California State University, Los Angeles
California State University, Los Angeles is a public university in Los Angeles, California. It is part of the California State University system. Cal State LA offers 129 bachelor's degrees, 112 master's degrees, three doctoral degrees: a Ph. D. in special education, Doctor of Education, Doctor of Nursing Practice. It offers 22 teaching credentials. Cal State LA is a Hispanic-serving institution. Cal State LA has a student body of more than 24,000 students from the greater Los Angeles area, as well as 240,000 alumni. Cal State LA operates on the semester system with two semesters, each 15 weeks in duration per year: in the fall of 2016, the university changed to the semester system as part of a system-wide conversion of all quarter campuses. Cal State LA is organized into eight colleges that house a total of four schools and 50 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs offering a variety of majors. Cal State LA is home to the critically acclaimed Luckman Jazz-Orchestra and a unique Early Entrance Program in the Honors College for gifted students as young as 11.
The 175-acre hilltop campus core is home to the nation's first Charter College of Education, a NASA-funded SPACE program, Rockefeller-supported humanities center, a National Science Foundation funded environmental research center and other award-winning engineering programs. U. S. News has ranked Cal State LA's undergraduate business program as one of the best in the nation; the School of Nursing is considered to be one of the best in the state of California. The Charter College of Education has awarded more teaching credentials in the state of California than any other public institution, includes an innovative baccalaureate degree program in Urban Learning designed to train teachers for the specific demands of urban schools; the university has the nation's largest early/pre-teen collegiate program, one of the few and the longest-operating graduate Criminal Justice and Criminalistics program west of the Mississippi River. The Television and Media Studies program is one of the foremost film schools in the CSU system, coordinating film and TV production experiences with the neighboring Hollywood film industry by the Cal State LA Studios.
It is home to two high schools the Marc and Eva Stern Math and Science School and the Los Angeles County High School for the Arts, a prestigious arts high school, notable for being the only arts high school in Los Angeles that allows for students from any district within Los Angeles County to attend. Classrooms are shared with Cal State LA, however, LACHSA activities tend to be separate from those of the university. Notable LACHSA alumni include singer Josh Groban, actress Jenna Elfman, actor/singer Corbin Bleu, UCLA Athletics senior executive Ron "Country Club" Kobata. Cal State LA opened a new downtown Los Angeles campus in 2016 to provide university programs; the university has signed a lease for 21,000 square feet at South Grand Avenue. The location at the edge of the Financial District is in the midst of a residential development boom, with thousands of apartments under construction or in the pipeline, including a 700-unit apartment building anchored by a Whole Foods supermarket across the street from the Cal State LA site.
Cal State LA will offer undergraduate and graduate programs at the site, as well as professional development and certificate programs. The campus will contain 12 classrooms, two computer labs, student lounges, student collaboration space and events space, administrative and faculty offices; the university is located on the site of one of California's 36 original adobes, built in 1776 by Franciscan missionaries and destroyed by fire in 1908. These lands once were part of a Spanish land grant known as Rancho Rosa Castilla, given to Juan Batista Batz, a Basque rancher from northern Spain who settled here in the 1850s; the inspiration for the name of the rancho, according to local historians, was the wild roses that once grew near the ranch home. The main drive through the campus is known as Paseo Rancho Castilla, in acknowledgment of the university's historic heritage. Cal State LA was founded on July 2, 1947 by an act of the California legislature and opened for classes as "The Los Angeles State College" on the campus of Los Angeles City College.
In 1949, the Los Angeles State College was reconstituted by the Legislature as "The Los Angeles State College of Applied Arts and Sciences." In 1964, the Board of Trustees of the California State Colleges changed the name of the college to the "California State College at Los Angeles," and in 1968 to "California State College, Los Angeles," when it became part of the California State College system. In 1972, CSCLA was awarded university status and was renamed California State University, Los Angeles. From 1947 to 1955, the college shared the campus of the Los Angeles City College but the shared-campus experiment proved to be unwieldy and the college moved to its present campus of 175 acres in the northeastern section of the City of Los Angeles, 5 miles east of the Civic Center. In 1952 the state proposed a new satellite campus for Cal State LA, at the time known as Los Angeles State College, in July 1958, the campus separated from Cal State LA and was renamed San Fernando Valley State College.
