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Harvey Wang

Harvey Wang is an American photographer based in New York City. He has published several books of photography, he is known for short films. Harvey Wang was born in Queens, New York, in 1956, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Anthropology from Purchase College, State University of New York in 1977. He visited Madison County, North Carolina to conduct research and take photographs for his honors thesis "At the Crossroads," which explored the impact of popular culture on the folk culture of the area, his photographs were subsequently shown in the exhibition At the Crossroads: Music and Photographs from Madison County, North Carolina at the Neuberger Museum at Purchase College in 1977. After graduation, he worked as a photographer for the Village Voice under picture editor Fred W. McDarrah. In the early 1980s, Wang frequented and photographed Club 57, a nightclub on St. Mark’s Place in the East Village, New York City that served as a mecca for filmmakers and musicians, his photographs of Club 57 regulars included Anne Magnuson, John "Lypsinka" Epperson, Kai Eric, Tseng Kwong Chi, Dany Johnson, Charlotte Slivka, Tom Scully, Klaus Nomi, Wendy Wild, John Sex, Deb O'Nair, Keith Haring, James Chance, Pat Place, Anya Phillips, others.

These photographs were included in the exhibition "Club 57: Film and Art in the East Village, 1978-1983" at the Museum of Modern Art, New York in 2017. He photographed the Lower East Side and the East Village in New York City extensively in the 1970s and 1980s. A selection of his photographs were exhibited at P. S. 1 in the New York/New Wave exhibition in New York City in 1981. In 1983 he worked with author Edward Kiersh on Where Have You Gone, Vince DiMaggio?, a book about retired Major League baseball players. Subjects included Vince DiMaggio, Ernie Banks, Roger Maris, Harmon Killebrew, Gene Woodling, Harvey Haddix, Willie McCovey, Pumpsie Green, Dusty Rhodes. Wang's photographs of these players appeared in a solo exhibition at the New York Public Library in 1983. In 1986, Wang photographed the subjects of Victoria Balfour's book Rock Wives, a collection of interviews with eighteen people who have lived with and around stars of rock and roll. Subjects included Susan Rotolo, Claudette Robinson, Angie Bowie, Ingrid Croce, Bebe Buell, Carlene Carter.

His portraits of older New Yorkers whose occupations and ways of life were being threatened by change were published in Harvey Wang’s New York in 1990, exhibited in a solo exhibition at the Museum of the City of New York in 1992. Subjects included Ella Baker, a civil rights activist. In the early 1990s, Wang teamed up with radio producer David Isay. Over a period of several years, they traveled across the country together to interview and photograph interesting Americans; the interview excerpts and portraits were published in 1995 in Holding On: Dreamers, Visionaries and Other American Heroes. Photographs drawn from Harvey Wang’s New York and Holding On were the basis for the solo exhibition Going Strong: Older Americans on the Job at the National Museum of American History at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC in 1995; these portraits showed older Americans still working proudly at their lifelong professions. The show subsequently traveled as part of the Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service program.

In 2000, Wang photographed the residents of the last remaining flophouses on New York City’s Bowery for the book Flophouse: Life on the Bowery, a collaboration with radio producers David Isay and Stacy Abramson. The project culminated in an exhibition at the New-York Historical Society in 2001. In the early 2000s, Wang began to explore the craft of photography and the careers of other photographers, his short film about Milton Rogovin, Milton Rogovin: The Forgotten Ones, won the prize for Best Documentary Short at the Tribeca Film Festival in 2003. In the film, Wang accompanies Milton and Anne Rogovin as they shoot the final portraits in their “Quartets” series on Buffalo, New York’s Lower West Side. Wang wrote an afterword for the book Milton Rogovin: The Forgotten Ones. Starting in 2008, Wang began to explore how photographers were affected by the momentous change in photography in the wake of the transition from film to digital methods; the book of interviews and portraits, titled From Darkroom to Daylight, was published in 2015.

A documentary film of the same name screened at photography festivals, museums and other public venues. Subjects included Jerome Liebling, George Tice, Elliott Erwitt, David Goldblatt, Sally Mann, Gregory Crewdson, Susan Meiselas, Eugene Richards, Steven Sasson, who built the first digital camera at Kodak, Thomas Knoll, who alongside his brother created Photoshop. Wang directed a feature film in 2007, The Last New Yorker, featuring Dominic Chianese, Dick Latessa, Kathleen Chalfant. From Darkroom to Daylight. Interviews and photographs by Harvey Wang. Edited by Amy Brost and Edmund Carson. ISBN 978-0989798181 Milton Rogovin: The Forgotten Ones. Text by David Isay, David Miller and Harvey Wang. Photographs by Milton Rogovin. ISBN 978-0971454859 Flophouse: Life on the Bowery. Text by David Isay and Stacy Abramson. Photographs by Harvey Wang. ISBN 978-0375503221 ISBN 978-0

RAF Bottisham

Royal Air Force Bottisham or more RAF Bottisham is a former Royal Air Force station located 5 miles east of Cambridge, England. RAF Bottisham opened in March 1940 and was first used by bomb-armed de Havilland Tiger Moths transferred from No. 22 Elementary Flying Training School RAF to be prepared for possible anti-invasion duties. Beginning in October 1940, the airfield was used by 22 EFTS Tiger Moths as an Relief Landing Ground until mid-1941. With the departure of the Tiger Moths, Bottisham was transferred to 241 Sqn Army Co-operation Command with Westland Lysanders, Curtiss Tomahawks, North American Mustang Mk 1's, moved to Ayr. From 15 June 1942, the airfield was used by No. 652 Squadron RAF and No. 168 Squadron RAF. A number of other Royal Air Force squadrons used the airfield before it was turned over to the United States Army Air Forces: No. 2 Squadron RAF between 31 January 1943 and 19 March 1943 with detachments at RAF Westcott, RAF Newmarket, RAF Cranfield, RAF Duxford using the Mustang I.

The squadron moved to RAF Fowlmere. No. 4 Squadron RAF between 20 March 1943 and 16 July 1943 using the Tomahawk IIA and Mustang I. The squadron moved to RAF Gravesend. No. 169 Squadron RAF between 10 March 1943 and 12 March 1943 with the Mustang I before moving to RAF Duxford. No. 268 Squadron RAF between 6 March 1943 and 10 March 1943 with the Mustang I. The squadron moved to RAF Snailwell. No. March 1943 as a detachment from RAF Digby; the squadron used the Hawker Hurricane I, Boulton Paul Defiant I and Supermarine Spitfire Mk's VB and IX. The squadron moved to RAF Coleby Grange. No. 400 Army Co-Operation Squadron between 18 June 1941 and 25 June 1941. The squadron used the Westland Lysander III and the Tomahawk Mk's I, IIA and IIB; the squadron moved to RAF Odiham. No. 613 Squadron RAF between 7 March 1943 and 19 March 1943 with Mustang I before moving to RAF Ringway. No. 654 20 February 1943 moving to Gourock. The squadron used the Taylorcraft Plus C.2 and the Taylorcraft Auster Mk's I and III.

No. 4 Flying Instructors School RAF. No. 2761 Squadron RAF Regiment. RAF Training School. With the arrival of large numbers of USAAF fighter groups in 1943, Bottisham was allocated to the Americans and assigned designation as Station 374; the airfield was enlarged and areas of steel matting were laid. USAAF Station Units assigned to RAF Bottisham were: 50th Service Group 468th and 469th Services Squadrons; the group was under the command of the 65th Fighter Wing of the VIII Fighter Command. Aircraft of the group were identified by yellow around their tails; the group consisted of the following squadrons: 374th Fighter Squadron 375th Fighter Squadron 376th Fighter Squadron The 361st FG entered combat with Republic P-47 Thunderbolt aircraft on 21 January 1944 and converted to North American P-51 Mustang's in May 1944. The unit served as an escort organisation, covering the penetration and withdrawal of Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress/Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber formations that the USAAF sent against targets on the Continent.

The group engaged in counter-air patrols, fighter sweeps, strafing and dive-bombing missions. It attacked such targets as airdromes, marshaling yards, missile sites, industrial areas, ordnance depots, oil refineries and highways, it participated in the assault against the German Air Force and aircraft industry during Big Week, 20–25 February 1944. The weight of the heavy P-47 fighters soon began to tell on the wet surface making take-offs tricky. A team of American engineers were called in during January 1944 and, in three days, they constructed a 1,470-yard-long runway with pierced-steel planking; this feat was considered a record for laying this type of prefabricated surfacing. The runway, aligned NE-SW, became the main at Bottisham the other being constructed of PSP. In September 1944 the 361st FG moved to RAF Little Walden when it became available after the departure of the 409th Bombardment Group for France. Little Walden was a Class A airfield with concrete runways and much better facilities than were available at Bottisham.

From mid-1945 until 5 January 1946 Bottisham was used temporarily by Belgian airmen until being closed. Today, few traces of Bottisham remain as the land has all been reclaimed for farming, however a few buildings remain in use; the outline of the PSP runway can still now as a long thick row of trees. The track which intersected the PSP runway towards the SW end is now a permanent Road which cuts through this row of trees. There is now a volunteer run museum at the former site, in honour of the RAF and USAF who were stationed there during the war; the Museum opened in 2009 and is the only UK museum dedicated to the Royal Air Force, United States 8th Army Air Force and Belgian Air Forces. They are operating out of the last remaining airfield buildings to exist within the airfield's original perimeter; the purchase of the site was completed in September 2014 and, since they have been renovating the airfield buildings and restoring them back to original appearance. A new Nissen hut has been installed in the original position where one was located in 19

Judah ben David Hayyuj

Judah ben David Hayyuj was a Moroccan Jewish linguist. He is regarded as the father of scientific grammar of Hebrew language, he was born in Fez, about 945. At an early age he went to Cordoba, where he seems to have remained till his death, which occurred about 1000 CE. Hayyuj was a pupil of Menahem ben Saruq, whom he helped to defend against the attacks of Dunash ben Labrat and his followers. In life Hayyuj developed his own theories about Hebrew grammar, was himself obliged to step forward as an opponent of the grammatical theories of his teacher, his thorough knowledge of Arabic grammatical literature led him to apply to the Hebrew grammar the theories elaborated by Arabic grammarians, thus to become the founder of the scientific study of that discipline. The preceding scholars had found the greatest difficulty in accounting, by the laws of Hebrew morphology, for the divergences existing between the regular, or so-called "strong," verbs and the "weak" verbs. A hopeless confusion appeared to reign here in Hebrew.

The weakness of Menahem's assertion that there are stems in Hebrew containing three letters, two letters, one letter was pointed out by Dunash. Hayyuj announced that all Hebrew stems consist of three letters, maintained that when one of those letters was a "vowel letter," such a letter could be regarded as "concealed" in diverse ways in the various verbal forms. To substantiate his theory he wrote the treatise upon which his reputation chiefly rests, the Kitab al-Af'al Dhawat Huruf al-Lin; the treatise is in three parts: the first is devoted to verbs whose first radical is a weak letter. Within each division he furnishes what he considers a complete list of the verbs belonging to the class in question, enumerates various forms of the verb, when necessary, adds brief comments and explanations. Preceding each division the principles underlying the formation of the stems belonging to the division are systematically set forth in a series of introductory chapters; as a supplement to this treatise he wrote a second, which he called the Kitab al-Af'al Dhawat al-Mathalain, in which he points out the principles governing the verbs whose second and third radicals are alike.

He furnishes a list of these verbs, together with their various forms occurring in the Bible. Besides the two treatises on verbs Hayyuj wrote Kitab al-Tanqit; this work written before his two chief treatises, is an attempt to set forth the features underlying the Masoretic use of the vowels and of the word-tone. In this work he deals chiefly with nouns, its purpose is more of a practical than of a theoretical character. A fourth work, the Kitab al-Natf, is known to have been written by Hayyuj, but only a fragment, unpublished as of the beginning of the 20th century, a few quotations by authors have survived; this was a supplement to his two grammatical works on the verb, in it he noted the verbs omitted by him in the former treatises. In doing this he anticipated in a measure ibn Janah's Mustalhaq, devoted to this purpose, he arranged and discussed the verbal stems in question, not alphabetically, but in the order in which they occur in the Bible. Hayyuj exerted an immense influence on succeeding generations.

All Hebrew grammarians up to the present day base their works on his. His first three works were twice translated into Hebrew, first by Moses ibn Gikatilla and by Abraham ibn Ezra; the following modern editions of his works have appeared: Ewald and Dukes, "Beiträge zur Geschichte der Aeltesten Auslegung und Spracherklärung des Alten Testaments," Stuttgart, 1844.. John W. Nutt, "Two Treatises on Verbs Containing Treble and Double Letters by R. Jehuda Ḥayug of Fez: From a Hebrew Translation of the Original Arabic by R. Moses Gikatilla of Cordova. London and Berlin, 1870. M. Jastrow, Jr. "The Weak and Geminative Verbs in Hebrew by... Hayyug, the Arabic Text Now Published for the First Time." Leyden, 1897. Nasir Basal: Kitāb al-Nutaf by Judah Ḥayyūj. A Critical Edition. Texts and Studies in the Hebrew Language and Related Subjects 11. Tel Aviv 2001. W. Bacher, Die Grammatische Terminologie, des... Hajjug, Vienna, 1882. Drachman, Die Stellung und Bedeutung des J. Hajjug in der Geschichte der Hebräischen Grammatik, Breslau, 1885.

Dawud Hajjug und Seine Zwei Grammatischen Schriften über die Verben mit Schwachen Buchstaben und die Verben mit Doppelbuchstaben, Giessen, 1885. This article incorporates text from a publication now in th

Xenon (program)

Xenon is software to perform covert Internet searches and surveillance, presently in use by taxing authorities in at least six nations to investigate the possibilities of tax evasion by various revenue producing web sites and clients selling goods on on-line auction sites.:59:149:384 The software uses time-controlled web spiders to avoid detection, countermeasures, by the webmasters of the targeted site. Its use may be legal. Use of Xenon was begun in the Netherlands by the Dutch tax authority Belastingdienst; the Amsterdam-based data mining firm Sentient Machine Research, together with the tax authorities of Austria, Canada and the United Kingdom, has since upgraded the system. Sweden's tax authority began using Xenon in 2007. Swedish privacy advocate and IT expert Par Strom, while stating in 2007 that the anticipated use of Xenon by the Swedish tax authority Skatteverket would be legal, has stated that such use would pose dangers to citizen privacy rights—as did the current use at the time of similar spidering software developed internally by the Swedish government.

Canadian Internet law expert Michael Geist has expressed similar privacy concerns

Maryland Question 6

Question 6 is a referendum that appeared on the general election ballot for the U. S. state of Maryland to allow voters to approve or reject the Civil Marriage Protection Act—a bill legalizing same-sex marriage passed by the General Assembly in 2012. The referendum was approved by 52.4% of voters on November 6, 2012 and thereafter went into effect on January 1, 2013. The ballot measure read as follows: Question 6Civil Marriage Protection Act Establishes that Maryland's civil marriage laws allow gay and lesbian couples to obtain a civil marriage license, provided they are not otherwise prohibited from marrying; the choices read as follows: For the Referred LawAgainst the Referred Law The Civil Marriage Protection Act was passed by the Maryland General Assembly in February 2012 and signed on March 1, 2012, by Governor Martin O'Malley. The Maryland House of Delegates approved the bill by a 72–67 vote, the Maryland Senate approved the bill by a vote of 25–22. Sections 2, 3 and 4 of the bill were included to ensure that religious leaders, religiously-controlled institutions, their programs are protected from being required to officiate or provide facilities for a same-sex marriage or couple if they refuse.

Opponents of same-sex marriage announced the launch of the petition drive for the referendum two weeks later. "The General Assembly and the governor do not have the final word on marriage in Maryland," said Derek McCoy, executive director of Maryland Marriage Alliance. "The people do." Petitioners submitted more than twice the number of required signatures to place the referendum on the election ballot, in June, the State Board of Elections announced that enough were validated. Support for Question 6 consisted of a coalition of civil rights leaders, businesses and politicians known as Marylanders for Marriage Equality; the opposition to Question 6 consisted of religious figures and politicians known as the Maryland Marriage Alliance. Governor Martin O'Malley, a Catholic, led the 2012 campaign for same-sex marriage in Maryland. O'Malley said he concluded that "discriminating against individuals based on their sexual orientation in the context of civil marital rights is unjust" and "treating the children of families headed by same-sex couples with lesser protections under the law than the children of families headed by heterosexual parents, is unjust."Arguments supporting Question 6 included protecting the children of gay and lesbian couples by affording their parents equal rights under the law, improving quality of life, principles of fairness, civil equality, highlighting religious protections.

Arguments in opposition to Question 6 included protecting children from being taught same-sex marriage in public schools with a focus on "boys can marry boys", preserving parental rights, a traditional definition of marriage as between one man and one woman, protecting religious beliefs. An official at Gallaudet University, Angela McCaskill, used as an example of religious persecution in a political ad opposing same-sex marriage, opted to have herself removed because it was misleading. McCaskill, fired after the university learned that she signed the petition in opposition of Question 6, said she signed "because she believed the matter should be voted on." Her personal views on same-sex marriage were unknown. Religious officials, as well as supporters of same-sex marriage rallied for McCaskill and called for her reinstatement, stating that she should not be penalized for her personal views. Several dozen small employers in the state have said that same-sex marriage will be good for business, helping to attract and retain talent.

Advocates for Question 6 raised a total of $4.1 million: contributions from the organizations and individuals under Marylanders for Marriage Equality, Human Rights Campaign's National Marriage Fund and Maryland Families PAC, NAACP's National Voter Fund for Question 6, Freedom to Marry's Maryland PAC, Maryland for All Families. Opponents of Question 6 raised a total of $1.7 million: contributions from the organizations and individuals under Maryland Marriage Alliance, National Organization for Marriage, the Knights of Columbus. Notable Supporters Notable Opponents Public opinion surveys have reported those in favor of same-sex marriage and those opposed. On November 6, 2012, the measure was approved by 52.4% of voters. In a statement regarding the election results, Governor Martin O'Malley said "Whether your parents happen to be gay or straight, Republican or Independent, your families are equal before the eyes of the law." The leading opposition group said that "No matter how it turns out, there have been thousands of people who are engaged in the process."

On November 29, 2012, Attorney General Doug Gansler issued a legal opinion stating that court clerks could begin issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples once the governor certified the election results on December 6, 2012, though they would not become effective until January 1, 2013. 21 out of the 24 counties in Maryland chose to issue the licenses ahead of schedule. An exit poll conducted by AP and Edison Research found: 7 in 10 young voters, age 29 and under, voted in favor of same-sex marriage. 6 in 10 of those