Waterford is a city in Ireland. It is in the South-East Region, Ireland and is part of the province of Munster, the city is situated at the head of Waterford Harbour. It is the oldest and the fifth most populous city in the Republic of Ireland and it is the eighth most populous city on the island of Ireland. Waterford City and County Council is the government authority for the city. Waterford is known for Waterford Crystal, a legacy of the citys former glass-making industry, according to the 2011 Census,65,928 people live in the Waterford Metropolitan District, however this figure does not include its suburbs in County Kilkenny and County Wexford. There are over 80,000 people within a 15 km radius of the city centre, with a population of 51,519, Waterford is the fifth most populous city in the State and the 32nd most populous area of local government. Following the Local Government Reform Act 2014, Waterford City and County Council is the government authority for the city. The authority came into operation on 1 June 2014, prior to this the city had its own local council, Waterford City Council.
The new Council is the result of a merger of Waterford City Council, the Council has 32 representatives who are elected from five electoral areas. The city itself forms three of the electoral areas – which when combined form the Metropolitan District of Waterford –, residents in these areas are restricted to voting for candidates located in their ward for local elections. The office of the Mayor of Waterford was established in 1377, a mayor is elected by the councillors from the two electoral areas of the Metropolitan District of Waterford every year, and there is no limit to the number of terms an individual may serve. Mary OHalloran who was mayor during 2007–2008 was the first woman to hold the post, the current mayor is Adam Wyse. The constituency elects four deputies to Dáil Éireann, there are no such ward restrictions for these elections and voters are entitled to vote for any candidate throughout the city and county. The name Waterford comes from Old Norse Veðrafjǫrðr, meaning ram fjord, the Irish name is Port Láirge, meaning Lárags port.
Viking raiders first established a settlement near Waterford in 853 and it and all the other longphorts were vacated in 902, the Vikings having been driven out by the native Irish. Among the most prominent rulers of Waterford was Ivar of Waterford, in 1167, Diarmait Mac Murchada, the deposed King of Leinster, failed in an attempt to take Waterford. He returned in 1170 with Cambro-Norman mercenaries under Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, together they besieged, in furtherance of the Norman invasion of Ireland, King Henry II of England landed at Waterford in 1171. Waterford and Dublin were declared cities, with Dublin declared capital of Ireland
Kuching North City Hall
The Commission of Kuching North City Hall is the commission which administers the northern part of the city of Kuching in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia. This commission was established after the city was granted city status on 1 August 1988. Their jurisdiction covers an area of 369.48 square kilometres, the commission consists of the commissioner plus nine commission members appointed to serve a one-year term by the Sarawak State Government. The application for Kuching to be elevated to city status was made at the behest of the people, the petition was made by the Chairman of the KMC to the Minister responsible for Local Government, who motioned for a resolution pertaining to the matter. Thus on 18 July 1984 the Resolution was passed at the Dewan Undangan Negeri, both the petition and Resolution were given the assent of the Yang Di–Pertua Negeri in October 1985. Thereafter, they were submitted to the Conference of Rulers for consideration, on 3 July 1986 the Resolution was approved after the Conference of Rulers was satisfied that certain prerequisites were met.
Kuching was officially inaugurated as a city on 1 August 1988 after having met certain procedures and prerequisites, the city of Kuching is divided into 2 areas and south. Each of these is administered by a Commissioner for Kuching North, Kuching City South largely covers the area previously under the Kuching Municipal Council. As it is still a government authority, its powers. Kuching City North refers to a significant part of the territory administered by the Kuching Rural District Council. It includes a part of the former KMC area, as it is not a local authority, Kuching City North is placed under the jurisdiction of a Commissioner who is assisted by a Board of Advisors. The Commissioner is a corporate body responsible to the State’s Chief Minister. The powers and functions of the Commissioner are contained in the Kuching City North Ordinance, the city’s twin administration was born out of the need for an efficient system which would allow for a balanced development and population distribution for the two territories.
It will ensure that Kuching City South will not be hampered by the added responsibilities of developing Kuching City North, which had been under the Kuching Rural District Council jurisdiction
States and territories of Australia
Australia is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories. The Australian mainland consists of five of the six federated states, the state of Tasmania is an island about 200 kilometers from the mainland. The remaining seven territories are classified for some purposes as external territories, aside from the Australian Antarctic Territory, which is Australias claim to part of Antarctica, Australia is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area. Since 2015, federal control has extended to the formerly self-governing territory of Norfolk Island. Three of the territories are inhabited, the others are uninhabited. The term geographic Australia is used by the Australian government to describe the area covered by demographic statistics such as national population figures and this area comprises Christmas Island and the Cocos Islands in addition to the six states and three mainland territories. Norfolk Island is the territory with a native population that is not part of geographic Australia.
Both territories were reincorporated as the Northern Territory at the end of this period, from 1923 to 1968, the United Nations Trust Territory of Nauru was under Australian administration, until independence as the Republic of Nauru. From 1949 to 1975, the Territory of Papua and New Guinea was a territory of Australia, the states originated as separate British colonies prior to Federation in 1901. Upon Federation, the six colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, the territories, by contrast, are from a constitutional perspective directly subject to the Commonwealth Government, laws for territories are determined by the Australian Parliament. Most of the territories are directly administered by the Commonwealth Government, in the self-governing territories, the Australian Parliament retains the full power to legislate, and can override laws made by the territorial institutions, which it has done on rare occasions. For the purposes of Australian intergovernmental bodies, the Northern Territory, each state has a Governor, appointed by the Queen, which by convention she does on the advice of the state Premier.
The Administrator of the Northern Territory, by contrast, is appointed by the Governor-General, Jervis Bay Territory is the only non-self-governing internal territory. Until 1989, it was administered as if it were a part of the ACT, although residents of the Jervis Bay Territory are generally subject to laws made by the ACT Legislative Assembly, they are not represented in the Assembly. They are represented in the Parliament of Australia as part of the Electoral Division of Fraser in the ACT, in other respects, the territory is administered directly by the Federal Government through the Territories portfolio. The external territory of Norfolk Island possessed a degree of self-government from 1979 until 2015, each state has a bicameral parliament except Queensland, which abolished its upper house in 1922. The lower house is called the Legislative Assembly, except in South Australia and Tasmania, Tasmania is the only state to use proportional representation for elections to its lower house, all others elect members from single member constituencies, using preferential voting.
The upper house is called the Legislative Council and is elected from multi-member constituencies using proportional representation
Kuala Lumpur City Hall
The Kuala Lumpur City Hall is the city council which administers the city of Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia. This council was established after the city was granted city status on 1 February 1972. Their jurisdiction covers an area of 243 square kilometres, the council consists of the mayor plus fifteen members of the city advisory board appointed to serve a one-year term by the Minister of Federal Territories. The current mayor of Kuala Lumpur is Mhd Amin Nordin Abdul Aziz, the agency was formerly known as Kuala Lumpur Municipal Council. During British colonial times and early independence, Kuala Lumpur had been the capital of the country as well as the state of Selangor, on 1 April 1961, the name changed into Kuala Lumpur Federal Capital Commission. Kuala Lumpur achieved city status on 1 February 1972, becoming the first settlement in Malaysia to be granted the status after independence, the name changed into Kuala Lumpur City Hall. Later, on 1 February 1974, Kuala Lumpur became a Federal Territory, Kuala Lumpur ceased to be the capital of Selangor in 1978 after the city of Shah Alam was declared as the new state capital.
Executive power lies with the mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Minister of Federal Territories and this system of appointing the mayor and councillor has been in place ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970. On 14 May 1990, Kuala Lumpur celebrated 100 years of local council, the new Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur flag and anthem were introduced. Since 1972, the city has been led by ten mayors, the previous mayors are listed as below, As of 31 March 2017 Mhd Amin Nordin Abdul Aziz, Mayor Mohd Najib Mohd, Executive Director Ibrahim Yusoff, Executive Director Thomas A. As of 29 April 2016 Mhd Amin Nordin Abdul Aziz, Chairman Mustapa Kamal Mohd, Member Kamariah Noruddin, Member Rizalman Mokhtar, Member Abdul Ghani Pateh Akhir, Member A. Samalah A
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbanes metropolitan area has a population of 2.35 million, the Brisbane central business district stands on the original European settlement and is situated inside a bend of the Brisbane River, about 15 kilometres from its mouth at Moreton Bay. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite, one of the oldest cities in Australia, Brisbane was founded upon the ancient homelands of the indigenous Turrbal and Jagera peoples. A penal settlement was founded in 1824 at Redcliffe,28 kilometres north of the business district. The city was marred by the Australian frontier wars between 1843 and 1855, and development was set back by the Great Fire of Brisbane. Brisbane was chosen as the capital when Queensland was proclaimed a colony from New South Wales in 1859. During World War II, Brisbane played a role in the Allied campaign. Today, Brisbane is well known for its distinct Queenslander architecture which forms much of the built heritage.
It receives attention for its damaging flood events, most notably in 1974 and 2011. Several large cultural and sporting events have held at Brisbane, including the 1982 Commonwealth Games, World Expo 88, the final Goodwill Games in 2001. Prior to white settlement, the Brisbane area was inhabited by the Turrbal and they knew the area that is now the central business district as Mian-jin, meaning place shaped as a spike. The Moreton Bay area was explored by Matthew Flinders. On 17 July 1799, Flinders landed at what is now known as Woody Point, in 1823 Governor of New South Wales Sir Thomas Brisbane instructed that a new northern penal settlement be developed, and an exploration party led by John Oxley further explored Moreton Bay. Oxley discovered and explored the Brisbane River as far as Goodna,20 kilometres upstream from the Brisbane central business district, Oxley recommended Red Cliff Point for the new colony, reporting that ships could land at any tide and easily get close to the shore.
The party settled in Redcliffe on 13 September 1824, under the command of Lieutenant Henry Miller with 14 soldiers and 29 convicts. However, this settlement was abandoned after a year and the colony was moved to a site on the Brisbane River now known as North Quay,28 km south, chief Justice Forbes gave the new settlement the name of Edenglassie before it was named Brisbane. Non-convict European settlement of the Brisbane region commenced in 1838, German missionaries settled at Zions Hill, Nundah as early as 1837, five years before Brisbane was officially declared a free settlement. The band consisted of ministers Christopher Eipper and Carl Wilhelm Schmidt and lay missionaries Haussmann, Johann Gottried Wagner, Hartenstein, Franz, Rode and they were allocated 260 hectares and set about establishing the mission, which became known as the German Station
Local Government New Zealand
Local Government New Zealand is the Local Government Association of New Zealand. Two years later, in 1990, the New Zealand Regional Government Association agreed to join, in 1996 the amalgamated association adopted the brand name Local Government New Zealand. Local Government New Zealand is an incorporated society, membership is voluntary and open to all territorial local authorities and regional councils. All 78 local authorities are currently members, the National Council consists of 15 mayors, senior councillors and regional council chairs, including a directly elected president. Members serve a term of three years and elections are held immediately after the local authority elections. It receives advice from a Maori Advisory Committee, Te Maruata, funding is primarily drawn from annual subscriptions. Local Government New Zealand has an office located in the capital. Its primary objective is to represent and advocate for the interests of local authorities in New Zealand, to be effective, the organisation must build meaningful relationships with the government of the day.
Since the beginning of 2010, regular Central Government Local Government Forums have been held and these are half day meetings between the National Council of Local Government New Zealand and relevant members of Cabinet. Scheduled for a day once a year, the fora are jointly chaired by the Prime Minister. Agendas tend to deal with current issues of joint concern and future directions, in its policy work the key messages promoted by Local Government New Zealand are, Local autonomy, councils should have sufficient autonomy to respond to community needs and preferences. Local difference, One size does not fit all, New Zealand is a diverse country with differing local and regional needs and values, consequently as many decisions as efficiently possible should be made at the sub-national level. Local regulations, more needs to be given by governments to the cumulative impacts of regulation, especially the fiscal cost of implementation on councils. This can be achieved by involving local government more directly when regulations are in the development phase, Local funding, the current range of funding options for local government is too restricted and councils need additional funding tools.
Territorial authorities of New Zealand Local Government Commission Local Government New Zealand
London boroughs are 32 of the 33 local authority districts of the Greater London administrative area and are each governed by a London borough council. The London boroughs were all created at the time as Greater London on 1 April 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 and are a type of local government district. Twelve were designated as Inner London boroughs and twenty as Outer London boroughs, London boroughs have populations of around 150,000 to 300,000. Inner London boroughs tend to be smaller, in population and area, and more densely populated than Outer London boroughs. The London boroughs were created by combining groups of local government units. A review undertaken between 1987 and 1992 led to a number of small alterations in borough boundaries. London borough councils provide the majority of government services, in contrast to the strategic Greater London Authority. The councils were first elected in 1964 and acted as shadow authorities until 1 April 1965, each borough is divided into electoral wards, subject to periodic review, for the purpose of electing councillors.
Council elections take place four years, with the most recent elections in 2014. The political make-up of London borough councils is dominated by the Conservative, twenty-eight councils follow the leader and cabinet model of executive governance, with directly elected mayors in Hackney, Lewisham and Tower Hamlets. The City of London is instead governed by the City of London Corporation, from the mid-1930s, the Greater London area comprised four types of local government authorities. There were county boroughs, municipal boroughs, urban districts and metropolitan boroughs, the large county boroughs provided all local government services and held the powers usually invested in county councils. The municipal borough and urban district authorities had fewer powers, reform of London local government sought to regularise this arrangement. The Royal Commission on Local Government in Greater London was established in 1957 and it proposed 52 Greater London Boroughs with a population range of 100,000 to 250,000.
This was made up of a mixture of existing units. In December 1961 the government proposed that there would be 34 boroughs rather than 52, the proposed number was further reduced to 32 in 1962. On 1 April 1965, the 32 London boroughs and Greater London were created by the London Government Act 1963,12 boroughs in the former County of London area were designated Inner London boroughs and the 20 others were designated Outer London boroughs. The City of London continued to be administered by the City of London Corporation, elections were held on 7 May 1964, with the new councils acting as shadow authorities before coming into their powers the following year
Melaka City Council
Malacca City Council is a local authority which administers Malacca City and other areas of Central Malacca district. This agency is under Malacca state government, the MBMB main headquarters is located at Graha Makmur in Ayer Keroh. Formerly known as Majlis Perbandaran Melaka Bandaraya Bersejarah, it was located at the building which now houses the Peoples Museum. This agency was granted its city status on 15 April 1989, Zainal bin Hussin Zainal bin Hussin Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council MBMB official web site
Parish councils in England
A parish council is a civil local authority found in England and is the lowest, or first, tier of local government. They are elected corporate bodies, have variable tax raising powers, and are responsible for areas known as civil parishes, serving in total 16 million people. A parish council serving a town may be called a council, and a parish council serving a city is styled a city council. Parish and town councils vary enormously in size and circumstances, most of them are small, around 80% represent populations of less than 2,500. Civil parish councils should not be confused with Parochial church councils which administer parishes of the Church of England, Civil parish councils, which can be called Community councils should not be confused with Rural community councils which engage in rural development work. There are 9,000 local councils in England, over 16 million people live in communities served by local councils, which is around 25% of the population, and about 80,000 councillors serve on these councils.
It is calculated £1 billion is invested in these communities every year, Local councils work to improve community well-being and provide better services at a local level. Their activities fall into three categories, representing the local community, delivering services to meet local needs, and improving quality of life. These existing powers were strengthened by powers contained in the Localism Act including the extension of the General Power of Competence to eligible local councils. Not every civil parish has a council, smaller ones—typically those with an electorate of fewer than 200—have parish meetings instead. Parish councils are funded by levying a precept collected with the tax paid by the residents of the parish. Parish councils have unpaid councillors who are elected to serve for four years, the powers and duties of parish councils are described below. Parish councils have the power to precept their residents to support their operations, although there is no limit to the amount that can be precepted, the money can only be raised for a limited number of purposes, defined in the 1894 Act and subsequent legislation.
The General Power of Competence is a new power awarded in 2012 to eligible councils, the exercise of powers is at the discretion of the council, but they are legally obliged to exercise duties. Allotments - Duty to consider providing allotment gardens if demand unsatisfied, Parish councils have powers to provide some facilities themselves, or they can contribute towards their provision by others. A Parish Council must hold a meeting and at least three other meetings in a year, however monthly meetings are the most common, and some larger councils have fortnightly meetings. An extraordinary meeting may be called at any time by the chairman or members, a Council can appoint advisory groups which are exempt from these constraints to give flexibility, but these have no delegated powers and cannot make financial decisions. Such groups may contain members who are not councillors and this would have to be due to the confidential nature of the business
Local government in Australia
Local government in Australia is the third tier of government in Australia administered by the states and territories, which in turn are beneath the federal tier. Local government is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia and two referenda in the 1970s and 1980s to alter the Constitution relating to local government were unsuccessful, every state government recognises local government in their respective constitutions. Unlike Canada, or the United States there is one level of local government in each state. In August 2016 there were 547 local councils in Australia, despite the single level of local government in Australia, there are a number of extensive areas with relatively low populations which are not a part of any local government area. Despite this, they occupy a role in each state. State-based departments oversee local councils and may intervene in their affairs, the first official local government in Australia was the Perth Town Trust, established in 1838, only three years after British settlement.
The Adelaide Corporation followed, created by the province of South Australia in October 1840, the City of Melbourne and the Sydney Corporation followed, both in 1842. Council representatives attended conventions before Federation, however local government was regarded as outside the Constitutional realm. In the 1970s, the Whitlam Government expanded the level of funding to local governments in Australia beyond grants for road construction, general purpose grants become available for the first time. Significant reforms took place in the 1980s and 1990s in which state governments used metrics, each state conducted an inquiry into the benefits of council amalgamations during the 1990s. In the early 1990s, Victoria saw the number of local councils reduced from 210 to 78, South Australia and Queensland saw some reductions in the number of local governments while Western Australia and New South Wales rejected compulsory mergers. New South Wales eventually forced the merging of some councils, the main purpose of amalgamating councils was for greater efficiency and to improve operations, but forced amalgamation of councils is sometimes seen as a dilution of representative democracy.
An increase in the range of services offered by councils, the council mergers have resulted in widespread job losses and lingering resentment from some whose roles have experienced a larger workload. The growth of the Regional Organisations of Councils has been a factor in local government reform in Australia, in 1995, there were 50 such agreements across the country. A2002 study identified 55 ROCs with the largest involving 18 councils, Local governments are subdivisions of the states and the Northern Territory. Although they are all identical in function, Australian local governments have a variety of names. The term local government area is used to refer collectively to all local governments regardless of status, whilst the local governing body itself is generally known as a council. Today, the borough, district, region, town, community government, Aboriginal shire