Commerce is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 12,823 at the 2010 census, up from 12,568 at the 2000 census, it is bordered by Vernon on the west, Los Angeles on the northwest, East Los Angeles on the north, Montebello on the east and Bell Gardens on the south, Maywood on the southwest. The Los Angeles River forms part of its southwestern boundary, the Rio Hondo separates it from Downey. Commerce is served by the Long Beach and Santa Ana freeways, as well as the Metrolink commuter rail service at the Commerce station, it is referred to as the "City of Commerce" to distinguish it from the common noun. In the 19th century, the area was part of Antonio Maria Lugo's Rancho San Antonio, its conversion to an industrial area began in 1887, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built its main line through the area. The ranch remained intact until Arcadia Bandini de Stearns Baker, reputedly once the wealthiest woman in Los Angeles, sold some of it around the turn of the 20th century.
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad both were built through what would become the community, as was the Pacific Electric Railway's Whittier Line. By the 1920s, factories had arrived. In the late 1940s, industrial leaders banded together with residents in the communities of Bandini and Laguna to encourage commerce, they changed the name to match that goal. The city was incorporated in 1960 to prevent neighboring cities such as Vernon and Los Angeles from annexing industrial land for tax revenue and elected its first city mayor, Maurice Quigley. In the 1970s and 1980s, Commerce negotiated the turbulent period of deindustrialization that hammered nearby cities such as South Gate and Norwalk, maintaining much of its manufacturing and goods-distribution base and converting former industrial land to lucrative commercial uses; the most notable example of this phenomenon is the Citadel outlet mall, which occupies the site of a former tire factory. The owner of the Citadel, Steve Craig, hosts an annual Clean Up Commerce Day and enlists other businesses to work with the city and volunteers in beautifying a specific area of the city.
With a major rail yard within its borders, Commerce has benefited from the huge expansion in international trade traffic through the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, albeit at the expense of severe air pollution caused by truck congestion on the Long Beach Freeway. Chrysler had an assembly plant in Commerce from 1930 through July 1971 located at 5800 S. Eastern Avenue and Slauson Avenue, called Los Angeles Assembly, it was closed at the end of the 1971 model year, as Chrysler decided to triple-stack its transport trains for the 1972 model year. Commerce boasts a large aquatic center, Commerce Aquatics that has trained a number of successful water polo players, including four-time Olympic medallist Brenda Villa. Commerce is the site of Williams Ranch, on, the swimming hole that the Sleepy Lagoon Murder of Jose Diaz took place in 1942; the Sleepy Lagoon swimming hole was located near Slauson and Eastern Ave. Commerce is located at 34°0′2″N 118°9′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.5 square miles, over 99% of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Commerce had a population of 12,823. The population density was 1,961.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Commerce was 6,930 White, 96 African American, 161 Native American, 140 Asian, 9 Pacific Islander, 4,886 from other races, 601 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12,114 persons; the Census reported that 12,753 people lived in households, 2 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 68 were institutionalized. There were 3,382 households, out of which 1,751 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,693 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 708 had a female householder with no husband present, 308 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 248 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 23 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 559 households were made up of individuals and 326 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 2,709 families.
The population was spread out with 3,824 people under the age of 18, 1,458 people aged 18 to 24, 3,581 people aged 25 to 44, 2,590 people aged 45 to 64, 1,370 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. There were 3,470 housing units at an average density of 530.8 per square mile, of which 1,619 were owner-occupied, 1,763 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 6,631 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 6,122 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Commerce had a median household income of $48,729, with 16.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,568 people, 3,284 households, 2,686 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,913.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,377 housing units a
San Diego Metropolitan Transit System
The San Diego Metropolitan Transit System is the public transit service provider for Central, South and Southeast San Diego County, in the United States. MTS operating subsidiaries include the San Diego Trolley and San Diego Transit Corporation. Average daily ridership among all public transit services provided by MTS was 271,500 in the Fourth Quarter of 2017. MTS is one of the oldest transit systems in Southern California, dating back as early as the 1880s. Although the d/b/a names have changed over the years, the two modes of transportation – buses and light rail – have remained consistent over most of the past 125 years. MTS owns Arizona Eastern Railway. MTS licenses and regulates taxicabs and other private for-hire passenger transportation services provided by contract for the cities of San Diego, El Cajon, Imperial Beach, La Mesa, Lemon Grove and Santee. MTS is a joint powers authority agency, or JPA. Member cities include San Diego, Chula Vista, Coronado, El Cajon, Imperial Beach, La Mesa, Lemon Grove, National City, Poway and San Diego County.