Since 1954, Cal State LA has been accredited by the Western Association of Colleges. The university's credential programs are approved by the Commission for Teacher Credentialing Committee on Accreditation. In 1968 Cal State LA established the nation's first Chicano Studies department. In 1993, the CSU Chancellor and Trustees approved development of Cal State LA's Charter
University Hills, Los Angeles
University Hills is a district on the East Side of Los Angeles, California. It is the site of Los Angeles. University Hills is bordered by El Sereno on the north and west, City Terrace on the south, Alhambra on the north-east, Monterey Park on the south-east. Major thoroughfares include Eastern Avenue, Marianna Avenue, Valley Boulevard; the San Bernardino and Pasadena freeways run along the district's southern and western edges, respectively. The campus of California State University, Los Angeles occupies nearly 200 acres on a hilltop site that affords views of the San Gabriel Mountains to the north, the San Gabriel Valley to the east, metropolitan Los Angeles to the west, the Palos Verdes Peninsula and Catalina Island to the south. University Hills is in the eastern San Rafael Hills, they were part of the Pre-columbian homeland of the Tongva Indians for thousands of years, they named this area Otsunga. It is the former site of one of California's 36 original adobes, built in 1776 by Franciscan missionaries, destroyed by a fire in 1908.
The area was part of the 1831 Mexican land grant of Rancho Rosa Castilla, given to Juan Ballesteros by Alta California Governor Manuel Victoria. It was named for the abundant amount of native Wood roses along the creek. In 1852, after statehood, the title passed to his wife, Catalina, he was a Basque immigrant rancher from northern Spain. In 1882, after both died, the land was divided among six of their children. For most of its history, University Hills was a neighborhood within El Sereno, developed more than a century ago with the expansion of the Pacific Electric Railway Red Car lines. In the latter 20th century it grew differently from El Sereno and other Eastside communities in residential qualities and socioeconomic conditions. In response, the local homeowners association lobbied for renaming the community in the 1990s. In 2004 it was designated University Hills; the increase in Southern California real estate values in the early 2000s attracted professionals looking for alternative neighborhoods to more distant suburbs and the Westside.
The mid-2010s recovery from the 2009 Great Recession and its subsequent depressed real estate values has returned University Hills to a desirable community for new homeowners. Gentrification is changing the predominant Latino enclave; the Los Angeles Derby Dolls based at "The Doll Factory" on Temple Street in Historic Filipinotown, relocated in 2015 to "The Dollosseum" on Alhambra Avenue near Valley Boulevard in El Sereno, near University Hills and CSULA. California State University, Los AngelesUniversity Hills is zoned to schools in the Los Angeles USD: City Terrace Elementary School El Sereno Middle School Wilson High SchoolIn addition, many neighborhood residents send their kids to nearby Catholic schools. "City of Los Angeles. Public Works Committee Report: Designating the Residential Areas Surrounding California State University Los Angeles as University Hills" Los Angeles Times, Real Estate section, Neighborly Advice column: " A campus enclave that's a study in contrasts" University Hills Association
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Artesia is a city in southeast Los Angeles County, California. Artesia is one of Los Angeles County's Gateway Cities; the city has a 2010 census population of 16,522. Artesia is surrounded on the west and east sides by Cerritos, with Norwalk to the north. Artesia is the home of the East West Ice Palace, an ice rink, co-owned by Michelle Kwan, it was the childhood home of former First Lady Pat Nixon, who lived there from 1914 to 1931, though the property on which she grew up is now part of neighboring Cerritos. The village of Artesia was established upon the completion of the Artesia School District on May 3, 1875, it was named for the many flowing artesian wells in the area, which made the village ideal for farming and agriculture. In the 1920s and 1930s, Dutch and Portuguese farmers developed Artesia into one of the most important dairy districts in Southern California. After World War II, as with many other cities in the region, Artesia was pressured by developers to build residential tracts.
