained, "I just couldn't see letting him go anywhere else." The Adventures of Robin Hood Man from Cheyenne San Fernando Valley Lake Placid Serenade Don't Fence Me In Along the Navajo Trail My Pal Trigger Roll on Texas Moon Under Nevada Skies Under California Stars Melody Time The Golden Stallion Son of Paleface Buttermilk Wonder Horses Citations Bibliography Roy Rogers and Dale Evans Museum Trigger on IMDb Trigger at Find a Grave Auction information at Christie's
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
Bayou St. John
Bayou St. John is a bayou within the city of New Orleans, Louisiana; the Bayou as a natural feature drained the swampy land of a good portion of what was to become New Orleans, into Lake Pontchartrain. In its natural state, it extended much farther than today; the portion still in existence today was navigable by canoes and similar small vessels, used by Native Americans since pre-Columbian times. The natives knew the waterway as Bayouk Choupic. There was a portage between the Bayou and the Mississippi River due to the difference in water level between the bayou and the level of the sea, which attracted early French explorers and trappers, some of whom established a small community there by the late 17th century. In 1701 a small fort was established by the French beside the Lake Pontchartrain end of the Bayou to protect this important route; the Bayou and portage were key factors in the selection of the site where the city was founded in 1718, at the River end of the portage route. The portage trail along the bayou became the "Grand Route St. John", replaced by the wide, straight Esplanade Avenue.
After the destructive hurricanes of 1778 and 1779, the charitable Bayou plantation owner, Don Andres Almonester, rebuilt the Charity Hospital. Earlier Almonester had founded a leper's hospital near the portage road prior to the construction of the important Carondelet waterway. After the Louisiana purchase in 1803, the Carondelet Canal was dug to connect the back of the city with the Bayou, the Bayou was dredged to accommodate larger vessels. In the 19th century, an area along Bayou St. John was reputedly the location of many voodoo rituals by Marie Laveau; the Magnolia Bridge over the Bayou continues to serve as a site for such rituals every St. John's Eve. During the first half of the 20th century, commercial use of the Bayou declined and the Carondelet Canal was filled in; some New Orleanians began living in houseboats on the Bayou. Complaints from residents of nearby neighborhoods and sanitation concerns led to this practice being outlawed in the 1930s. A Works Progress Administration project beautified the area.
A lock was installed near the Lake Pontchartrain end. In the summer of 1955, the New Orleans Sewerage and Water Board temporarily drained the Bayou, to clean out debris and material, causing foul odors. Since the Bayou has been a picturesque body of water with small earthen levees on either side, forming a narrow park space in the city. From the mid-20th century on, the banks of the Bayou across from City Park became a favorite destination for young couples seeking privacy; the banks of Bayou St. John are an important meeting place for the downtown Mardi Gras Indian tribes for their "Super Sunday" parade after Carnival. Opened in 2015, the Lafitte Greenway now runs along the corridor occupied by the Carondelet Canal, with a prominent roundabout at the foot of the Bayou. In conjunction with the Lafitte Greenway, the Bayou has been recognized as part of the EPA's Urban Waters Partnership. Bayou St. John submarine Demourelles Island Media related to Bayou St. John at Wikimedia Commons
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats. Urban parks are green spaces set aside for recreation inside cities. National parks and Country parks are green spaces used for recreation in the countryside. State parks and Provincial parks are administered by sub-national government agencies. Parks may consist of grassy areas, rocks and trees, but may contain buildings and other artifacts such as monuments, fountains or playground structures. Many parks have fields for playing sports such as soccer and football, paved areas for games such as basketball. Many parks have trails for walking and other activities; some parks are built adjacent to bodies of water or watercourses and may comprise a beach or boat dock area. Urban parks have benches for sitting and may contain picnic tables and barbecue grills; the largest parks can be vast natural areas of hundreds of thousands square kilometers, with abundant wildlife and natural features such as mountains and rivers.
In many large parks, camping in tents is allowed with a permit. Many natural parks are protected by law, users may have to follow restrictions. Large national and sub-national parks are overseen by a park ranger or a park warden. Large parks may have areas for canoeing and hiking in the warmer months and, in some northern hemisphere countries, cross-country skiing and snowshoeing in colder months. There are amusement parks which have live shows, fairground rides and games of chance or skill. English deer parks were used by the aristocracy in medieval times for game hunting, they had walls or thick hedges around them to keep game animals in and people out. It was forbidden for commoners to hunt animals in these deer parks; these game preserves evolved into landscaped parks set around mansions and country houses from the sixteenth century onwards. These may have served as hunting grounds but they proclaimed the owner's wealth and status. An aesthetic of landscape design began in these stately home parks where the natural landscape was enhanced by landscape architects such as Capability Brown.