Elected officials from each jurisdiction, including San Diego County, serve as the Board of Directors. The city of San Diego has the most representation with four members. A county resident is elected by the Board of Directors to serve as the Chairman. A system of horse- or mule-drawn street cars was established in Downtown San Diego in 1886. In 1887 electric street car service was begun, serving a more widespread area including Old Town and University Heights; the direct ancestor of MTS, the San Diego Electric Railway Company, was founded in 1891 by John D. Spreckels. Spreckels converted them all to electric operation. In the 1920s and 1930s the rail lines began to be replaced by motor buses. In 1949 the last rail service was discontinued, making San Diego the first major city in California to convert to an all-bus system. In 1948 Jesse Haugh renamed it the San Diego Transit System; the system was purchased by the City of San Diego in 1967. MTDB was formed in 1976 and launched the San Diego Trolley in 1981.
The San Diego Transit system of bus lines was transferred from the city to MTDB in 1985. MTDB changed its logo to Metropolitan Transit System in 1986. Today, the agency is one of two child agencies of SANDAG, the county-level MPO that zones land and sets the transit fares. More recent developments at MTS are summarized below. MTS adopts its current logo and livery, first applied to buses entering service that summer. MTS assumes control over National City Transit from the City of National City, amid the City's reluctance to implement findings of the COA, retires its 600-series bus route numbers, replaces them with the current 960-series numbers. MTS is named the Outstanding Public Transit System for 2009 by the American Public Transportation Association. In fiscal year 2009, MTS set a record for ridership with over 92 million rides from July 1, 2008, to June 31, 2009. September 24: San Diego Trolley places an order for 57 Ultra Short Low Floor Model S70 LRVs, at a total cost of $205 million. San Diego Trolley beings construction on the "Trolley Renewal Project".
The project is expected to last five years and renovates all stations and existing infrastructure to handle the new Low Floor S70 LRVs purchased the previous year. MTS begins work on a study to evaluate the feasibility of reconnecting Balboa Park, the San Diego Zoo and Downtown San Diego through a fixed-guideway, electrified streetcar line. MTS begins weekend and holiday service of the Silver Line, which operates around Downtown San Diego and features renovated PCC streetcars with a partnership with the San Diego historic streetcar society. MTS receives first two shipments of 4th generation trolley vehicles and begins operating new LRVs on the Green Line MTS realigns trolley system so all three lines terminate in downtown, eliminating the need for the special event line; the green line now serves special events. Low floor trains operate on the Orange Line for the first time, marking the end of the first phase of the trolley renewal project. First of the next-gemeration Gillig Low Floor buses arrive and are placed into service First buses for the BRT network arrive The first line in the Rapid BRT network goes into operation.
Low floor trains operate on the Blue Line for the first time in January, after new station platforms, advanced electronic signage, overhead catenary wires, larger shelters and track replacements are implemented. The Transit Optimization Plan is adopted Additional Low floor trolley cars Arrive at shop. Numbered in the 5000-series, 9 of the cars are set to start testing for Blue and Orange Lines as early as Spring 2019; the other 36 will be set to run for the mid-coast extension releasing in 2021. The South Bay Rapid entered the Otay Mesa Port of Entry. New trolley cars, the 5000-series, due to enter service in the Summer. August:Electric buses to enter service MTS administers several public transportation services, including the San Diego Trolley's three daily Light rail lines, 93 fixed-route bus services, paratransit service. About half of its fixed-route bus services are contracted out to Transdev, First Transit, with First Transit providing paratransit services. Light rail service is operated by Incorporated.
It is referred to as "The Trolley". Three daily lines are operated, are designated by their colors: the Blue Line, the Green Line, the Orange Line.
Antelope Valley Transit Authority
Antelope Valley Transit Authority is the transit agency serving the cities of Palmdale and Northern Los Angeles County. Antelope Valley Transit Authority is operated under contract by Transdev, is affiliated with and offers connecting services with Metro and Metrolink; the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster and the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works jointly created the Antelope Valley Transit Authority in 1992 to meet the growing need for public transportation in the Antelope Valley. AVTA began local transit service on July 1, 1992 with three types of services: Transit and Dial-A-Ride. A fourth service, Access Services, was created in 1996 to provide the disabled with a local complementary paratransit service in line with the Americans with Disabilities Act. AVTA openedd a larger facility in 2004 to accommodate increased demand. On March 17, 2017, the system suffered a temporary strike by its drivers; the dispute was between the driver's union the system operator Transdev. After making their statement, the drivers elected to return to service by March 19 while negotiations between the parties continued.