The city of Dairy Valley was incorporated in 1956, became the city of Cerritos. As the demand for housing continued, dairymen moved their operations further east into Chino and north into the Central Valley. Artesia incorporated on May 29, 1959. Before Artesia was incorporated, some rural areas, like Hawaiian Gardens, were considered part of Artesia for mapping and postage purposes. In 1993, the Artesia Historical Society was formed, with the mission of preserving and protecting the archives and historic sites of the city. In 2002, the Historical Society salvaged and restored one of the last remaining Spanish-styled homes in the city into a historical civic museum open to the public. One of the more familiar landmarks in the city is the Artesia water tower. Not much is known about its active past; the City of Artesia is trying to have the tower declared as a Historical Landmark and is asking its citizens for historical information and photos of the tower. The water tower can hold 50,000 gallons of water and was once owned by the Southern California Water Company before being sold to the City of Artesia in 1988.
The tower was intended to be used only as a point of historical interest, to provide a special identity to the community. Shortly after its purchase, the green tower was painted to its current color with the addition of the name Artesia painted on two sides, it sits on top of an artesian well. However, no record of its construction can be found. Although it may have once been a smaller wooden tower, to qualify for historic designation in California, factual documentation must be presented; the Artesia water tower was featured in the motion picture Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare in 1991 and was known in the film as the Springwood water tower. It was featured in season 1, episode 17, "Didn't Pay Taxes", of the television show My Name Is Earl, in March 2006. There are a large number of Indian-owned restaurants along Pioneer Boulevard in Artesia. Despite this concentration of Indian-owned businesses, Asian Indians made up only 7.9% of the population of Artesia in the 2010 Census. Proposals have been made to designate a portion of the city as "Little India".
Another proposal has been for a "Little India" sign at the Pioneer Boulevard exit off of the Artesia Freeway. Opposition from other ethnicities in the city, has so far balked such plans. According to the LA Times article "Artesia Thinks the World of Itself," four of five City Council members were outraged at Assemblyman Rudy Bermudez's attempt to make the designation without consulting the local council; the council members won a bill requiring local approval of proposed freeway sign designations. Mayor Larry Nelson said that Indian Americans constituted less than 1% of the city's population and that East Asian markets outnumber Indian ones 3 to 1. Thus, the name is the "International and Cultural Shopping District." Artesia is located at 33°52′2″N 118°4′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.6 square miles, all land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Artesia had a population of 16,522; the population density was 10,194.7 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Artesia was 6,446 White, 589 African American, 94 Native American, 6,131 Asian, 40 Pacific Islander, 2,630 from other races, 592 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5,910 persons; the Census reported that 15,909 people lived in households, 69 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 544 were institutionalized. There were 4,535 households, out of which 1,933 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,673 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 670 had a female householder with no husband present, 334 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 150 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 30 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 661 households were made up of individuals and 306 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.51. There were 3,677 families; the population was spread out with 3,719 people under the age of 18, 1,680 people aged 18 to 24, 4,421 people aged 25 to 44, 4,454 people aged 45 to 64, 2,248 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4
Los Angeles Unified School District
The Los Angeles Unified School District is the largest public school system in the U. S. state of California and the 2nd largest public school district in the United States. Only the New York City Department of Education has a larger student population. During the 2016–2017 school year, LAUSD served around 734,641 students, including 107,142 students at independent charter schools and 69,867 adult students. During the same school year, it had 33,635 other employees, it is the second largest employer in Los Angeles County, after the county government. The total school district operating budget for 2016–2017 is $7.59 billion. The school district consists of Los Angeles and all or portions of several adjoining Southern California cities. LAUSD has its own police force, the Los Angeles School Police Department, established in 1948 to provide police services for LAUSD schools; the LAUSD enrolls a third of the preschoolers in Los Angeles County, operates as many buses as the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority.
