City commission government is a form of local government in the United States. In a city commission government, voters elect a small commission of five to seven members, on a plurality-at-large voting basis; these commissioners constitute the legislative body of the city and, as a group, are responsible for taxation, appropriations and other general functions. Individual commissioners are assigned executive responsibility for a specific aspect of municipal affairs, such as public works, finance, or public safety; this form of government thus blends executive branch functions in the same body. One commissioner may be designated to function as chairman or mayor, but this is a procedural, honorific, or ceremonial designation and does not involve additional powers beyond that exercised by the other commissioners. Chairing meetings is the principal role; such a "mayor" is in many ways similar to the "weak mayor" form of mayor–council government, but without any direct election for the office. However, some cities with this form of government, such as Portland, have an elected mayor.
This form of government originated in Galveston, Texas as a response to the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 for the reason that extra support was needed in certain areas. After its constitutionality was tested and confirmed, this form of government became popular across the state of Texas and spread to other parts of the United States. Des Moines, Iowa became the first city outside Texas to adopt this form. Portland, Oregon remains the only large city in the United States that still has a city commission form of government. A measure to change to the council-manager form of government was defeated 76%-24% on the May 2007 ballot; as a form, commission government once was common, but has been supplanted as many cities that once used it have since switched to the council-manager form of government. Proponents of the council-manager form consider the city commission form to be the predecessor of, not the alternative to, the council-manager form of government; the council-manager form of government developed, at least in part, as a response to some perceived limitations of the commission form.
In the council-manager form, the elected council exercises the legislative power of the city and appoints a manager, who possesses the executive power. Thus the executive powers, divided among the commissioners in a commission form, are instead concentrated in the manager, who delegates responsibility to department heads and other staff members; the council-manager form became the preferred alternative for progressive reform, after World War I few cities adopted the commission form and many cities using the commission plan switched to the council-manager form. Galveston itself changed forms in 1960. Mayor–council government Council–manager government
The Northrop Grumman Firebird is an intelligence gathering aircraft designed by Northrop Grumman's Scaled Composites design shop which can be flown remotely or by a pilot. At Scaled, it is known as the Model 355, it was unveiled on May 9, 2011. It is considered to be an optionally piloted vehicle. One of the last aircraft designs overseen by Burt Rutan, who retired in April 2011, the Firebird is a medium-altitude long-endurance aircraft designed to fly up to 40 hours at a top speed of 230 mph at an altitude of 30,000 feet; the twin-boom aircraft has a pusher configuration and a long slender wing with a slight forward sweep angle. It has a wingspan of 65 feet, a length of 34 feet, a height of 9.7 feet and a payload capacity of 1,240 pounds. It is powered by a Lycoming TEO-540 flat-six piston engine and has a maximum takeoff weight of 5,000 pounds; the aircraft has hardpoints to carry weapons, though it is unarmed. A new variant with a wingspan widened from 72.2 to 79.2 ft first flew in March 2018 and should be launched in early 2019.
The Firebird is designed so that the aircraft is able to carry up to four modules of spy equipment on a separate system from that needed to control the plane, so that equipment can be swapped in and out. According to Rick Crooks, a Northrop executive involved in the project, this design means that "t takes days or weeks to get a new payload integrated, instead of years." The aircraft has the ability to view infrared imagery, gather real time high-definition video, use radar, perform local signals intelligence. The idea of building an aircraft capable of being flown with or without a pilot was first floated on 9 February 2009 by Rick Crooks, when he contacted Scaled Composites about the possibility of building such an aircraft. Scaled agreed, on 9 February 2010 the aircraft made its first flight. In October 2010, the aircraft demonstrated its capabilities of collecting information from multiple sources for the first time when it made a demonstration flight in Sacramento, for defense officials.
On 9 May 2011 the aircraft was publicly unveiled for the first time, between 23 May and 3 June 2010, it participated in the 2011 Empire Challenge exercise, where it displayed its ability to carry multiple payloads and switch them out rapidly. According to Northrop, the single aircraft built is considered to be operationally ready, beyond the prototype stage. At the time of the aircraft's public unveiling, there were early plans for a second aircraft to be built. If it enters production, construction of the Firebird is planned to move to factories in Palmdale, California or Moss Point, rather than the Scaled Composites facility in Mojave, California. On 11 November 2012, the Firebird began test flights, production was approved. Firebird is planned to have its European debut in the Royal International Air Tattoo air show at RAF Fairford in the United Kingdom in July 2019; the first Firebirds are scheduled to be delivered to an unnamed U. S. government service before mid-2019. United StatesUnited States Federal Government - exact customer unnamed Grand Sky Development Tenax Aerospace Data from General characteristics Crew: two Capacity: 1,240 pounds payload Length: 34 ft Wingspan: 65 ft Height: 9 ft 9 in Max takeoff weight: 5,000 lb Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming TO-540 opposed six-cylinder piston engine, 350 hp Performance Endurance: 40 hours Service ceiling: 25,000 ft Armament Hardpoints: 2 Aircraft of comparable role and era AHRLAC Holdings Ahrlac Edgley Optica Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk Related lists List of twin-boom aircraft
Carl Haakon Waadeland is a Norwegian musicologist and jazz drummer, known from several bands and releases such as with Dadafon, Dum Dum Boys, Åge & Sambandet, Halvdan Sivertsen, Warne Marsh, Kenny Wheeler, Annbjørg Lien, Henning Sommerro, Bjørn Alterhaug, John Pål Inderberg, Knutsen & Ludvigsen, Mikis Theodorakis and Arja Saijonmaa. He was one of the driving forces behind the jazz program at NTNU which he directed. Waadeland holds a master's degree in mathematics and PhD in music theory from the NTNU, where he concentrates on rhythm, music performance and movement, as a professor of Music. In his PhD thesis he developed simulation models of rhythm abnormalities. Waadeland has performed and released several albums with jazz bands such as Bodega Band, Siri's Svale Band, Dadafon, he otherwise has contributed a number of releases by Mid-Norwegian artists Knutsen & Ludvigsen, Gary Holton & Casino Steel, Hans Rotmo, Terje Tysland, Halvdan Sivertsen, Hilde Heltberg, Åge Aleksandersen, Øystein Dolmen, Dum Dum Boys and Henning Sommerro.
He performed at Moldejazz Festival, Kongsberg Jazz Festival, Nattjazz in Bergen, Festival of North Norway, Trondheim Jazz Festival, St. Olav Festival in Trondheim, Trøndelag Theatre and Concert scenes. Waadeland, C. H.. Rhythm performance from a spectral point of view. In A. R. Jensenius, A. Tveit, R. I. Godøy & D. Overholt, Proceedings of the International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression. University of Oslo. Waadeland, C. H; the influence of tempo on movement and timing in rhythm performance. In: Proceedings of 9th international conference on music perception and cognition. Bologna University Press, 2006, ISBN 88-7395-155-4, pp. 45–46. Waadeland, C. H. Strategies in empirical studies of swing groove. Studia Musicologica Norvegica pp. 169–191. Waadeland, C. H.. Analysis of Jazz Drummers' Movements in Performance of Swing Grooves – A Preliminary Report. Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 6–9 August 2003, Volume II. KTH, Stockholm. ISBN 91-7283-559-1. Journal of New Music Research 30, 23–37.
Waadeland, C. H.. "It Don't Mean a Thing If It Ain't Got That Swing" – Simulating Expressive Timing by Modulated Movements. Journal of New Music Research 30, pp. 23–37. Waadeland, C. H.. Trommeslåtter- en trommeslagers skattekiste. Trondheim: TIMA Forlag. New release 2008: Norsk Musikforlag A/S: Bok+CD. Danielsen, A, Waadeland, C. H, Sundt, H. G.. Identifying Timing by Sound: Timbral Qualities of Micro-Rhythm. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition. ICMPC10, Japan, 2008, ISBN 978-4-9904208-0-2. S. 74 Petrini, Karin. Action expertise reduces brain activity for audiovisual matching actions: An fMRI study with expert drummers. NeuroImage Volum 56. S. 1480–1492 Solo projects2008: Din Råta Tjuv, nominated for the Norwegian Folk Music Awards 2008, in several classes Within Søyr1977: Søyr With DumDum Boys1988: Blodig Alvor Na Na Na Na Na With TNT1988: Tell No Tales With Gary Holton & Casino Steel1983: III Edition 1984: No 4
Open University of West Africa was founded in Ghana November 2011 by John Roberts and Patrick Steele. With the goal to break the poverty cycle in West Africa through online education, John Roberts and his co-founder were inspired by a simple but contradictory observation: at the moment higher education penetration in Africa was low, many of the best universities around the world were beginning to put their courses online through platforms like Coursera, edX, Udacity etc; the two founders became driven by the idea of harnessing this “perfect storm” of free Open Educational Resources, cheaper access to mobile technology, the profound need to spur development through higher-ed in West African countries. Located in Ghana, Open University of West Africa provided low-cost education, while encouraging each student to become an agent of change in this fight. In West Africa, less than 10% of students are enrolled in an institution of higher education, extreme poverty is a life-threatening reality for many.
Despite some efforts by West African governments to expand educational opportunities, there are no tangible improvements in the field of education in this region of Africa. Simple efforts to increase the number of people enrolled in schools have not solved the problem. Without accessibility to quality higher-ed, there is little hope of students becoming professionals such as business owners and government officials. Without these industry and community leaders, economic development is impossible. Open University of West Africa attracted numerous potential students. After opening an ‘internet café of education’ in Accra, Ghana, OUWA began with more than 40 students attending the courses. A year and a half into launch, OUWA had around 200 students; this represented the largest concentration of students accessing MOOCs in Sub-Saharan African. The most promising aspect of the small “campus” is that it allowed for the like-minded students, to collaborate with their peers, they began forming groups together to start venture businesses.
This natural student-led idea became an essential pivot-point for the co-founders leading to the “Educate– Incubate– Invest” business model, to become the launching point for the next phase of this pioneering “new school”. Educate: The initial focus for launching OUWA was to deliver higher-ed to those who couldn’t access it through the traditional channels; these unreached students could now access all the necessary study materials and content online for free at an OUWA internet café. There were courses on Entrepreneurship, Computer Science, General education all drawn from Coursera and Udacity. Incubate: As a natural progression of the business classes and venture-minded students, the next step for OUWA was to become a startup incubator. To fuel this environment, events were created and a physical space acquired for co-founders to be matched-up; this next generation focus of creating real world businesses made the incentives for prospective students go far beyond the non-existent fees and the availability and ease of access.
The incubation component of OUWA's vision consisted of building the West African startup ecosystem. By focusing on incubation, the co-founders were fulfilling their ultimate goal: Fostering Development in W. Africa. Invest: Through events like Startup West Africa, talented judging panels selected the business ideas with the most potential. Seed funding would help launch the startups in exchange for around 10% equity stake to OUWA; these small investments in high potential businesses and top students was paving the way to another necessary goal: Sustainability. SliceBiz became one of the most visible start-ups to be launched by OUWA co-founders. One of the largest start-up competitions on the continent, Apps for Africa, selected them to be given $10,000 funding and travel to New York for the opening of NYSE. With the momentum created by these early innovators, Open University of West Africa, along with SliceBiz, spearheaded the creation of HUB Accra, a co-working space devoted to helping African-led businesses flourish.
A worldwide network of “innovation hubs”, Impact Hub adopted “Impact Hub Accra” as its way to partner in the accelerating startup ecosystem in Accra. They have a space for startups, makers, creatives or established businesses looking for a flexible and inspiring space; as a convener in the startup ecosystem, Impact Hub Accra curates special events and experiences for and with different stakeholders. This hub is a product of the first major pivot. With a clear vision to reduce and break the cycle of poverty, OUWA contributed to the flourishing of affordable access to quality education not only in the capital city Accra in Ghana. There were learning places in Kumasi and serious attempts to scale to Gambia and Burkina. In Gambia, OUWA ran a successful teacher training program with over 20 primary school teachers. In Burkina and Mali, the university elaborated an English as a Foreign Language curriculum; the curriculum was designed in such a way that it would benefit those who wanted to learn English for academic purposes.
In addition to the EFL curriculum program, headways were made in the conception of a physician Assistant program. While pursuing an OpenIDEO Challenge—an international design and consulting firm based in California—OUWA's next evolution came in the unique form of how to provide education to refugees and improve learning opportunities in refugee camps; the refugee camps’ program was undertaken as the first mobile pilot. It was carried out in two refugee camps in the Western region of Ghana: Krisan. For this pilot, OUWA partnered with École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne a Swiss federal
Moymoy Palaboy is a Filipino comic and singing duo known for their uploaded lip sync videos in YouTube. The duo consists of James Ronald and Rodfil, they are now GMA Network contract artists. Before James and Rodfil's career started, their mother, Nenita Obeso developed breast cancer; when she died in 2006, their aunt, Benny Obeso took them in. The brothers went to high schools in Pasay City. For their college education, they had both attended the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. James majored in Broadcasting, but dropped out of college to find a job and help his "stepmother", his brother Rodfil finished a Business Management course and used to work as an in-house sales representative at the Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company. Rodfil is known to be fond of singing at videoke bars, playing video games, has a fascination with electronic gadgets. James Ronald auditioned for the singing contest and television program Star In A Million but failed to qualify, he used to perform in a band called Pasionista, until he decided to leave in favor of being casted in a television show with his younger brother.
The brothers started to upload their lip sync videos via YouTube in 2007. In 2008, their videos and their YouTube profile garnered over 5 million hits and they have more than 554,000 subscribers from all over the world. Most Mexicans and Filipinos gave positive remarks for the duo's uploaded videos. Most of their videos were shot at home, as seen in the background, where their aunt Mama Auntie appears, they use their cellphone cameras to shoot the videos. Aside from their aunt, other guests who appeared in their videos include their friends and Philippine TV celebrities. Among their most popular YouTube videos are Everybody and MariMar; the duo made their first TV appearance in GMA Network's Bubble Gang on June 27, 2008, have since been regulars in that show. Aside from Bubble Gang, they have been seen in MTV's Campus Crashers. In their TV interviews, their real voices were masked using high-pitched tones or other voices through the microphone so that their real voices would remain a mystery. Due to their popularity, they are now contract artists in GMA Artist Center and appearing as regulars in SOP Rules.
The duo became recording artists and they have their first song, Kapit, in which they used their real singing voices. In March 2009, they released their own debut album entitled Uploaded under Sony BMG and their first single is Lumayo Ka Man sa Laklak, a parody where the lyrics of The Teeth's song "Laklak" is sung to the tune of Rodel Naval's classic song "Lumayo Ka Man Sa Akin"; the duo revealed their real voices for the first time in a March 20, 2009 episode of Bubble Gang in which they watched the IyoTube segment featuring the impersonators called "Mokmok Palabok". This marked the first acting stint of the duo on television; the duo worked with their real-life friend Aljur Abrenica and his partner Kris Bernal in the soap All My Life, their first primetime show on television. On March 26, 2009, YouTube suspended the duo's moymoypalaboy account due to copyright infringement issues over the songs used; the original YouTube account was reactivated on April 8, 2009. In September 2010, the brothers were featured in an advertisement for Coca-Cola called'Coca Cola Brrrr'.
In 2015, Rodfil auditioned for the first season of AXN's Asia's Got Talent along with Felicitas Garcia, a vegetable vendor from Pasig whom Rodfil had collaborated with on YouTube since 2013, prior to the audition. The duo performed Bonnie Tyler's "Total Eclipse of the Heart" and received three out of four "yes" votes from the judges, advancing to the competition's next stage. Bubble Gang SOP Rules Eat Bulaga Maynila MTV: Campus Crashers All My Life Magpakailanman Party Pilipinas Pepito Manaloto Diva Spooky Nights Presents: The Ringtone Manny Many Prizes IBILIB: Wonders of Horus The Ryzza Mae Show Sunday All Stars Sabado Badoo Wagas Ismol Family Sunday PinaSAYA! Vampire Ang Daddy Ko Hay Bahay Dear Uge Conan My Beautician Studio 7 Daig Kayo Ng Lola Ko All Out Sundays Dayo: Sa Mundo ng Elementalia'Father Jejemon Udin Cari Alamat Palsu Boy Pick-Up: The Movie Dayo: Sa Mundo ng Elementalia soundtrack Kapit Moymoy Palaboy: Uploaded List of YouTube celebrities
In Masked Rider, Count Dregon has monsters called Insectovores which he uses in his plots. They are kept in jars. Here is a list of monsters used by Count Dregon and his minions: First Appearance: "Escape from Edenoi" Pt. 1 Voice Actor: Rudy LuzionA grotesque grasshopper humanoid with the ability to change into a ball or a spike. Destructosphere was the first monster sent after Dex. Prior to the attack, Destructosphere was a sphere dropped to Earth by Count Dregon, in a scrapyard where he absorbed some junk to create his body, he proved strong, but was defeated by Dex and his Rider Kick attack. First Appearance: "Escape from Edenoi" Pt. 2 Voice Actor: Richard GeorgeA large robot with hand-mounted cannons and tank treads instead of legs and feet. He spoke in a robotic monotone, his mission was to eliminate Combat Chopper and Magno so Dex could be outnumbered by Dregon's forces. He can attack with the guns on his body called Beetle Blasters. Combat Chopper failed, he had Dex in a pinch until Magno rammed him and knocked him on his side.
He was the first to be destroyed by Dex's energy sword the Electro Saber. Fits the category of Cycloptor's monsters. First Appearance: "License to Thrill" Voice Actor: Billy MatsudaA robotic Insectovore that impersonated Dex's driving instructor Mr. Li, he can shoot a red beam from the red part of his head. Passing off as Mr. Li, Larvatron tried to run Dex over, but Dex held onto the car until he found a safe place to let go. After Larvatron dropped his disguise, Dex became Masked Rider and severed the robot's head with the Rider Kick. However, Larvatron had a backup head: a powerful four-way cannon, he fired the cannons on Dex, who enlisted the aid of Combat Chopper. While on Combat Chopper, Dex managed to destroy him with his Electro Saber. Fits the category of Cycloptor's monsters. First Appearance: "Pet Nappers" Voice Actor: Gardner BaldwinA cactus-like monster with jaw-like pincers who assisted Nefaria and Gork in Count Dregon's plan to capture Ferbus and steal the Masked Rider powers, it can launch its jaw-like pincers.
Once Dex rescued Ferbus, he engaged Gork in battle. When he got caught on Mandible's vine, he broke free from his vine. While riding on Combat Chopper, Dex destroyed Mandible with his Electro Saber. Fits the category of Gork's monsters. First Appearance: "Bugs on the Loose" Voice Actor: Glen McDougalA three-eyed green moth monster who has the ability to use moths to turn humans into Insectovores, he can shoot lasers from his eye and wrap anyone in his long tongue. Count Dregon had Nefaria send the Maggots to lure Hal and Albee towards Mothitron during their bug hunt. Once that plan worked, Mothitron used his moths to infect the two of them. Hal and Albee, who were immobilized by the attack, took on the characteristics of an Insectovore. Ferbus, was able to escape and warn Dex. Using a butterfly Ferbus had caught, Dex created an antidote; as Masked Rider, Dex took Magno and the antidote to Hal and Albee's location, but he was ambushed by Mothitron. During the battle, Magno took Masked Rider to the cave.
Once inside, while looking for Hal and Albee, Dex was attacked by Mothitron again. Dex chopped off Mothitron's tongue. Magno tunneled into the cave to save Dex. Magno tackled Mothitron before Dex destroyed him with the Electro Saber and used the antidote to restore Hal and Albee. Mothitron fits the category of Double Face's unit. First Appearance: "Arcade Ace" Voice Actor: Steve CasslingA black-haired crab monster with a strong-clawed right arm, he has a toxic breath attack. While Dex was helping Albee train to beat the arcade ace Henry Wall, Count Dregon sent Crimson Creeper down with Double Face to capture Dex in order to steal the Masked Rider powers. Dex called upon Combat Chopper for help. During a challenge against Henry Wall, Combat Chopper alerted Dex that Magno detected the Crimson Creeper attacking an amusement park. Dex chopped off Crimson Creeper's arm. Dex counter-attacked with the Rider Kick before destroying Crimson Creeper with the Electro Saber, he fits the category of Double Face's unit.
First Appearance: "Super Gold" Pt. 1 Actor: Winston StoryDex's friend Donais was sent to Earth to give him the Super Gold upgrade. However, Donais was captured by the Maggots and taken to the Spiderbase, where he was brainwashed into becoming Dregon's loyal servant. Dregon had been working on an artificial Masked Rider power, but it was too dangerous to test on himself, so he used it on Donais to turn him into Robo Rider. Robo Rider was silver and black with green eyes, he held two swords in battle. Robo Rider attacked the school causing Dex to fight him. Robo Rider confronted Count Dregon on why he sent Edentada down to Earth. After attacking Gork, Count Dregon instructed Robo Rider to keep the Edentada in its cave...which Robo Rider does. After Masked Rider escapes the cave that Edentada was in, Robo Rider attacked as Masked Rider warns him that Edentada is starting to make the area destabilized. In order to defeat Robo Rider, Masked Rider used the Rider Kick on him. Dex was able to defeat Robo Rider by slashing him with the Electro Saber thus breaking the spell over Donais and returning him back to normal.
First Appearance: "Super Gold" Pt. 2 Voice Actor: Bob PapenbrookA savage anteater-like creature with crab-like claws. Edentada is a cre