However the drivers went on strike again, May 3 was the third walkout. As the dispute continued, drivers were locked out on August 22. AVTA has tripled the number of passenger trips in just over a decade of operation. To keep up with the increased need for transit services, AVTA opened a new, larger maintenance facility in Lancaster. AVTA pays for a much higher share of its costs through fares compared to other transit systems in Los Angeles County. AVTA offers some of its customers an innovative program designed to assist those in need, as well as a program to show appreciation to our armed forces, AVTA permits seniors and passengers who have a disability, with proper ID, to utilize its local bus system for free, during regular business hours. Pam Holland, spokesperson for AVTA, says, "This program offers those in need, a hand up, in their everyday life, some of which can't afford a car, let alone bus fare, now have the freedom, to use our system throughout the Antelope Valley, going grocery shopping, paying their bills, or going to their doctor's appointment for free on our local fixed routes, we are happy to offer this service, as well as, letting our military ride the local transit system for free as well, in appreciation of their sacrifice to our country."
In 2017, AVTA became the first transit agency in the United States to operate a 60-foot, articulated electric bus. The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors recognized AVTA as an “Efficient Transit System”; the California Transit Association gave a “Transit Innovation Award” to AVTA in 1998 and a “Transit Image Award” in 1999. Commuter Services provides service to and from to major places of employment outside of the Antelope Valley. Commuter Services service is only operated Monday - Friday. Official website
Paratransit is recognized in North America as special transportation services for people with disabilities provided as a supplement to fixed-route bus and rail systems by public transit agencies. Paratransit services may vary on the degree of flexibility they provide their customers. At their simplest they may consist of a taxi or small bus that will run along a more or less defined route and stop to pick up or discharge passengers on request. At the other end of the spectrum—fully demand responsive transport—the most flexible paratransit systems offer on-demand call-up door-to-door service from any origin to any destination in a service area. In addition to public transit agencies, Paratransit services are operated by community groups or not-for-profit organizations, for-profit private companies or operators. Minibuses are used to provide paratransit service. Most paratransit vehicles are equipped with wheelchair ramps to facilitate access. In the United States, private transportation companies provide paratransit service in cities and metropolitan areas under contract to local public transportation agencies.
Transdev, First Transit and MV Transportation are among the largest private contractors of paratransit services in the United States and Canada. "Definition: any type of public transportation, distinct from conventional transit, such as flexibly scheduled and routed services such as airport limousines, etc. Etymology: para-'alongside of' + transit" The use of "paratransit" has evolved and taken on two somewhat separate broad sets of meaning and application; the more general meaning involved projects starting in the early 1970s, documented by the Urban Institute in the 1974 book Para-transit: Neglected options for urban mobility, followed a year by the first international overview, Paratransit: Survey of International Experience and Prospects. Robert Cervero's 1997 book, Paratransit in America: Redefining Mass Transportation, embraced this wider definition of paratransit, arguing that America's mass transit sector should enlarge to include micro-vehicles and shared-taxi services found in many developing cities.
Paratransit, as an alternative mode of flexible passenger transportation that does not follow fixed routes or schedules, are common and offer the only mechanized mobility options for the poor in many parts of the developing world. Since the early 1980s in North America, the term began to be used to describe the second meaning: special transport services for people with disabilities. In this respect, paratransit has become a business in its own right; the term paratransit is used outside of North America. In 2013, the Canadian Urban Transit Association compared the eligibility requirements of paratransit services in Canada and the United States. Annually, the Canadian Urban Transit Association publishes a fact book providing statistics for all of the Ontario specialized public transit services as of 2015 there were 79 in operation. Before passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, paratransit was provided by not-for-profit human service agencies and public transit agencies in response to the requirements in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
Section 504 prohibited the exclusion of the disabled from "any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance". In Title 49 Part 37 of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Federal Transit Administration defined requirements for making buses accessible or providing complementary paratransit services within public transit service areas. Most transit agencies did not see fixed route accessibility as desirable and opted for a flexible system of small paratransit vehicles operating parallel to a system of larger, fixed-route buses; the expectation was that the paratransit services would not be used, making a flexible system of small vehicles a less expensive alternative for accessibility than options with larger, fixed-route vehicles. This however ended up not being the case. Paratransit services were being filled up to their capacity. In some cases, leaving individuals who were in need of the door to door service provided by paratransit unable to utilize it due to the fact that disabled people who could use fixed-route vehicles found themselves using these paratransit services.