The LAUSD school construction program rivals the Big Dig in terms of expenditures, LAUSD cafeterias serve about 500,000 meals a day, rivaling the output of local McDonald's restaurants. The LAUSD has been criticized in the past for crowded schools with large class sizes, high drop-out and expulsion rates, low academic performance in many schools, poor maintenance and incompetent administration. In 2007, LAUSD's dropout rate was 26 percent for grades 9 through 12, but more there are signs that the district is showing improvement, both in terms of dropout and graduation rates. An ambitious renovation program intended to help ease the overcrowded conditions has been completed; as part of its school-construction project, LAUSD opened two high schools in 2005 and four high schools in 2006. Los Angeles Unified School District is governed by a seven-member Board of Education, which appoints a superintendent, who runs the daily operations of the district. Members of the board are elected directly by voters from separate districts that encompass communities that the LAUSD serves.
The district's current superintendent is Austin Beutner. The district's former superintendents are Ramon Cortines; the Board of Education selected King for superintendent in January 2016. Vivian Ekchian became acting superintendent until the Board election of Beutner in May 2018. Cortines was appointed acting superintendent after the school board decided to buy out the contract of David L. Brewer III, a former Navy Vice-Admiral who served as head of the Navy's Education and Training Division and was in charge of the SeaLift Command. From 2001 until his retirement in October 2006, the district was led by former Governor of Colorado and Democratic Party chairman Roy Romer; the six current members of Board of Education include George McKenna, Board President Monica Garcia, Scott Schmerelson, Board Vice President Nick Melvoin, Kelly Fitzpatrick-Gonez, Richard Vladovic. District 5 is vacant following the resignation of Dr. Ref Rodriguez in July 2018. In the March 2015 Los Angeles City Council and School Board elections, voters approved Charter Amendment 2, which allows the Los Angeles Unified School District Board of Education to change their election dates to even-numbered years.
It will take effect with the March 2020 Primary election and the runoff in November 2020. Every LAUSD household or residential area is zoned to an elementary school, a middle school and a high school, in one of the eight local school districts; each local school district is run by an area superintendent and is headquartered within the district. The Los Angeles Unified School District was once composed of two separate districts: the Los Angeles City School District, formed on September 19, 1853, the Los Angeles City High School District, formed in 1890; the latter provided 9–12 educational services, while the former did so for K-8. On July 1, 1961 the Los Angeles City School District and the Los Angeles City High School District merged, forming the Los Angeles Unified School District. On January 31, 1957, a DC7B crashed into the schoolyard of Pacoima Junior High School in Pacoima in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles, California following a midair collision with a US military plane, resulting in the deaths of the four crew members aboard the DC-7B, the pilot of the Scorpion jet, two students on the ground, a third died three days later.
Additionally seventy-eight students suffered injuries which ranged from minor to life-threatening. The annexation left the Topanga School District and the Las Virgenes Union School District as separate remnants of the high school district; the high school district changed its name to the West County Union High School District. LAUSD annexed the Topanga district on July 1, 1962. Since the Las Virgenes Union School District had the same boundary as the remaining West County Union High School District, on July 1, 1962 West County ceased to exist. In 1963, a lawsuit, Crawford v. Board of Ed. of Los Angeles was filed to end segregation in the district. The California Supreme Court required the district to come up with a plan in 1977; the board returned to court with what the court of appeal years would describe as "one of if not the most drastic plan of mandatory student reassignment in the nation." A desegregation busing plan was developed to be implemented in the 1978 school year. Two lawsuits to stop the enforced busing plan, both title
Lincoln Heights, Los Angeles
Lincoln Heights is considered to be the oldest neighborhood in Los Angeles, outside of Downtown. It is a densely populated, youthful area that has a large community of artists and craftsmen, as well as a high percentage of Latino and Asian residents. There are several historic or notable landmarks. Lincoln Heights is bounded by the Los Angeles River on the west, the San Bernardino Freeway on the south, Indiana Street on the east. Adjacent communities include El Sereno on the east, City Terrace on the southeast, Boyle Heights on the south and Solano Canyon on the west, Cypress Park on the northwest, Mt. Washington on the north, Montecito Heights on the northeast. Major thoroughfares include Valley Boulevard; the Golden State Freeway runs through the district, the Metro Gold Line has a station in the far northwestern portion of the district. Lincoln Heights is considered to be the oldest neighborhood outside of Downtown Los Angeles proper, dating to the 1830s and found within the original Spanish forty-square league land grant.