As cities became crowded, the private hunting grounds became places for the public. With the Industrial revolution parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the cities and towns. Sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding natural beauty were set aside as national parks to prevent their being spoiled by uncontrolled development. Park design is influenced by the intended purpose and audience, as well as by the available land features. A park intended to provide recreation for children may include a playground. A park intended for adults may feature walking paths and decorative landscaping. Specific features, such as riding trails, may be included to support specific activities; the design of a park may determine, willing to use it. Walkers may feel unsafe on a mixed-use path, dominated by fast-moving cyclists or horses. Different landscaping and infrastructure may affect children's rates of use of parks according to sex.
Redesigns of two parks in Vienna suggested that the creation of multiple semi-enclosed play areas in a park could encourage equal use by boys and girls. Parks are part of the urban infrastructure: for physical activity, for families and communities to gather and socialize, or for a simple respite. Research reveals that people who exercise outdoors in green-space derive greater mental health benefits. Providing activities for all ages and income levels is important for the physical and mental well-being of the public. Parks can benefit pollinators, some parks have been redesigned to accommodate them better; some organisations, such as Xerces Society are promoting this idea. City parks play a role in improving cities and improving the futures for residents and visitors - for example, Millennium Park in Chicago, Illinois or the Mill River Park and Green way in Stamford, CT. One group, a strong proponent of parks for cities is The American Society of Landscape Architects, they argue that parks are important to the fabric of the community on an individual scale and broader scales such as entire neighborhoods, city districts or city park systems.
Parks need to feel safe for people to use them. Research shows that perception of safety can be more significant in influencing human behavior than actual crime statistics. If citizens perceive a park as unsafe, they might not make use of it at all. A study done in four cities. There are a number of features. Elements in the physical design of a park, such as an open and welcoming entry, good visibility, appropriate lighting and signage can all make a difference. Regular park maintenance, as well as programming and community involvement can contribute to a feeling of safety. While Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design has been used in facility design, use of CPTED in parks has not been. Iqbal and Ceccato performed a study in Stockholm, Sweden to determine if it would be useful to apply to parks, their study indicated that while CPTED could be useful, due to the
War bonds are debt securities issued by a government to finance military operations and other expenditure in times of war. In practice, modern governments finance war by putting additional money into circulation, the function of the bonds is to remove money from circulation and help to control inflation. War bonds are either retail bonds marketed directly to the public or wholesale bonds traded on a stock market. Exhortations to buy war bonds are accompanied by appeals to patriotism and conscience. Retail war bonds, like other retail bonds, tend to have a yield, below that offered by the market and are made available in a wide range of denominations to make them affordable for all citizens. Governments throughout history have needed to borrow money to fight wars. Traditionally they dealt with a small group of rich financiers such as Jakob Fugger and Nathan Rothschild, but no particular distinction was made between debt incurred in war or peace. An early use of the term "war bond" was for the $11 million raised by the US Congress in an Act of 14 March 1812, to fund the War of 1812, but this was not aimed at the general public.
Until July 2015 the oldest bonds still outstanding as a result of war were the British Consols, some of which were the result of the refinancing of incurring debts during the Napoleonic Wars, but these were redeemed following the passing of the Finance Act 2015. The government of Austria-Hungary knew from the early days of the First World War that it could not count on advances from its principal banking institutions to meet the growing costs of the war. Instead, it implemented a war finance policy modeled upon that of Germany: in November 1914, the first funded loan was issued; as in Germany, the Austro-Hungarian loans followed a prearranged plan and were issued at half yearly intervals every November and May. The first Austrian bonds had a five-year term; the smallest bond denomination available was 100 kronen. Hungary issued loans separately from Austria in 1919, after the war and after it had separated from Austria, in the form of stocks that permitted the subscriber to demand repayment after a year's notice.
Interest was fixed at 6%, the smallest denomination was 50 korona. Subscriptions to the first Austrian bond issue amounted to the equivalent of $440 million; the limited financial resources of children were tapped through campaigns in schools. The initial minimum Austrian bond denomination of 100 kronen still exceeded the means of most children, so the third bond issue, in 1915, introduced a scheme whereby children could donate a small amount and take out a bank loan to cover the rest of the 100 kronen; the initiative was immensely successful, eliciting funds and encouraging loyalty to the state and its future among Austro-Hungarian youth. Over 13 million kronen was collected in the first three "child bond" issues. Canada's involvement in the First World War began in 1914, with Canadian war bonds called "Victory Bonds" after 1917; the first domestic war loan was raised in November 1915, but not until the fourth campaign of November 1917 was the term Victory Loan applied. The First Victory Loan was a 5.5% issue of 5, 10 and 20 year gold bonds in denominations as small as $50.
It was oversubscribed, collecting $398 million or about $50 per capita. The Second and Third Victory Loans were floated in 1919, bringing another $1.34 billion. For those who could not afford to buy Victory Bonds, the government issued War Savings Certificates; the government awarded communities. Unlike France and Britain, at the outbreak of the First World War Germany found itself excluded from international financial markets; this became most apparent after an attempt to float a major loan on Wall Street failed in 1914. As such, Germany was limited to domestic borrowing, induced by a series of war credit bills passing the Reichstag; this took place in many forms. Nine bond drives were conducted over the length of the war and, as in Austria-Hungary, the loans were issued at six-month intervals; the drives themselves would last several weeks, during which there was extensive use of propaganda via all possible media. Most bonds had a rate of return of 5% and were redeemable over a ten-year period, in semi-annual payments.
Like war bonds in other countries, the German war bonds drives were designed to be extravagant displays of patriotism and the bonds were sold through banks, post offices and other financial institutions. As in other countries, the majority investors were not individuals but institutions and large corporations. Industries, university endowments, local banks and city governments were the prime investors in the war bonds. In part because of intense public pressure and in part due to patriotic commitment the bond drives proved successful, raising 10 billion marks in funds. Although successful the war bond drives only covered two-thirds of war-related expenditures. Meanwhile, the interest payable on the bonds represented a growing expense which required further resources to pay it. In August 1914 the gold reserves of the Bank of England, of all banking institutions in Great Britain, amounted to £9 million; the banks feared the declaration of war would trigger a run on the banks, so the Chancellor David Lloyd George extended the August bank holiday for three days to allow time for the passing of the Currency and Bank Notes Act 1914, by which Britain left the gold standard.
Under this Act the Treasury issued £300 million of paper banknotes
Tad Gormley Stadium
Tad Gormley Stadium is a 26,500 seat multi-purpose outdoor stadium, located in City Park, in New Orleans, named for Frank "Tad" Gormley. The stadium is home to the University of New Orleans Privateers men's and women's track and field teams; the Tulane University Green Wave men's and women's track and field teams host track meets at the stadium. The Xavier University men's and women's track and field teams use the stadium as its home venue, it is frequently used for Louisiana High School Athletic Association football games, soccer games and track meets. The stadium features GameDay Grass MT from AstroTurf, a 400-meter all-weather track, three locker rooms, a press box seating 110, press suite seating for 40. Tad Gormley Stadium was built in 1937 by the Works Progress Administration during the Great Depression, it has been used for football, track & field, soccer. In its early years, the stadium would host high school games in front of sellout crowds with standing-room only crowds surrounding the playing field.
The record for attendance was set in 1940 when 34,345 spectators attended a game between Jesuit High School of New Orleans and Holy Cross High School of New Orleans. The stadium has hosted Louisiana High School Athletic Association state championship football games; the last Class AAAA championship game held in the stadium was on December 10, 1971 when Brother Martin defeated New Orleans Catholic League rival St. Augustine 23-0 in front of 25,000; the last title game in the facility was in 1975, when John Curtis defeated Notre Dame of Crowley 13-12 for the Class AA title, the Patriots' first. The stadium was home to the New Orleans Pelicans team from 1958-1959, after the closing of Pelican Stadium in 1957; the University of New Orleans Privateers' club football team played in the stadium from 1965-1968 and again from 2008-2011. On April 6, 1969, the New York Mets and Minnesota Twins played a doubleheader at the stadium. On March 28, 1982 the stadium hosted a World Cup tune-up match for the Honduras National Team against the Tampa Bay Rowdies of the North American Soccer League.
The match ended in a 1–1 draw. It played host to the 1992 U. S. Olympic Track & Field Trials for the 1992 Summer Olympic games held in Spain; the New Orleans Riverboat Gamblers of the USL A-League played in the stadium from 1996-1997. The Tulane Green Wave football team played four homecoming games and one non-conference game at the stadium in 2002, 2003, 2004, 2008; this was to provide more tailgating opportunities for fans than at their former regular home stadium, the Mercedes-Benz Superdome. In 2005, Hurricane Katrina flooded the stadium, along with parts of New Orleans, it remained structurally sound, but required major repairs to the electrical and plumbing systems along with the playing field. In 2006, running back Reggie Bush was drafted by the New Orleans Saints, he donated over $80,000 to repair the playing field. In acknowledgement of his generosity, Tad Gormley Stadium's playing field was renamed Reggie Bush Field; the first event held at the newly renovated stadium was an LHSAA high school prep-football game on September 21, 2006 pitting Brother Martin High School versus L.
W. Higgins High School. In 2008, Tad Gormley hosted select New Orleans Jesters; the stadium hosted another international friendly match on February 4, 2012 between Major League Soccer's Chicago Fire Soccer Club and Honduran soccer club Real C. D. España. Tad Gormley stadium has hosted concerts by many famous artists, including The Beatles, Pearl Jam and Rage Against the Machine, among others. City Park Louisiana High School Athletic Association New Orleans Privateers New Orleans Pelicans List of soccer stadiums in the United States List of music venues New Orleans City Park UNO Privateers Athletics
New Orleans Botanical Garden
The New Orleans Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana. The first classical garden in New Orleans, it was funded by the Works Progress Administration; the Botanical Gardens in New Orleans City Park was unveiled in 1936, as a part of the massive restructuring and development project of City Park that took place in the 1930s. Although development plans for the new City Park were chosen in 1930, it was not until the mid-1930s that funding came from the Works Progress Administration, which administered the $12 million project that employed nearly 20,000 workers in New Orleans City Park. Constructed to be a rose garden, the Botanical Garden boasted four outdoor garden rooms, a reflecting pool, the massive Conservatory of the Two Sisters dedicated to housing some of the garden's more delicate plant life. Design and construction was overseen by three innovators: architect Richard Koch, landscaper William Wierdorn, sculptor Enrique Alférez. Together, the three artists designed the Gardens in the style of the popular "art-deco" era of the 1930s, constructing the defined and elaborate grounds that would come to be New Orleans' first public classical garden.
Using a combination of natural landscape, historic architecture, surreal artwork, the garden was intended to be a place where families from all around New Orleans could enjoy the City Park. With the end of the economic stagnation of the 1930s, the "war boom" of the 1940s, the WPA program ended and federal funding dried up, leaving the Botanical Garden to fend for itself; the period from the 1940s to the early 1980s saw a decline in the quality and cleanliness of the garden. Upkeep was lagging, vandalism was common, attendance was down. With the founding of the Friends of City Park, the 1980s brought a new push to improve and rebuild the historic rose garden; the garden was fenced, debris, dumped was removed, the reflecting pool near the conservatory was lined with roses, a renovation project touched up many disheveled areas, many areas of the garden were replanted with new flora. Artist Enrique Alférez was located to restore the garden's sculptures, a number of new pieces of artwork such as The Sundial and the Grass Gates were added.
With the renovation and addition of many sections of the newly named Botanical Gardens, the stage was set for a surge in development that would continue until the turn of the 20th century. The 1990s saw a significant amount of growth for the Botanical Gardens, with a number of projects initiated by donors and friends of the park; the Garden Study Center was renovated in 1992, as were the Palm Court and the Lath House Horticultural Library. The gardens expanded to include nearly three acres to the east of the site; this land would become the Pavilion of the Two Sisters, a semi-circular garden that rests next to the pavilion on the easternmost side of the garden. In 1997, this section became the Azalea and Camellia Garden: a circular walk scattered with a wide variety of these flowers, numerous additions to the garden's collection of sculptures, a "footprint walk" made of plaques with the names and footprints of some of those involved in the garden's construction; the latest addition to the garden is the historic train garden.
Designed by Paul Busse, it was intended as a centerpiece for the 2002 "Celebration in the Oaks" festival. This exhibit showcases New Orleans' historic place as a hub for the railway system of the 19th century and early 20th century; the arrival of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 caused nearly total destruction of the garden's plantings. Due to a donation from the Azby Fund, garden staffers were among the few members of the City Park staff who were retained following the storm. Staff removed all replanted in preparation for an abbreviated Celebration in the Oaks. Staff was assisted with donations of plants and funds as well as help from volunteers from across the US and around the world; the garden has resumed normal operation with a number of events including musical and educational programs. The Botanical Gardens as seen today is made up of several different miniature gardens; each garden room, or section of the garden, showcases unique species of flora, pathways and structures help to define and separate these sections.
Grass runways dominate some sections of the garden, lined with hedges of camellia, provide direction for those walking in the garden. In more formal areas one finds brick pathways with various objects constructed in thanks of donors. Upon entering the Botanical Gardens at the south side of the Pavilion of the Two Sisters, visitors taking the right pathways, or easterly direction, enter the Zemurray Azalea and Camellia Garden. Housing azalea and magnolias, this section provides a fragrant walk through some of the South's most famous flowering plants. At the western edge of the section lies the Pavilion of the Two Sisters, a recent building designed in the fashion of a European greenhouse and constructed to protect oranges, honors the Wordsworth sisters; this space is used as a multipurpose facility for everything from educational seminars to wedding receptions. The Pavilion serves as a formal barrier between the Zeumurray Garden and the Original Garden. To the west of the Pavilion of the Two Sisters sits the Original Garden.
The Original Garden is named as such because it represents the original portion of the formal Rose Garden. This section has four distinct garden rooms, a reflecting pool, a conservatory. At the northern side of the Original Garden, the Parterre Rose Garden, or the Lord and Taylor Rose Garden, consists of rows of trimmed Yaupon hedg