With the passage of the ADA, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act was extended to include all activities of state and local government. Its provisions were not limited to programs receiving federal funds and applied to all public transit services, regardless of how the services were funded or managed. Title II of the ADA more defined a disabled person's right to equal participation in transit programs, the provider's responsibility to make that participation possible. In revisions to Title 49 Part 37, the Federal Transit Administration defined the combined requirements of the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act for transit providers; these requirements included "complementary" paratransit to destinations within 3/4 mile of all fixed routes and submission of a plan for complying with complementary paratransit service regulations. Paratransit service is an unfunded mandate. Under the ADA, complementary paratransit service is required for passengers who are 1) Unable to navigate the public bus system, 2) unable to get to a point from which they could access the public bus system, or 3) have a temporary need for these services because of injury or some type of limited duration cause of disability.
Title 49 Part 37 details the eligibility rules along with requirements governing how the service must be provided and managed. In the United States, paratransit service is now
Foothill Transit is a public transit agency, government funded by 22 member cities in the San Gabriel and Pomona valleys. It operates a fixed-route bus public transit service in the San Gabriel Valley of Greater Los Angeles, United States. Foothill Transit operates out of two yards: one in Pomona, the other in Arcadia; the Foothill Transit joint powers authority membership consists of elected representatives from 22 member cities in the San Gabriel Valley and Pomona Valley and three members appointed from the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. These representatives are divided into five geographical clusters, which each elect a representative annually to serve on a five-member Executive Board. Los Angeles County Supervisor Pete Schabarum is credited with the formation of the transit agency. Schabarum, annoyed by what he saw as disproportionate cutbacks of bus service by the Southern California Rapid Transit District in the San Gabriel Valley, wanted to secede from the larger agency and form a separate transit agency as early as 1986.
Compared to routes serving more densely-populated areas, routes in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valleys required greater subsidies to serve fewer riders on longer freeway alignments in eastern Los Angeles County. Foothill was founded by 20 member cities. In 1987, the Los Angeles County Transportation Commission approved Foothill to take over fourteen routes which serviced the San Gabriel Valley that were operated by SCRTD. Although service was planned to start on July 1, 1988, the Foothill Transit Zone had been prevented from starting service in July by an injunction arising from a lawsuit filed by the drivers and mechanics unions of SCRTD against LACTC. Los Angeles Superior Court Judge Eli Chernow ruled that LACTC could not unilaterally transfer the lines without the consent of the SCRTD board of directors; the injunction was upheld on appeal. LACTC had begun withholding $9 million per month from SCRTD in April 1988 on the basis that SCRTD had not followed salary guidelines set by LACTC. SCRTD consented to Foothill Transit taking over the bus lines in December 1988 in return for the restoration of funding.
Those first two lines operated by Foothill Transit were 495 and 498. The trial for the lawsuit against Foothill Transit started in May 1989, was resolved in Foothill's favor by July, the other twelve lines operated by SCRTD were transitioned to Foothill Transit between 1989 and 1992. For a short period in 1992, the last two routes to transition were operated by both Foothill Transit and SCRTD during continued legal disputes; the drivers and mechanics unions disputed the transfer of 486 and 488 since SCRTD had made the decision without negotiating with the union. However, Foothill Transit again prevailed in a February 1993 court ruling. Schabarum, who hated the influence of trade unions, chose to use contractors to operate the service. All of the operations and maintenance work for Foothill Transit are contracted out; as of 2017, bus service is operated by Keolis at Transdev at Arcadia/Irwindale. Embree Bus Lines was the initial contractor that operated the first two lines for Foothill starting in December 1988.
The hourly operating cost under Foothill Transit was reduced by up to half compared to service under SCRTD, ridership grew, but the contract operator drivers earned less in both wages and fringe benefits, had less influence over working conditions. In addition, Foothill Transit was not required to provide typical rider services such as schedules, bus stops, transit police, or telephone information. During the 1992 Los Angeles riot, Foothill Transit terminated service at El Monte rather than continue on to downtown Los Angeles. Over the first five years, Foothill Transit saved money compared to SCRTD's historical costs. In 1994, Foothill reported their hourly cost of operations was $55, compared to $93 for the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, with a farebox recovery ratio of 48% at a lower fare of $0.85. In addition, Foothill reported an accident rate of 0.3 per 100,000 mi traveled, compared to Metro's rate of 3.3 per 100,000 mi, although Metro's accident rate was skewed by older buses and more dense traffic in its operating area.