Perched on bluffs overlooking the Los Angeles River and its lush floodplain, it was the erstwhile home to some of the city's most notable residents, who built numerous Victorian mansions, many of which have been preserved under the city's historic preservation program. The neighborhood was known as "East Los Angeles" when it was home to the commanding general of the Confederate States Army who died in the saddle, Albert Sidney Johnston, predecessor of Robert E. Lee, his brother-in-law, Dr. John Strother Griffin called the suburb home. Johnston Street, Griffin Avenue, Hancock Street are named after their family. After the deaths of the Southern fathers of Los Angeles, the name "East Los Angeles" was changed to Lincoln Heights in memory of their nemesis; the neighborhood's original name was East Los Angeles, but in 1917 residents voted to change the name to Lincoln Heights. Thereafter, what would be known as North Broadway became a crowded commercial thoroughfare, by the turn of the 20th century, unfettered industrial construction within the once scenic floodplain made it less appealing for Angelenos of means, who moved out first to the Arroyo Seco area and Hollywood to developing Mid-Wilshire.
As wealthy residents departed, Lincoln Heights became home to a large Italian American population, as well some Irish American and French American residents by the 1930s a wave of poor white American residents known as "Okies" from the Great Plains moved into the area. And with an large Mexican American population, Lincoln Heights became a "barrio" by the 1960s, it and its cross-river neighbor "Little Italy" formed the heart of southern California's Italian-American community. One of the major landmarks from this period, the San Antonio Winery, continues to operate today, albeit with non-local grapes. In the 21st century, Lincoln Heights is no longer considered a "barrio", due to changes brought on by gentrification; the neighborhood has been gentrifying due to the Northeast Los Angeles housing price escalation of 2013 and 2014. The 2000 U. S. census counted 26,616 residents in the 2.51-square-mile Lincoln Heights neighborhood—or 10,602 people per square mile, an average population density for the city.
In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 29,637. In 2000 the median age for residents was 27, considered young for county neighborhoods; the percentages of residents aged 10 through 18 were among the county's highest. The neighborhood was considered "not diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles, with a high percentage of both Asian and Latino people; the breakdown was Latinos, 70.7%. Mexico and Vietnam were the most common places of birth for the 55.8% of the residents who were born abroad—which was a high percentage for Los Angeles. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $30,579, considered low for the city. Renters occupied 75.9% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 24.1%. The average household size of 3.6 people was considered high for Los Angeles. The percentages of never-married men and women were among the county's highest; the 19.5% of families headed by single parents was considered about average for city neighborhoods. There were 500 veterans, or 2.8% of the population, a low proportion compared to the rest of the city.
Los Angeles Fire Department Fire Station 1 is located in the Lincoln Heights area. The station is in the Battalion 2 district; the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health operates the Central Health Center in Downtown Los Angeles, serving the Lincoln Heights. Just 5.5% of Lincoln Heights residents aged 25 and older had earned a four-year degree by 2000, a low percentage for the city. Source: Abraham Lincoln High School, 3501 North Broadway Academy of Environmental & Social Policy at Roosevelt High, 3501 North Broadway Hillside Elementary School, 120 East Avenue 35 Alliance College-Ready Middle Academy No. 5, charter, 2635 Pasadena Avenue Pueblo de Los Angeles Continuation School, 2506 Alta Street Gates Street Elementary School, 3333 Manitou Avenue Albion Street Elementary School, 322 South Avenue 18 Griffin Avenue Elementary School, 2025 Griffin Avenue Milagro Charter Elementary School, 1855 North Main Street Leadership in Media and Entertainment - Pilot School, 3501 North Broadway Los Angeles Leadership Academy High School, 2
Alhambra is a city located in the western San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States eight miles from the Downtown Los Angeles civic center. It was incorporated on July 11, 1903; as of the 2010 census, the population was 83,089. The city's ZIP Codes are 91801 and 91803; the original inhabitants of the land where Alhambra now sits are the Tongva. The San Gabriel Mission was founded nearby on September 8, 1771 as part of the Spanish conquest and occupation of Alta California; the land that would become Alhambra was part of a 300,000 acre land grant given to Manuel Nieto, a soldier from the Los Angeles Presidio. In 1820 Mexico won its independence from the Spanish crown and lands once ruled by them became part of the Mexican Republic; these lands transferred into the hands of the United States following the defeat in the Mexican–American War. A wealthy developer, Benjamin Davis Wilson, married Ramona Yorba, daughter of Bernardo Yorba, who owned the land which would become Alhambra.
With the persuasion of his daughter, Yorba named the land after a book she was reading, Washington Irving's Tales of the Alhambra, which he was inspired to write by his extended visit to the Alhambra palace in Granada, Spain. Alhambra was founded as a suburb of Los Angeles that remained an unincorporated area during the mid-19th century; the first school in Alhambra was Ramona Convent Secondary School, built on hillside property donated by the prominent James de Barth Shorb family. Thirteen years before the city was incorporated, several prominent San Gabriel Valley families interested in the Catholic education of their daughters established the school in 1890; the city's first public high school, Alhambra High School, was established in 1898, five years before the city's incorporation. On July 11, 1903, the City of Alhambra was incorporated; the Alhambra Fire Department was established in 1906. Alhambra was promoted as a "city of homes", many of its homes have historical significance, they include styles such as craftsman, Spanish Mediterranean, Spanish colonial, Italian beaux-arts, arts and crafts.
Twenty-six single-family residential areas have been designated historic neighborhoods by the city, including the Bean Tract, the Midwick Tract, the Airport Tract, the Emery Park area. There are a large number of condominiums, rental apartments, mixed-use residential/commercial buildings in the downtown area. Alhambra's main business district, at the intersection of Main and Garfield, has been a center of commerce since 1895. By the 1950s, it was "the" place to go in the San Gabriel Valley. While many of the classic historical buildings have been torn down over the years, the rebuilding of Main Street has led to numerous dining and entertainment establishments. Alhambra has experienced waves of new immigrants, beginning with Italians in the 1950s, Mexicans in the 1960s, Chinese in the 1980s; as a result, a active Chinese business district has developed on Valley Boulevard, including Chinese supermarkets, shops, banks and medical offices. The Valley Boulevard corridor has become a national hub for many Asian-owned bank headquarters, there are other nationally recognised retailers in the city.
The historic Garfield Theatre, located at Valley Boulevard and Garfield Avenue from 1925 until 2001, was a vaudeville venue and is rumored to have hosted the Gumm Sisters, featuring a young Judy Garland. Faded from its original glory, for its last few years it was purchased and ran Chinese-language films, in 2001 went out of business. Subsequently, developers have remodeled the dilapidated building, turning it into a vibrant commercial center with many Chinese stores and eateries. In 2003, actress Lana Clarkson was shot to death in the Alhambra home of record producer Phil Spector. Spector lived in Alhambra's largest and most notable residence, the Pyrenees Castle, built in 1926. In 2009, Spector was convicted of second-degree murder in connection with Clarkson's death. Alhambra is bordered by South Pasadena on the northwest, San Marino on the north, San Gabriel on the east, Monterey Park on the south, the Los Angeles districts of Monterey Hills and El Sereno on the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.6 square miles, over 99% of, land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Alhambra had a population of 83,089. Its population density was 10,887.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alhambra was 43,957 Asian, 23,521 White, 1,281 African American, 538 Native American, 81 Pacific Islander, 10,805 from other races, 2,906 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28,582 persons; the census reported that 82,475 people lived in households, 132 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 482 were institutionalized. There were 29,217 households, of which 9,357 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,679 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4,818 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,097 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,370 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 183 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,479 households were made up of individuals, 2,301 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82.
There were 2