Foothill executives made the service strike-proof by insisting that two different companies operate the two bus yards if it would cost more in the short term. By 1998, Foothill's contractors were Laidlaw and Ryder/ATE. However, due to bus industry consolidation, First Transit operated both yards from 2001 to mid-2007. Both Foothill Transit yards are represented by unions, but past strikes at the agency have been less than successful due to the ability of one yard to operate the other yard's service. In addition, wages are less at Foothill than at other transit operators in the region; the contract operator drivers at Foothill were represented by the Teamsters
Los Angeles Department of Transportation
The Los Angeles Department of Transportation referred to as LADOT, is a municipal agency that oversees transportation planning, construction and operations within the City of Los Angeles. LADOT was created by city ordinance, is run by a general manager appointed by the Mayor of Los Angeles, under the oversight of a citizens' commission appointed by the mayor. LADOT is best known for providing public transportation to the City of Los Angeles, it operates the second-largest fleet in Los Angeles County next to Metro. It consist of over 300 vehicles, serving nearly 30 million passengers a year and operating over 800,000 hours. LADOT develops the traffic signal timing and transportation planning for the city. Actual road maintenance and construction is provided by the Los Angeles City Department of Public Works. LADOT performs many transportation related duties, with six main operating groups: Parking Enforcement & Traffic Control, Project Delivery, Parking Management & Regulations, Transit Services, Administration.
The DASH is a transit bus operates 30 routes covering Downtown Los Angeles and many outlying communities within the City. Its primary function is to provide localized service, is a feeder into the countywide MTA Metro service. DASH Community Routes include: Beachwood Canyon Boyle Heights/East LA Chesterfield Square Crenshaw Downtown A: Little Tokyo/City West Downtown B: Chinatown/Financial District (connects with the Metro Red Line, Metro Gold Line, Metro Blue Line, Metrolink Lines: Ventura County, Antelope Valley, San Bernardino, 91, Orange County, Amtrak lines: Pacific Surfliner, Coast Starlight, Sunset Limited, Southwest Chief, Texas Eagle Downtown D: Union Station/South Park (connects with the Metro Red Line, Metro Gold Line, Metro Blue Line, Metro Expo Line, Metrolink Lines: Ventura County, Antelope Valley, San Bernardino, 91, Orange County, Amtrak lines: Pacific Surfliner, Coast Starlight, Sunset Limited, Southwest Chief, Texas Eagle Downtown E: City West/Financial District Downtown F: Financial District Exposition Park, L.
A. Coliseum/LAFC Stadium/USC El Sereno/City Terrace Fairfax Highland Park/Eagle Rock Hollywood Hollywood/Wilshire King-East Leimert Park/ Slauson Lincoln Heights /Chinatown Los Feliz /Weekend Observatory Shuttle Midtown Northridge Observatory Panorama City/Van Nuys Pico Union/Echo Park San Pedro Southeast/Pueblo Del Rio Van Nuys/Studio City Vermont/Main Watts Wilmington Wilshire Center/Koreatown Most DASH buses are El Dorado EZ-Rider vehicles powered by propane, although CNG Gillig BRTs have since been introduced; the first two digits of DASH bus numbers denote. For instance, 98001 denotes 1998 and 06301 denotes 2006. All DASH buses are 30 feet long, making it easier to navigate in dense neighborhoods where there are narrower streets and tighter turns. Commuter Express is an express bus service, consisting of 13 routes, all but one running during rush hours only. Service started in 1985. Routes 419, 423, 431, 437, 438, 448 are former Metro lines that were cancelled. Fares are based on a flat rate for travel on streets plus an extra charge based on the distance traveled on freeways.
Unless otherwise noted, all services operates towards Downtown LA during the morning rush and from Downtown LA during the afternoon rush. For the purposes of this chart, closed-door means that customers are not allowed to use buses for local trips and open-door means that customers are allowed to use buses for local trips. Commuter Express services are provided by a variety of suburban vehicles, including Gillig Phantoms, Neoplan Metroliners, Stewart & Stevenson Apollo T-40s. Part of the fleet are a small number of CNG powered Orion V coaches. CityRide is a program for individuals in the City of Los Angeles, aged 65 or older and for qualified disabled persons. Los Angeles Department of Transportation TrafficInfo Department summary, p. 36
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve